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Choléra: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 Choléra


Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that can cause diarrhea and dehydration.

This story has seen seven large epidemics of cholera. The seventh pandemic began in 1961 and spread throughout the world. Cholera still exists and is believed to be affecting people in 3 million cases per year. Each year, 100,000 people die as a result.

Choléra


The cholera bacteria spreads easily where people do not take care to wash their hands often enough. The bacterium is most active in places where hygiene is not maintained. Since floods and wars can reduce the availability of clean water, cholera continues to spread in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central America, and South America.

Cholera kills about 4% of people who develop serious symptoms.This proportion includes people who are treated late or improperly and those who do not access medical care. Less than 1% of people who are severely affected by the disease will die if they are treated.Act quickly and appropriately.

Cholera is caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.Cholera is caused by bacteria that people can catch from drinking water or eating food. Once the bacteria has been ingested, it will colonize the mucosa in the small intestine and release a toxin that can harm the body.To rid the body of liquid that causes a diarrhea.

The disease is generally transmitted by water that has been contaminated with human feces, but it can also be transmitted by consuming contaminated foods, such as seafood or crustaceans, that have not been cooked sufficiently.Most people who are infected with cholera do not have any symptoms, but they are slowly carrying the bacteria and excreting them in wastewater.

Cholera is not a very common problem in countries with modern plumbing and water treatment plants. Canada, the United States, and most of Western Europe have never reported a single case of cholera. People who travel to a high-risk country are often the same people.

Symptômes et Complications

Cholera is a disease that affects a small number of people. Many people who contract cholera develop symptoms that are called cholera.About 80% of people who are exposed to light or moderate intensity diarrhea will experience it, while only 20% of people will have an intense aqueous diarrhea that could threaten their lives if not treated appropriately.Cholera does not typically produce any symptoms, though they may excrete the bacteria that causes it in their stools. This can lead to transmission to other people.

Nobody knows why some people get cholera and others don't. The reasons why this bacterial toxin causes the disease in some people but not others are unknown. Most adults living in areas where cholera is common have antibodies that help prevent the disease from happening. To protect them from the disease, these countries have implemented preventative measures. In areas with a high rate of illness in children and people with another underlying illness, such as AIDS, precautions have been taken.

Gastric acid kills Vibrio bacteria. Studies have shown that people with low stomach acid levels are more likely to get sick from this type of bacteria. People of the blood type O are especially at risk for contracting cholera.

Cholera causes symptoms by making you have liquid diarrhea. It is very important that this happens quickly, as this will remove water and salts from the body.The first sign of a diarrheal infection is a liquid saddle. This occurs 1 to 3 days after the infection and can lead to vomiting.

Cholera can cause other symptoms, such as:

  • des crampes musculaires;
  • de la faiblesse;
  • une miction réduite ou absente;
  • une peau des doigts ridée;
  • un pouls filant;
  • The eyes are positioned in the orbits.

Cholera usually lasts from 3 to 6 days, but if not treated it can lead to a shock due to dehydration, renal failure, and coma.

Diagnostic

If you are experiencing symptoms, it is very important to have a correct diagnosis.Cholera can cause death by severe dehydration. The diagnosis is made by taking a stool culture, as the bacterium can be seen using a special microscope.

Traitement et Prévention

If you think you may have contracted cholera, drink rehydration solutions (made from purified water and salts) while you are going to the hospital or at home. A doctor is a person who is trained in the medical field.To prevent vomiting, drink frequently but small amounts at a time. If you cannot reach medical care, treat yourself with an antibiotic against traveler's diarrhea.

To treat cholera, the body needs to be given the salts and minerals it has lost.The solution can be given either intravenously or through the nose (by means of a special tube) if it is administered orally. Antibiotics are usually prescribed at the beginning of a disease, which can reduce its severity.The duration of diarrhea can be quite prolonged.

It may not be easy to prevent cholera when traveling. There is an oral vaccine that provides 85% protection for 6 months and about 50% over 2 years. However, cholera is a very rare disease among travelers; the rate of occurrence is typically low. It is estimated that 1 person in 500,000 will be affected by the virus. This means that doctors may not routinely recommend the vaccine to their patients.

To prevent cholera, take the following precautions in the areas where it has been reported:

  • Only boiled or chemically treated water should be used. Disinfectant tablets are available in pharmacies.
  • Boil or treat water before using it to brush your teeth and wash dishes.This will make the water safe to drink.
  • Before eating fruits and vegetables, you should peel them.
  • Do not fly into food to eat it.
  • Do not eat ice cubes made with contaminated water, unpasteurized milk, or salads that are easily contaminated with bacteria.
  • Make sure the food is fully cooked before eating it.
  • Be careful of seafoods, which are a common source of vibration.
  • Do not eat raw fish, which is a delicate dish in South America.
  • Do not eat or drink anything that is sold from a street vendor.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water.

Remember these tips: "If we can boil it, cook it, or peel it, it can be forgotten."

This document is the property of MediResource Inc. and is for informational purposes only. Always ask your doctor's opinion before making any changes to your health care. A qualified health professional can help with issues related to a medical condition. For example, if you have cholera, a qualified health professional can help you get treatment.

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Choléra: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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