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Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What is Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)?

Pregnancy complications that cause life-threatening conditions include amniotic fluid embolism (AFE).

It can be dangerous for you or your baby. It happens when amniotic fluid (fluid surrounding your unborn child) or fetal cells enter your blood.

Amniotic fluid embolism could be a terribly rare condition that may happen throughout childbearing or presently once birth. It’s unknown what causes humor embolism, however some specialists assume it should be associated with humor getting into the mother’s blood stream (circulatory system). humor is that the liquid that the baby floats in whereas within the uterus. Once this fluid mixes with a mother’s blood, it will cause an allergic-like reaction that may be fatal. This is often a medical emergency requiring skilled medical aid.


What is Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)?


This is a rare condition. It’s really terribly tough to spot associate humor embolism as a result of the symptoms are often terribly kind of like alternative complications like toxemia, septic shock, placental break and female internal reproductive organ rupture. Thanks to this issue within the designation method, it’s difficult to assign a share to what percentage ladies have humor embolism annually.

Female Reproductive System


The female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the pelvis, that contribute to the human reproductive process. The main functions of the female reproductive system are to: 1) produce eggs; 2) protect and nurture the fertilized egg or fetus; and 3) channel away body wastes. Externally, the main functions are: 4) to attract a mate; and 5) to provide sexual pleasure. The organs of the female reproductive system include: the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, cervix, pelvic floor muscles, and vagina.


  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina


Medical terms

  • Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and life-threatening complication in pregnancy and labor. It occurs when amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters the mother's bloodstream. This can cause a severe reaction in the mother involving respiratory distress, cardiovascular collapse, and sometimes death. In the United States, AFE is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 80,000 to 200,000 deliveries.

  • Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an extremely rare but serious pregnancy complication that occurs when amniotic fluid or fetal material enters the maternal bloodstream. This can cause anaphylactic shock, leading to cardiac arrest and death. AFE is a multi-system disorder whose effects can be seen in the mother's lungs, heart, kidneys, and nervous system. AFE is considered a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention.

  • Amniotic fluid embolism could be a rare, however serious condition that happens once humor — the fluid that surrounds a baby within the female internal reproductive organ throughout gestation — or craniate material, like craniate cells, enters the mother's blood. humor embolism is possibly to occur throughout delivery or within the immediate postnatal amount.

  • Amniotic fluid embolism is troublesome to diagnose. If your doctor suspects you may have one, you'll have immediate treatment to forestall doubtless serious complications.

  • Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) also known as an amniotic fluid leak or antepartum hemorrhage is a serious life-threatening obstetric emergency that occurs when there is leakage of amniotic fluid into the mother's blood stream Amniotic fluid and pressure from the baby causes circulatory shock to occur and the mother may die unless quickly treated For those who survive consequences can include permanent disabilities such as paralysis AFE is different from normal leaking of amniotic fluid that sometimes occurs during pregnancy without harm to the mother; however it isn't clear why some leaks

  • Amniotic fluid embolism is a relatively rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy It occurs when the amniotic fluid - the water that surrounds and protects your baby in the womb - enters your bloodstream The fluid causes blood clots to form in your veins and arteries This can lead to serious complications such as stroke heart attack respiratory failure and even death.

Symptoms Amniotic fluid embolism

Amniotic fluid embolism might develop suddenly and rapidly. Signs and symptoms might include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath

  • Excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)

  • Sudden low blood pressure

  • Sudden failure of the heart to effectively pump blood (cardiovascular collapse)

  • Life-threatening problems with blood clotting (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy)

  • Bleeding from the uterus, cesarean incision or intravenous (IV) sites

  • Altered mental status, such as anxiety or a sense of doom

  • Chills

  • Rapid heart rate or disturbances in the rhythm of the heart rate

  • Fetal distress, such as a slow heart rate, or other fetal heart rate abnormalities

  • Seizures

  • Loss of consciousness

Causes Amniotic fluid embolism

Amniotic fluid embolism happens once liquid body substance or craniate material enters the mother's blood. a probable cause may be a breakdown within the placental barrier, like from trauma.

When this breakdown happens, the system responds by an emotional product that causes an associate degree inflammatory reaction that activates abnormal activity within the mother's lungs and blood vessels. This may end in a significant blood-clotting disorder called disseminated intravascular natural action.

However, liquid body substance embolisms are rare — and it's doubtless that some liquid body substance unremarkably enters the mother's blood throughout delivery while not inflicting issues. It isn't clear why in some mothers this ends up in liquid body substance embolism.

Risk factors Amniotic fluid embolism

It's calculable that there are between one and twelve cases of amniotic fluid embolism for each a hundred,000 deliveries. As amniotic fluid embolisms are rare, it's troublesome to spot risk factors.

Research suggests that many factors may be coupled to Associate in Nursing enhanced risk of amniotic fluid embolism, however, including:

  • Advanced maternal age. If you're 35 or older at the time of your child's birth, you might be at increased risk of amniotic fluid embolism.

  • Placenta problems. Abnormalities within the placenta — the structure that develops in your female internal reproductive organ throughout physiological state — may increase your risk of liquid body substance embolism. Abnormalities may embrace the placenta part or entirely covering the cervix (placenta previa) or the placenta peeling aloof from the inner wall of the female internal reproductive organ before delivery (placental abruption). These conditions will disrupt the physical barriers between you and your baby.

  • Preeclampsia. Having high blood pressure and excess protein in your urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy (preeclampsia) can increase your risk.

  • Medically induced labor. Limited analysis suggests that sure labor induction strategies are related to AN multiplied risk of humor embolism. analysis on this link, however, is conflicting.

  • Operative delivery. Having a cesarean section, an obstetrical delivery or a vacuum extraction may increase your risk of humor embolism. These procedures will disrupt the physical barriers between you and your baby. It isn't clear, however, whether or not operative deliveries are unit true risk factors for humor embolism as a result of they are used when the condition develops to ensure a fast delivery.

  • Polyhydramnios. Having too much amniotic fluid around your baby may put you at risk of amniotic fluid embolism.

Complications Amniotic fluid embolism

Amniotic fluid embolism can cause serious complications for you and your baby, including:

  • Brain injury. Low blood oxygen can cause permanent, severe neurological damage or brain death.

  • Lengthy hospital stay. Women UN agencies that survive AN humor embolism typically need treatment within the medical care unit and — looking at the extent of their complications — would possibly pay weeks or months within the hospital.

  • Maternal death. The number of ladies United Nations agencies die of water embolism (mortality rate) is extremely high. The numbers vary, however as several as twenty % of maternal deaths in developed countries is also thanks to water embolisms.

  • Infant death. Your baby is at risk of brain injury or death. Prompt evaluation and delivery of your baby improves survival.

What is the nursing priority in amniotic fluid embolism?

The nursing priority in amniotic fluid embolism is to maintain airway patency and respiratory status. Make sure that you check the patient's mouth for vomit and place the patient flat on his back with his feet elevated above the head while providing oxygen support.

What is the survival rate of amniotic fluid embolism?

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but severe form of pre-eclampsia Pre-eclampsia is a condition that affects about 5% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe It involves high levels of two hormones called prostaglandins and thromboxane These chemicals cause blood vessels to constrict (become narrower) leading to high blood pressure and other significant symptoms such as headaches and blurred vision

Should I be worried about amniotic fluid embolism?

Yes you should be worried about amniotic fluid embolism – and for good reason It’s a rare but potentially life-threatening pregnancy complication that can occur when amniotic fluid or other byproducts of conception enter the mother’s bloodstream About one in every 70,000 deliveries is affected by this condition However the chances of it happening to you are still remote at best.

What is the most common cause of death from amniotic fluid embolism?

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare life-threatening condition that occurs in less than 1 percent of pregnancies ARE mainly affects pregnant women between the 26th and 28th week of gestation The cause of the condition is believed to be amniotic fluid leaking into the mother's bloodstream via the placenta or spontaneously moving through the uterus and into her bloodstream When amniotic fluid enters the maternal veins it can lead to a blockage in one of more major arteries causing heart failure shock and ultimately death.

Is amniotic fluid embolism preventable?

The good news is that in most cases amniotic fluid embolism is preventable. You can avoid or reduce the risks associated with AFE by taking these steps: 1. Don't add any unnecessary stress to your body during labor and birth—and try not to worry about complications Stress exacerbates AFE by restricting blood flow through veins and arteries around the body including those in the pelvis and uterus This increases your risk for clot formation because there isn't enough blood pumping through the area to keep it healthy Symptoms of high stress include panic attacks anxiety and depression If you feel yourself.

How long do I have to get to the hospital after water breaks?

The amount of time that should pass after your water breaks varies depending on your situation but it is important to get to the hospital as soon as possible If you are pregnant and not in labor you have an estimated 10 minutes before complications begin such as serious infection or preterm birth If you are nearing full term with a baby in good health however there is no specific timeline for when to head to the hospital The best way to prevent premature babies is by delivering them early; if a woman goes into labor naturally and doesn't go into distress she can wait hours before going to the hospital Premature babies born at.

Diagnosis Amniotic fluid embolism

Diagnosing liquid body substance embolism is troublesome as a result of several of the symptoms will overlap with alternative serious medical conditions. Your doctor can rule out alternative potential causes whereas operating to diagnose liquid body substance embolism. liquid body substance embolism is assumed to occur parturient or inside half-hour of delivery.

Their square measures many signs and phases of liquid body substance embolism. This condition happens in 2 phases.

A diagnosing of liquid body substance embolism is often created when alternative conditions are dominated out.

Your health care supplier would possibly order the subsequent workplace tests throughout your evaluation:

  • Blood tests, including those that evaluate clotting, heart enzymes, electrolytes and blood type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC)

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's rhythm

  • Pulse oximetry to check the amount of oxygen in your blood

  • Chest X-ray to look for fluid around your heart

  • Echocardiography to evaluate your heart's function


Treatment Amniotic fluid embolism

Amniotic fluid embolism needs speedy treatment to deal with low blood O and low force per unit area.

Emergency treatments would possibly include:

  • Catheter placement. A thin, hollow tube placed into one among your arteries (arterial catheter) may well be wont to monitor your force per unit area. You may even have another tube placed into a vein in your chest (central blood vessel catheter), which might be wont to provide fluids, medications or transfusions, in addition to drawing blood. 

  • Oxygen. You might need to have a breathing tube inserted into your airway to help you breathe.

  • Medications. Your doctor would possibly provide you with medications to boost and support your heart. different medications could be accustomed to decrease the pressure caused by fluid going into your heart and lungs. 

  • Transfusions. If you've got uncontrollable hemorrhage, you will need transfusions of blood, blood merchandise and replacement fluids.
    If you've got a bodily fluid embolism before delivering your baby, your doctor can treat you with the goal of safely delivering your baby as presently as attainable. Associate in Nursing emergency C-section may well be required. 

Coping and support

Experiencing a dangerous maternity condition is often scary and nerve-wracking for you and your family. Afterward, you may live the experience and have nightmares and flashbacks.

During this difficult time, meet blue-eyed ones for support. think about connecting a survivors' network. Also, work together with your health care supplier to work out; however , you'll be able to safely manage your recovery and your role as the mother of a newborn.

General summary

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism occurs when amniotic fluid leaks from the uterus and into the mother's bloodstream It can occur during labor and delivery or after an induced miscarriage In many cases it may be caused by a complication of childbirth such as placenta abruptio in which the placenta tears away from the inner wall of the uterus before delivery occurs Sometimes amniotic fluid embolism is not related to pregnancy at all but occurs spontaneously.

  2. embolism (AFE) is an uncommon but serious complication of childbirth, accounting for 1.5%-3.5% of maternal deaths worldwide. It is a condition in which the amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, and other materials enter the maternal bloodstream and cause a severe, life threatening immune response. This response can lead to cardiovascular collapse, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). AFE is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment and monitoring, as it can be fatal for both the mother and the fetus.

  3. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but life-threatening condition in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris from the baby’s sac enters the mother’s bloodstream. AFE happens during labor and delivery, with symptoms appearing suddenly after delivery or during the delivery process. Symptoms of AFE can include non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns, sudden hypotension, decrease in oxygen saturation, and rapid decline in the mother’s condition. If not treated immediately, amniotic fluid embolism can be fatal for both mother and baby.

  4. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare condition occurring during or shortly after delivery of a baby. This condition is caused by the presence of amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other material in the mother’s bloodstream. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and include breathing difficulty, low blood pressure, lung failure, and sometimes death. As the exact cause of AFE is unknown, the risk factors for developing AFE remain unclear.

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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