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Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What is Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) ?

People with BDD focus on an imagined physical defect or a minor flaw that most people cannot see. As a result, these people see themselves as ugly and often keep to themselves or turn to plastic surgery in an effort to improve their appearance. You should try to make your leaves look nicer.

BDD shares some features with eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. BDD concerns oneself with body image to a degree similar to those with an eating disorder, but someone with BDD may also have issues with weight and the shape of individual body parts. This information is about a specific body part.

People with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have thoughts, fears, or images that are recurring and distressful. The anxiety caused by these thoughts leads to a need to perform certain rituals or routines (compulsions). With body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), the person's concern about their appearance is also persistent and remains unchanged even after repeated reassurance from others. People with BDD become preoccupied with their defects, often to the point of obsessiveness. This can lead to problems in social life and at home.

BDD is a chronic disorder that affects both men and women in the same way. It usually begins during adolescence or early adulthood.


What is Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) ?


Medical terms 

  1. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) could be a distinct upset within which someone is preoccupied with an Associate in Nursing fanciful physical defect or a minor defect that others often cannot see. As a result, folks with this disorder see themselves as "ugly" and sometimes avoid social exposure or undergo cosmetic surgery to enhance their appearance.
  2. BDD shares some options with disorders and neurotic disorders. BDD is analogous to feeding disorders therein each involve a priority with body image. However, a person with an eating disorder worries about weight and therefore the form of the whole body, whereas someone with BDD thinks about a couple of specific body parts.
  3. folks with obsessional compulsive disorder (OCD) have continual Associate in Nursing distressing thoughts, fears, or pictures (obsessions) that they can't control. The anxiety (nervousness) made by these thoughts ends up in a pressing need to perform bound rituals or routines (compulsions). With BDD, a person' preoccupation with the defect usually leads to practice behaviors, comparable to perpetually trying in an exceedingly mirror or selecting at the skin. The person with BDD eventually becomes dependent on the defect that their social, work, and residential functioning suffers.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

Symptoms Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

Signs and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder include:

  • Being extremely preoccupied with a perceived flaw in appearance that to others can't be seen or appears minor

  • Strong belief that you have a defect in your appearance that makes you ugly or deformed

  • Belief that others take special notice of your appearance in a negative way or mock you

  • Engaging in behaviors aimed at fixing or hiding the perceived flaw that are difficult to resist or control, such as frequently checking the mirror, grooming or skin picking

  • Attempting to hide perceived flaws with styling, makeup or clothes

  • Constantly comparing your appearance with others

  • Frequently seeking reassurance about your appearance from others

  • Having perfectionist tendencies

  • Seeking cosmetic procedures with little satisfaction

  • Avoiding social situations

Preoccupation together with your look and excessive thoughts and repetitive behaviors are often unwanted, tough to manage then long that they will cause major distress or issues in your social life, work, faculty or different areas of functioning.

you will too focus over one or a lot of components of your body. The bodily feature that you simply specialize in may modify over time. the foremost common options individuals tend to fixate concerning include:

  • Skin and vein appearance

  • Breast size

  • Muscle size and tone

  • Genitalia

  • Face, such as nose, complexion, wrinkles, acne and other blemishes

  • Hair, such as appearance, thinning and baldness

A preoccupation together with your body build being too tiny or not muscular enough (muscle dysmorphia) happens nearly completely in males.

Insight regarding body dysmorphic disorder varies. you'll acknowledge that your beliefs about your perceived flaws are also excessive or not be true, or suppose that they most likely are true, or be completely convinced that they're true. The additional convinced you're of your beliefs, the more distress and disruption you may experience in your life.


When to see a doctor

Shame and embarrassment concerning your look may keep you from seeking treatment for body dysmorphic disorder. however if you've got any signs or symptoms, see your health care supplier or a psychological state professional.

Body dysmorphic disorder sometimes doesn't restore on its own. If left untreated, it should exacerbate over time, resulting in anxiety, intensive medical bills, severe depression, and even dangerous thoughts and behavior.

If you or a loved one has body dysmorphic disorder, ask your provider:

  • What treatments are available?

  • Do I need medication?

  • How can I decrease my symptoms so I can function better?

  • Will body dysmorphic disorder ever go away?

  • What types of therapy should I consider?

Causes Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

It's not legendary specifically what causes body dysmorphic disorder. Like several alternative psychological state conditions, body dysmorphic disorder might result from a mixture of issues, akin to a case history of the disorder, negative evaluations or experiences concerning your body or self-image, and abnormal brain operate or abnormal levels of the brain chemical referred to as serotonin.

The precise explanation for BDD isn't known. One theory suggests the disorder involves a haul with the dimensions or functioning of sure brain areas that method data about body appearance. The very fact that BDD usually happens in individuals with other mental health disorders, such as major depression and anxiety, supports a biological basis for the disorder.

Other factors that might influence the development of or trigger BDD include:

  • Experience of traumatic events or emotional conflict during childhood

  • Low self-esteem

  • Parents and others who were critical of the person's appearance

Pressure from peers and a society that equates physical appearance with beauty and value also can have an impact on the development of BDD.

Risk factors Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

The outlook is promising for folks with BDD who receive and follow treatment. In addition, those with a robust support team tend to try to do higher within the long run.

Body dysmorphic disorder generally starts in the early teen years and it affects males and females.

sure factors appear to extend the danger of developing or triggering body dysmorphic disorder, including:

  • Certain personality traits, such as perfectionism

  • Societal pressure or expectations of beauty

  • Having another mental health condition, such as anxiety or depression

  • Having blood relatives with body dysmorphic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • Negative life experiences, such as childhood teasing, neglect or abuse

Complications Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

In cases of BDD, social isolation can occur if the person becomes too self-conscious to travel and enter public life. This can also have a negative impact on college or work. folks with BDD are also at high risk for developing major depression, and also the distress related to the disorder puts people with BDD at high risk for suicide. Further, people with this disorder may endure several surgical procedures in an endeavor to correct their perceived defect.

Complications that may be caused by or associated with body dysmorphic disorder include, for example:

  • Anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • Eating disorders

  • Substance misuse

  • Health problems from behaviors such as skin picking

  • Physical pain or risk of disfigurement due to repeated surgical interventions

  • Low self-esteem

  • Social isolation

  • Major depression or other mood disorders

  • Suicidal thoughts or behavior

Prevention Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

here is not {any|isn't any} notable thanks to forestall BDD. However, it would be useful to start treatment in folks as presently as they start to have symptoms. Teaching and inspiring healthy and realistic attitudes concerning body image conjointly might facilitate prevent the event or worsening of BDD. Finally, providing the person with an understanding and supporting atmosphere might help decrease the severity of the symptoms and help them take better care of the disorder.

Long-term maintenance treatment also may help prevent a relapse of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

  • What is the outlook for people with body dysmorphic disorder? Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder in which people have an excessive and persistent concern about their appearance. People with BDD often spend a lot of time worrying about their appearance, and they may attempt to change their appearance through surgery, diet, or other treatments. However, the outlook for people with BDD is usually good. Most people with BDD do not experience significant problems in their
  • People with BDD (Body Dysmorphic Disorder) have good prospects for recovery if they receive and follow treatment. Those who have a strong support network tend to do better in the long run.
  • Can Body Dysmorphic Disorder be prevented? Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder in which people excessively worry about their appearance, to the point where it negatively impacts their daily life. However, it is possible to prevent body dysmorphic disorder by recognizing the early signs and seeking help.
  • There is no known cure for BDD, but treatment might help people who are experiencing symptoms. It is also helpful to have healthy and realistic attitudes about body image. And lastly, providing support can help prevent the development or worsening of BDD. If someone has a disorder, having an understanding and supportive environment might make the symptoms more manageable.

What are the 2 types of dysmorphia?

Body dysmorphic disorder is a psychiatric term for when someone has an extreme preoccupation with a minor or imagined physical imperfection There are two types of body dysmorphic disorder: body dysmorphic disorder with cosmetic concerns and body dysmorphic disorder without cosmetic concerns.

Is BDD a serious mental illness?

Binge-eating disorder is a serious illness according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration People with BED have an intense craving for food that can put them at risk for health complications because of uncontrolled excess eating It's characterized by recurring episodes of consuming large amounts of food in short periods of time leading to extreme guilt or shame afterward BDD led to over 3 million ED visits in 2013 which only emphasizes that this isn't something people make up or try to use as an excuse for unhealthy eating habits.

How do you fix body dysmorphia?

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person obsesses over what they perceive to be flaws -- real or imagined -- on his or her body It's often thought of as being primarily about anorexia but really it encompasses any obsession with one's own appearance There are a lot of misconceptions around BDD and its causes Most people think that anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any mental illness (it does for females) but BDD actually does People with BDD also tend to harm themselves without realizing it such as compulsively picking at their skin or cutting themselves.

Can body dysmorphia be cured?

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a condition that causes people to have an abnormal perception of how they look They may be obsessed with and spend inordinate time worrying about minor or imagined defects on their face body hair or clothing People suffering from this disorder are preoccupied with what they feel are flaws in their appearance and usually believe that no one else sees them as "defective." Many people who suffer from BDD are unaware that they have the disorder because it's often accompanied by social isolation and depression which make it difficult for them to seek treatment A therapist can offer a person suffering from .

Can body dysmorphia come?

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental illness that causes people to have an obsessive and unshakable belief that parts of their body are seriously flawed These flaws can be imaginary or slight but they cause great distress and interfere with daily life People with BDD may fixate on their looks the way their face or head looks their nose hair skin or genitals Others may obsess about real or perceived defects in specific body parts such as their breasts stomach muscles buttocks or hips Some individuals with BDD believe that one minor feature is so ugly that it ruins the appearance of their entire body.

How does BDD affect a person's life?

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a poorly understood and often misdiagnosed mental illness BDD is characterized by an obsessive preoccupation with imaginary defects in one's appearance These defects which are always slight or imagined cannot simply be ignored Instead individuals suffering from BDD spend so much time racking their brains about how terrible they look that it begins to impact nearly every aspect of their lives.

Diagnosis Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) 

After a medical evaluation to assist in ruling out other medical conditions your healthcare provider may recommend a referral to a mental health professional for further evaluation

The party which is called the “Hellenic Alliance” is a pro-governmental and national alliance that has gathered the following parties: New Democracy (ND) Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) European Party of Cyprus (EPC) Democratic Rally (DISY) and Solidarity Movement

  • A psychological evaluation that assesses risk factors thoughts feelings and behaviors relating to negative self-image

  • Family social and medical history

  • Signs and symptoms

Treatment Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

The treatment for body dysmorphic disorder usually involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medications

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to treat body dysmorphic disorder It focuses on:

  • A negative thought process may sustain a problem over time

  • Learning to challenge unproductive thoughts about your body image and finding more-flexible ways of thinking

  • Teaching you other behaviors to improve your mental health such as addressing social avoidance and engaging in healthy activities and supports

You and your mental health professional can talk about your goals for therapy and develop a treatment plan to learn and strengthen coping skills Involving family members in treatment may be especially important for teenagers

  1. Psychological rehabilitation
  2. Child medical and psychological care
  3. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Medications

Medications used to treat other mental health conditions ― such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder ― are often effective in treating body dysmorphic disorder These medications have not been specifically approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in body dysmorphia treatment although they can be helpful

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Body dysmorphic disorder could be caused in part by problems related to the brain chemical serotonin Serotonin is a hormone and SSRIs are drugs that affect how certain hormones work in the body SSRIs appear to be more effective for body dysmorphic disorder than other antidepressants and may help control your negative thoughts and repetitive behaviors

  • Other medications.In some cases you may benefit from taking medications other than an SSRI depending on the symptoms

Hospitalization

In some cases symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder may progress to the point where they require hospitalization This is generally recommended only when you are unable to keep up with daily responsibilities or would be in danger of injuring yourself

Lifestyle and home remedies

Body dysmorphic disorder requires treatment from a mental health professional But you can do some things to enhance your treatment plan such as:

  • Stick to your treatment plan.Don't skip therapy sessions, even if you don't feel like going. Even if you're feeling well, continue to take your medications. If you stop, symptoms may come back. You could also experience withdrawal-like symptoms from stopping a medication too suddenly.

  • Learn about your disorder. Education about body dysmorphic disorder can empower you and motivate you to stick to your treatment plan.

  • Pay attention to warning signs.Work with your healthcare provider or mental health provider to learn what might trigger your symptoms Make a plan so you know what to do if symptoms return Contact your health care provider or mental health provider if you notice any changes in symptoms or how you feel

  • Practice learned strategies.Practice the skills you learn in therapy at home to strengthen them into daily habits

  • Avoid drugs and alcohol.Alcohol and recreational drugs may worsen symptoms or interact with medications

  • Get active. Physical activity and exercise will facilitate managing several symptoms, like depression, stress and anxiety. think about walking, jogging, swimming, husbandry or absorbing another kind of physical activity you enjoy. However, avoid excessive exercise as some way to repair a perceived flaw.

Coping and support

Talk along with your health care supplier or psychological state specialist concerning your coping skills, and ways in which to concentrate on identifying, watching and dynamic  the negative thoughts and behaviors about your appearance. take into account the following pointers to assist traumatize body dysmorphic disorder:

Here are some suggestions to help you cope with body dysmorphic disorder:

  • Write in a journal.This can help you identify negative thoughts emotions and behaviors

  • Don't become isolated.Participate in social activities and regularly get together with friends and family who can act as healthy supports

  • Take care of yourself.Eat healthy foods do physical activity and get enough sleep

  • Join a support group.Connect with others who face similar challenges

  • Stay focused on your goals.

  • Learn relaxation and stress management.Practice stress-reducing techniques such as mediation or deep breathing

  • It's not a good idea to make important decisions when you are feeling distress or despair

Preparing for your appointment

If you have concerns about your mental health you will likely be referred to a mental health professional for further evaluation and specialized treatment

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Any symptoms you or your family noticed,

  • Key personal information,Ask your family about any medical history including any mental health conditions such as body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • Your medical information,including other physical and mental health issues that you have been diagnosed with

  • All medications you take,including the names and doses of any medications herbs vitamins or other supplements you are using

  • to make the most of your appointment.

Some basic questions to ask include:

  • What do you think is most likely causing my symptoms?

  • The main idea of the text is that it’s not always easy to resolve a conflict when people think they are right

  • Could behavioral therapy be helpful?

  • Are there medications that might help?

  • How long will treatment take?

  • What can I do to help myself?

  • Do you have any brochures or other printed materials that I can have?

  • If you have any questions about the procedure feel free to ask

Ask additional questions during your appointment

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider or mental health provider may ask you questions, such as:

  • Are you concerned about your appearance?

  • When did you first begin to worry about your appearance?

  • What effect do your symptoms have on your daily life?

  • Do you spend much time each day thinking about your appearance?

  • Have you had any other treatment?

  • Which cosmetic procedures have you had?

  • What have you tried on your own to feel better or control your symptoms?

  • What things make you feel worse?

  • Do you have relatives who were diagnosed with a mental health condition?

  • What do you hope to gain from treatment?

  • What medications do you take? Are there any herbs or other supplements you take?

Your health care provider or mental health provider will ask extra questions based on your responses symptoms and needs Preparing and anticipating questions helps you make the most of appointment time

General summary

  1. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental illness in which the affected person has a distorted view of his or her body image with an obsessive preoccupation about some imagined flaw Studies have shown that BDD is more common in people who are socially anxious and depressed People with BDD are often agitated about their appearance and spend excessive time looking at themselves in mirrors or other reflective surfaces They may be reluctant to leave the house date or attend social events for fear that others will notice their flaw Some sufferers may even undergo unnecessary plastic surgery as a result of their obsession.

  2. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric condition that is characterized by an excessive preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in one's physical appearance. People with BDD often experience feelings of shame and embarrassment due to their perceived physical flaws and may go to great lengths to hide or camouflage their imperfections. They may also engage in behaviors such as excessive mirror checking, grooming, clothing changes, and skin picking in an attempt to alleviate their distress. BDD can have a profoundly negative effect on quality of life, leading to social isolation, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.

  3. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common mental disorder characterized by an excessive preoccupation with a perceived physical defect or a bodily feature. Those affected by the disorder often experience feelings of self-consciousness, anxiety, and even avoidance of social situations. It is estimated that BDD affects about one percent of the population and is more common in individuals with a comorbid psychiatric condition such as depression or an anxiety disorder. BDD often co-occurs with other body image related disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.


Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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