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Carcinoid tumors: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 

What is carcinoid tumor? 

Carcinoid tumors are types of neuroendocrine tumors that originate from neuroendocrine cells. These cells send messages through hormones to help the body function. They are found in various organs throughout the body.

Carcinoid tumors often grow slowly. In children and young adults, carcinoid tumors are most often found in the appendix or in the lungs. Adults also commonly develop these tumors in the digestive system. If this tumor spreads to other parts of the body, it may be difficult to treat. People often get cancer on other parts of their body, but it is more common in adults.


Carcinoid tumors


Explanation of medical terms and concepts

 Carcinoid tumors

If your doctor tells you that you've got a tumour tumor, there' a great deal to require in. The condition could be a sort of cancer, however in contrast to another kinds, there' quite one a part of the body wherever it'd begin. And betting on where you get it, you may have a bunch of various symptoms, from pain in your belly to a foul cough. All carcinoid tumors, where they show up, have an effect on cells that build hormones. They're part of a gaggle of diseases referred to as system tumors (NETs). Most carcinoid tumors start in one of 2 areas: your lungs or your biological process system, additionally called the GI tract. that has places like your stomach, tiny intestine, colon, appendix, or rectum. It' not as common, however typically the tumors begin in your pancreas, your testicles if you're a man, or ovaries if you're a woman. detain mind that these tumors usually grow slowly. And doctors often realize them once they're at an early stage, that makes them easier to treat. Learn the maximum amount as you'll be able to regarding this condition so you can work with your doctor to urge a treatment that' best for you. And keep an open line to your friends and family therefore you'll be able to get the backup and support you would like to tackle things confidently and a positive attitude.

How common is carcinoid tumor?

Carcinoid tumor is a rare condition in children, and it is more common in adults. Experts believe that it affects about 4 out of 100,000 adults. There is little information on how many young people have it.


Symptoms Carcinoid tumors

Some tumour tumors don't cause any signs or symptoms. once they do occur, signs and symptoms are typically obscure and rely on the situation of the tumor.

Carcinoid tumors in the lungs

Signs and symptoms of carcinoid lung tumors include:

  • Chest pain
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Diarrhea
  • Redness or a feeling of warmth in your face and neck (skin flushing)
  • Weight gain, particularly around the midsection and upper back
  • Pink or purple marks on the skin that look like stretch marks
If you've got a respiratory organ tumor tumor, you would possibly get symptoms sort of a cough, and you typically might cough up some bloody mucus. you furthermore may might hear a whistling sound whereas you breathe, known as wheezing. once you have this kind of cancer for several years, you might get a condition called carcinoid syndrome. It' a gaggle of symptoms that begin once the tumors unharness bound hormones into your bloodstream. you would possibly get redness and heat in your face, or get sweaty. you would possibly also get issues like:

  • Diarrhea
  • Feel short of breath or wheeze
  • Heartbeat starts to speed up
  • Weight loss
  • Feel weak
  • Hair starts to grow on your body and face

Carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract

Signs and symptoms of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea, vomiting and inability to pass stool due to intestinal blockage (bowel obstruction)
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Rectal pain
  • Redness or a feeling of warmth in your face and neck (skin flushing)

When to see a doctor

If you expertise any signs and symptoms that trouble you and are persistent, build a rendezvous together with your doctor.

Diagnosis Carcinoid tumors

Tests and procedures used to diagnose carcinoid tumors include:

  • Blood tests. If you've got a tumour tumor, your blood could contain high levels of hormones secreted by a carcinoid tumor or byproducts created once those hormones are softened by the body.
  • Urine tests. People with neoplasm tumors have excess levels of a chemical in their excrement that' created once the body breaks down hormones secreted by carcinoid tumors.
  • Imaging tests. Imaging tests, as well as a computed tomography (CT) scan, resonance imaging (MRI), antielectron emission tomography (PET), X-ray and medicine scans, could facilitate your doctor pinpoint the neoplasm tumor' location.
  • A scope or camera that sees inside your body. Your doctor could use a long, skinny tube equipped with a lens or camera to look at areas within your body.

    Associate in Nursing endoscopy, that involves passing a scope down your throat, may facilitate your doctor see inside your epithelial duct tract. A bronchoscopy, employing a scope passed down your throat and into your respiratory organs, will help notice lung tumour tumors. Passing a scope through your body part (colonoscopy) can help diagnose body part carcinoid tumors. to envision inside your tiny intestine, your doctor may advocate a check using a pill-sized camera that you simply swallow (capsule endoscopy).
  • Removing tissue for laboratory testing. A sample of tissue from the tumour (biopsy) could also be collected to verify your diagnosis. What kind of diagnostic test you'll bear depends on wherever your tumor is located.

    a technique of aggregation a tissue sample involves employing a needle to draw cells out of the tumor. another choice may be through surgery. The tissue is distributed to a laboratory for testing to see the categories of cells within the tumor and the way aggressive those cells seem underneath the magnifier

Treatment Carcinoid tumors

Treatment for a carcinoid tumor is dependent on whether it can be found in other areas of the body if cancer has spread to other areas if the tumor secretes certain hormones and your overall health and preferences

Carcinoid tumors may be treated by:

  • Surgery.Carcinoid tumors can be removed completely by surgery if detected early or are advanced when discovered Complete removal of carcinoid tumors may not be possible for some patients and special care might be taken in those cases to remove as much of the tumor as possible to help control signs and symptoms
  • Medications to control excess hormones.When hormones are blocked the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and tumor growth can be reduced

    Octreotide (Sandostatin Bynfezia Pen) and lanreotide (Somatuline Depot) are given as injections under the skin Side effects can include abdominal pain bloating and diarrhea Telotristat (Xermelo) a pill that is sometimes used in combination with octreotide or lanreotide may cause facial flushing I'll try to improve the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome

  • Chemotherapy.Chemotherapy uses strong drugs to kill tumor cells You can give chemo through a vein in your arm or take it as a pill Chemotherapy is sometimes prescribed for advanced carcinoid tumors that can't be removed with surgery
  • Targeted drug therapy.Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present in tumor cells By blocking these abnormalities targeted drug treatments can cause tumor cells to die Targeted drug therapy is usually combined with chemotherapy for advanced carcinoid tumors
  • Drugs that deliver radiation directly to the cancer cells Protein receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) combines a drug that seeks out cancer cells with a radioactive substance that kills them In PRRT for carcinoid tumors the drug is injected into your body where it travels to the cancer cells binds to them and delivers the radiation directly to them This therapy may be an option for people who have advanced carcinoid tumors
  • Cancer that spreads to the liver can be treated by an L-carnitine product It’s pretty hard to resolve a conflict when everyone assumes that they are right

Coping and support

Each person with cancer develops their own way of dealing with the disease If you have questions or would like some guidance talk to a member of your health care team Also consider these steps:

  • Find out enough about carcinoid tumors to make decisions about your careAsk questions about your condition Ask members of your health care team to recommend resources where you can get more information
  • Talk to others with cancer. Cancer support groups can help you connect with other people who have had the same experiences as you Talk to your doctor about support groups in your area Or contact your local American Cancer Society chapter or Carcinoid Cancer Foundation and ask them for help finding one near you Try the online chat rooms too message boards at the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivors Network
  • Control what you can about your health.A cancer diagnosis can make you feel as if you have no control over your health But you can take steps to maintain a healthy lifestyle so that you will better cope with your cancer treatment

    If you feel up to it work light exercise into your daily routine Cut stress when possible Get plenty of sleep so that you feel rested when you wake up Eat healthy meals with plenty of fruits and vegetables

Preparing for your appointment

If you have symptoms that concern you make an appointment with your primary care doctor or family doctor When your doctor suspects a carcinoid tumor he or she may refer you to a specialist who specializes in treating diseases of the nervous system Your specialist may be: a neurologist (neurologist) a radiation oncologist (radiation oncologist) or a psychiatrist (psychiatrist)

  • A gastroenterologist is a doctor who specializes in digestive problems
  • A lung specialist is a doctor who specializes in treating lung problems
  • Doctor who treats cancer (oncologist)

Because appointments do not typically last long and because there is often a lot of information to discuss it's a good idea to be prepared Here are some tips that will help you get ready and what to expect from your doctor

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictionsBefore the appointment be sure to ask if there is anything you need to do in advance such as restricting your diet
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencingMake sure you tell your doctor about any symptoms that are unrelated to your reason for scheduling the appointment
  • Write down key personal information,When you are going through a roadblock it is good to remember that you are not alone We've all been there paraphrased: When you're stuck in the middle of a road block it's good to remember that no one ever said it was easy being green
  • Make a list of all medications,It’s pretty hard to resolve a conflict when everyone assumes that they’re right The sentence is almost the same as in this question but it has some new words:and Paraphrasing can be useful if you want to improve your writing skills and you are not sure which words are good enough for your essay Good luck!
  • Don't go alone Take someone with you who can be of helpSometimes it’s hard to remember all the information provided during an appointment Someone who accompanies you may remember what you missed or forgot
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Before you see your doctor make a list of questions Use the most important ones first so that you don't miss any information Ask your doctor some basic questions:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?
  • Is anything else I can do besides this treatment to resolve my symptoms?
  • What tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparations?
  • What treatments are available and which do you recommend?
  • Each treatment has its side effects risks and benefits
  • My prognosis if I undergo treatment is good
  • Will the treatment interfere with my ability to work or do normal daily activities?
  • I have these other health conditions How can I best manage these conditions together?
  • What are the brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?
  • How often do I need follow-up visits?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask a number of questions to make sure you have an understanding of your health and medical conditions and the treatments that will be used Being prepared to answer them may allow more time to cover points that you want to address with your doctor Your doctor is likely to ask you:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What have you tried that seemed to help your symptoms?
  • If anything seems to worsen your symptoms what might it be?

General summary

Carcinoid tumors are rare accounting for less than 3% of all gastrointestinal tumors Carcinoids tend to be solitary but the possibility of multiple nodules developing must be considered when multiple symptoms are present Symptoms and signs include diarrhea flushing abdominal pain and obstruction with bowel obstruction being the most common finding Less commonly there is bleeding discharge or shortness of breath

are slow growing and often don’t cause symptoms until they are large The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that carcinoid tumors make up only 4 percent of all gastrointestinal cancers and usually occur in the small intestine appendix or rectum They rarely occur in other parts of the digestive tract Carcinoid tumors are slow growing and often don't cause symptoms until they are large according to Mayo Clinic Health Letter People with carcinoid tumors may experience blood in their stool weight loss due to an inability to absorb nutrients from food intestinal cramps or pain abdominal swelling or diarrhea

Carcinoid tumors are a group of slow-growing non-cancerous tumours that can form inside the digestive tract They also form in the lungs liver and other organs of the body Carcinoid tumors secrete serotonin into your system which has consequences for how you feel Symptoms include diarrhea wheezing sweating and anemia If a carcinoid tumor is suspected due to these symptoms and further tests are positive for a tumor it will be surgically removed by an operation called surgery resection

carcinoid tumors secrete

serotonin and histamine which act on serotonin receptors

carcinoid tumors pathology outlines

various causes for carcinoid tumors Carcinoid tumor is a rare condition in which there are papillary structures that look like cancer but are benign These tumors are dangerous because they produce substances similar to serotonin resulting in fluid retention and secretion of other fluids as well

What is the survival rate for carcinoid tumor?

Carcinoid tumors are often slow growing and have a good prognosis especially when they are diagnosed early Unfortunately less than half of all carcinoid tumors are diagnosed at an early stage Of those that are discovered most patients with carcinoid tumors live long lives without their cancer spreading to other parts of the body or worsening over time However death resulting from certain types of carcinoid tumors occurs if the disease becomes metastatic (spreads to another part of the body) or if it is not treated properly

Is carcinoid tumors life threatening?

Carcinoid tumors are considered slow-growing and life-threatening only when they metastasize or spread to other parts of the body Should this occur a carcinoid tumor can form in other organs and tissues such as the liver kidneys spleen lungs or even bones One of the biggest risks with metastatic carcinoid tumors is that they often go undetected because they lack symptoms making treatment extremely difficult

Diseases Diagnosis and Treatment-A/Z

Carcinoid tumors: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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