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Colon cancer : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Colon Cancer?

Colon cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

Colon cancer typically affects older adults, though it can occur at any age. Usually, it begins with small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon. Over time, some of these polyps may turn into colon cancers.

Polyps may be small and do not produce many symptoms. For this reason doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they turn into cancer.

If colon cancer develops, there are many treatments available to help control it. These treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, and drug treatments such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

Colon cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer, which is a term that combines colon cancer and rectal cancer. This type of cancer begins in the rectum.


What is Colon Cancer


Explanation of medical terms and concept Colon cancer

Cancer that begins within the colon is termed colon willcer, whereas cancer in the body part is thought as body part cancer. Cancers that have an effect on either of those organs could also be called body part cancer. tho' not true altogether cases, the bulk of colorectal cancers usually develop over time from adenomatous (precancerous) polyps. Polyps (growths) can modify once a series of mutations (abnormalities) arise in their cellular DNA. A number of the chance factors for colorectal cancer involve a case history of colon or rectal cancer, diet, alcohol intake, smoking and inflammatory intestine disease.

Carcinoma might not be talked about as often as different willcers, like breast cancer, prostate or respiratory organ cancer, however it's really one among the leading causes of cancer deaths. It's for this reason it's important to remain on top of your colon health. The colon is your massive intestine, the long, inverted formed tube that's toward the top of the road for eliminating waste in your body. carcinoma can begin within the lining of the intestine, or at the end of it, known as the rectum. Let's attempt to perceive Colon cancer. You're a lot more likely to induce the illness if you're over age 60, particularly if you have a case history of carcinoma, inflammatory intestine disease, diabetes, or obesity. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol has conjointly been found to extend your risk of obtaining colon cancer. Though the information isn't consistent, uptake of pork or processed meats may increase the risks of colon cancer as well. Lean, unprocessed red meat, could also be related to less risk. If you have symptoms, they will embrace pain in your abdomen, blood in your stool, weight loss, or diarrhea. However, hopefully, you'll get diagnosed before you have any symptoms, through an everyday screening test, sort of an endoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. These take a look at using special instruments to examine within your colon and body part to see for any cancerous or precancerous growths, known as polyps. If your doctor discovers that you simply do have carcinoma, unfortunately, you'll have to have many tests, as well as scans of your abdomen to seek out whether or not the cancer has spread, and if so, wherever in your body it's located. So, how is colon cancer treated? That actually depends on how aggressive your cancer is and the way it's spread, however typically colon cancer is removed with surgery, or killed with chemotherapy or radiation. you will get one, or a combination, of those treatments. Carcinoma is one among a lot of treatable cancers. you'll be cured, particularly if you catch it early. recognizing colon cancer once it's still treatable is up to you. If you're over age 45, you wish to be screened. Regular physical activity and uptake a minimum of some fruits and vegetables daily, maybe with unprocessed wheat bran, can help prevent it. If you wish to stop colon cancer, you'll conjointly want to avoid processed and burn red meats, and smoking, and excess calories, and alcohol.

If caught early the five-year survival rate for colon cancer is greater than 90 percent But most people aren't diagnosed until stage III or IV of the disease While some people do survive stage III and IV this type of advanced cancer usually has a very poor prognosis The only known factors that can predict survival with colon cancer are stage at diagnosis tumor location and completeness of surgery.

prevention guidelines Colon cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the colon (the large intestine) which is part of the digestive system The U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has prepared Colon Cancer Prevention Guidelines based on recent scientific evidence to help adults prevent colorectal cancer from occurring or recurring by making changes in their diet activity level weight and use of alcohol.

Symptoms Colon cancer

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include: -having blood in your stool -a change in bowel habits, such as having more or less frequent bowel movements, straining to have a bowel movement, or passing hard stools -a constant feeling that you need to go to the bathroom but not being able to go -abdominal pain or a change in shape or size of your abdomen

  • If you have a change in your bowel habits, this could mean that you are having diarrhea, constipation, or a different consistency in your stool.

  • Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool

  • Abdominal discomfort, such as stomach cramps, gas, or pain, persists for a long time.

  • You may have a feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely.

  • Weakness or fatigue

  • Weight loss that is not caused by dieting or exercise.

Many people with colon cancer do not experience any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms do appear, they may vary depending on the size and location of the cancer in your large intestine.

When to see a doctor

If you have any persistent symptoms that make you worry, go see your doctor.

Talk to your doctor about when to begin colon cancer screening. The general recommendation is to start screenings around 50. If you have other risk factors, like a family history of the disease, your doctor may recommend screening more often or earlier.

Causes Colon cancer

Doctors don't know what causes most colon cancers.

Colon cancer begins when healthy cells in the colon mutate. This causes the cells to behave in a way that is not normal.

Cells that are healthy grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning properly. But when a cell's DNA is damaged, this can lead to cancerous cells continuing to divide even when new cells aren't needed. As the cells accumulate, they form a tumor.

Cancer cells can grow and spread to invade and damage surrounding normal tissue. And cancer cells can travel to other parts of the body to form deposits there (metastasis).

Almost all colon cancers begin within the lining of the colon and rectum. Once doctors mention body part cancer, this is often typically what they're talking about.

There's no single reason for colon cancer. Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous (benign) polyps that slowly transform cancer.

You have a higher risk for colon cancer if you:

  • Are older than 45

  • Are African American or of eastern European descent

  • Eat a lot of red or processed meats

  • Have colorectal polyps

  • Have inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis)

  • Have a family history of colon cancer

Risk factors Colon cancer

Some factors that may increase your risk of colon cancer include:

  • Older age.Colon cancer can be diagnosed at any age, but the majority of people with colon cancer are older than 50. The rates of colon cancer have been increasing, but doctors don't know why this is happening.

  • African-American race.African-Americans have a greater chance of developing colon cancer than do people of other races.

  • If you have colorectal cancer or polyps in your family history, it might be something to worry about.If you have had colon cancer or polyps on your colon before, you have a higher risk of having colon cancer in the future.

  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions.Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer.

  • Inherited syndromes increase the risk of developing colon cancer.Some gene mutations that passed through your family can increase your risk of colon cancer significantly. Only a small percentage of colon cancers are linked to inherited genes. The most common inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).Lynch syndrome is a disorder that can lead to HNPCC.

  • Family history of colon cancer.If you have a family member who has colon cancer, your risk of developing the disease is increased. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even greater.

  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet.Colon cancer and rectal cancer are likely caused by a typical Western diet which is low in fiber and high in fat and calories. Some research shows that people who eat diets high in red meat and processed meat may have an increased risk of colon cancer. However, other studies have not found this to be the case.

  • A sedentary lifestyle.People who are inactive are more likely to develop cancer of the colon. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of this type of cancer.

  • Diabetes.People with diabetes or insulin resistance are at a higher risk of developing colon cancer.

  • Obesity.Obese people have an increased risk of developing colon cancer and an increased risk of dying from colon cancer than people who are considered normal weight.

  • Smoking.Smoking can increase the risk of developing colon cancer.

  • Alcohol.Heavy drinking increases your risk of developing colon cancer.

  • Radiation therapy for cancer.Cancer treatments that use radiation to target the abdomen can increase the risk of developing colon cancer.

Prevention

Screening colon cancer

Doctors recommend that people with an average risk of colon cancer should consider colon cancer screening around age 50. But people with an increased risk, such as those who have a family history of colon cancer, should consider screening sooner.

There are several screening options available to you - each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Talk to your doctor about the best tests for you, based on your individual health history.

There are things you can do to reduce your risk of getting colon cancer.

There are things you can do to reduce your risk of developing colon cancer, such as changing your lifestyle. Some things you can do to lower your risk include:

  • Eat a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants which may help prevent cancer. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables to get a variety of nutrients.

  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all.If you choose to drink alcohol, drink no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.

  • Stop smoking.Talk to your doctor about ways to quit that may work for you. Some people use different methods, like medication or counseling, to successfully quit smoking.

  • Exercise most days of the week.Get at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days. If you haven't been exercising, start slowly and increase the time gradually. Be sure to talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you are at a healthy weight, you should try to maintain your weight by eating a healthy diet and doing daily exercise. If you need to lose weight, talk to your doctor about healthy ways to reach your goal. Aim to lose weight slowly by increasing the amount of exercise you do and cutting back on calories. When you eat, you ingest food.

People who have a high risk for colon cancer can reduce their chances of developing the disease by following some guidelines.

Some medications have been found to reduce the risk of precancerous polyps or colon cancer. For instance, some evidence suggests that a reduced risk is associated with regular use of aspirin-like drugs. However, it's not clear what dose and how long of use would need to occur in order to reduce the risk. Aspirin has some risks, such as gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers.

There are several different types of cancer treatments that are generally only recommended to people with a high risk of cancer. There is not enough evidence to recommend these treatments to people who have an average risk of cancer.

If you have a high risk of colon cancer, talk to your doctor to see if preventive medications are safe for you.

Diagnosis Colon cancer

The Yankee Cancer Society suggests that {individuals} at average risk of large intestine cancer start regular screening at age 45. Alternative specialists recommend regular screening in average risk individuals to start out no later than at age 50. However, if you have a private or a case history of colorectal polyps or cancer, or inflammatory internal organ disease, screening may have to start before age 45. Men and ladies ought to endure screening since colorectal polyps and cancer have an effect on each genders. raise your aid supplier at what age is best to start your screening and support your personal risk factors.

Screening for colon cancer

Healthy people who have no signs or symptoms should have certain screening tests in order to look for signs of colon cancer or noncancerous colon polyps. If cancer is found at its earliest stage, it has a better chance of being cured. Screening has been shown to reduce your risk of dying from Colon cancer. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that affects the large intestine.

Doctors generally recommend that people with an average risk of colon cancer start screening around age 50. But people who have a higher risk of colon cancer, such as those with a family history of colon cancer or black heritage, should consider screening sooner.

There are several screening options available to you; each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Talk to your doctor about the tests that are appropriate for you and together you can decide which option is best for you. If a colonoscopy is used for screening, polyps can be removed during the procedure before they turn into cancer.

Diagnosing colon cancer

If your doctor thinks you may have colon cancer, he or she may recommend one or more tests to determine if you have the disease. These tests and procedures may include:

  • A scope is used to look inside your colon (colonoscopy).A colonoscopy uses a long, flexible, and slender tube to view your entire colon and rectum. If any suspicious areas are found, your doctor may use surgical tools to take tissue samples (biopsies) for analysis and to remove polyps.

  • Blood tests.A blood test cannot tell you if you have colon cancer. However, your doctor may test your blood for clues about your overall health, such as kidney and liver function tests.
    Your doctor may also test your blood for a chemical sometimes produced by colon cancers. This chemical, called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), may help your doctor understand your prognosis and whether your cancer is responding to treatment.

Determining the extent of the cancer

If you have been diagnosed with colon cancer, your doctor may recommend various tests to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. Staging helps to determine which treatments are most appropriate for you.

Tests that may be used to stage cancer include abdominal pelvic and chest CT scans. In many cases, the stage of your cancer may not be fully determined until after surgery to remove the cancer.

The stages of colon cancer are numbered with Roman numerals that range from 0 to IV. The lowest stage indicates cancer that is limited to the lining of the inside of the colon. By stage IV, the cancer has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body.

Treatment Colon cancer

There is not one specific treatment that is most likely to help you - it depends on your situation, including the location of your cancer, its stage, and any other health concerns. Treatment for colon cancer usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Additionally, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be used. Some people might also recommend this.

Treatment depends on many things, including the stage of the cancer. Treatments may include:

  • Surgery to remove the tumor

  • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells

  • Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue

  • Targeted therapy to keep cancer from growing and spreading

Surgery for early-stage colon cancer

If your colon cancer is very small, your doctor may recommend a minimally invasive approach to surgery such as keyhole surgery.

  • During a colonoscopy (polypectomy), polyps will be removed.If your cancer is small and localized within a polyp, your doctor may be able to remove it during a colonoscopy.

  • Endoscopic mucosal resection.If there are large polyps on the screen during a colonoscopy, special tools may be used to remove them and a small amount of the inner lining of the colon. This is called an endoscopic mucosal resection.

  • Minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic surgery) is a type of surgery that uses small, surgical tools to enter the body.If polyps that cannot be removed during a colonoscopy are found, they may be removed using laparoscopic surgery. During this procedure your surgeon will make several small incisions in your abdominal wall and use instruments with attached cameras to view your colon on a video monitor.A surgeon may also take samples from lymph nodes near the location of the cancer.

Surgery for more advanced colon cancer

If cancer has spread to or through your colon, your surgeon may recommend surgery.

  • Partial colectomy. During this procedure your surgeon removes the part of your colon that contains the cancer as well as a margin of normal tissue on either side. Your surgeon is often able to reconnect the healthy portions of your colon or rectum. This procedure can commonly be done minimally invasively (through a small opening). The invasive approach (laparoscopy) is used to look inside the body.

  • Surgery is used to create a way for waste to leave your body.If it is not possible to reconnect the healthy portions of your colon or rectum, you may need an ostomy. This involves creating an opening in your abdomen so that stool can be eliminated into a bag that fits securely over the opening.
    Sometimes the ostomy is only temporary, allowing your colon or rectum time to heal after surgery. In some cases, however, the ostomy may be permanent.

  • Lymph node removal.Colon cancer surgery often includes the removal of nearby lymph nodes for testing.

Surgery for advanced cancer

If your cancer is very advanced or your health is poor in general, your surgeon may recommend an operation to relieve a blockage of your colon. This surgery isn't intended to cure cancer, but to improve signs and symptoms such as a blockage. If bleeding or pain occurs, do not hesitate to call a doctor.

If your cancer has only spread to one organ in your body - like the liver or lung - and you're otherwise healthy, your doctor may recommend surgery or other localized treatments to remove the cancer. Chemotherapy may be used before or after this type of procedure. This approach provides a chance to try to cure cancer. It is hoped that decoupage will be free of cancer over the long term.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is usually given after surgery if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. This way, chemotherapy may kill any cancer cells that remain in the body and help reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

Before surgery, chemotherapy might be used to reduce the size of the cancer so that it is easier to remove.

Chemotherapy can be used to relieve symptoms of colon cancer that have not been relieved by surgery or radiation. Sometimes chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy.

Some people with low-risk stage III colon cancer may be able to receive chemotherapy in a shorter period of time after surgery. This approach may reduce the side effects compared to the traditional course of chemotherapy, and it may be just as effective.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a powerful way to kill cancer cells with X-rays and protons. It might be used to reduce the size of a large tumor before an operation so it can be removed more easily.

If surgery isn't an option, radiation therapy might be used to relieve symptoms such as pain. Sometimes radiation is combined with chemotherapy.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities in cancer cells. When these abnormalities are blocked, cancer cells die.

chemotherapy is usually combined with targeted drugs. Targeted drugs are typically used for people with advanced colon cancer.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a drug treatment that uses your body's natural defenses to fight cancer. The immune system may not be able to attack the cancer cells because the cancer cells produce proteins that block the immune system from recognizing them. Immunotherapy works by interfering with these proteins. By following that process, you will achieve the desired outcome.

Immunotherapy is usually used for more advanced cancers.Your doctor may test your cancer cells to see if they are likely to respond to this treatment.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on relieving symptoms of a serious illness. This team of doctors, nurses, and other professionals work together with your other doctors to provide you with extra relief. A support network that complements your ongoing care.

Cancer care teams aim to improve the quality of life for people with cancer and their families. This type of care is offered alongside other treatments you may be receiving.

Palliative care is a type of treatment that can help people with cancer feel better and may extend their lives.

Coping and support

When you receive a cancer diagnosis, it can be challenging. In time, people learn to cope in their own unique ways. Until you find what works for you, you might try to:

  • Be knowledgeable about your cancer so that you can make treatment decisions that feel comfortable to you.Ask your doctor about the type and stage of your cancer and your treatment options. This way, you'll be more confident when making decisions about your care. You can find information on reliable websites and in local libraries.

  • Keep friends and family close.Having strong relationships will help you deal with cancer. Friends and family can provide practical support, such as taking care of your home if you're in the hospital. They can also offer emotional support when you feel overwhelmed.

  • Find someone to talk with.Find someone who will listen to you talk about your concerns and fears. This could be a friend or family member, a counselor, medical social worker, clergy member, or cancer support group.
    Talk to your doctor about support groups in your area or contact a cancer organization such as the National Cancer Institute or the American Cancer Society.

Preparing for your appointment

If your doctor thinks you might have colon cancer, you'll likely be referred to specialists who treat this illness. You may meet with a variety of specialists including a:

  • A doctor who treats digestive diseases is a gastroenterologist.

  • A doctor who treats cancer with medications is called an oncologist.

  • A doctor who removes colon cancer using surgery is a surgeon.

  • A doctor who uses radiation to treat cancer (radiation oncologist) is a doctor who uses radiation to help treat cancer.

It is a good idea to be prepared for your doctor's appointment. This means having some information about the appointment beforehand so that you are not surprised by the questions or the time it takes.

What you can do

  • Please be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions.When you make your appointment, be sure to ask if there are any dietary restrictions that you will need to follow.

  • Make a list of any symptoms you're experiencing.Please bring any items that may seem unrelated to your appointment, such as clothing or toys.

  • Write down key personal information,Your funeral must be planned carefully, taking into account any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications,What you're taking as a supplement or vitamin.

  • It is a good idea to have someone else accompany you while you are collecting leaves.An appointment can be a lot of information to take in, so a friend or family member can help you remember what was said.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Some questions you should ask your doctor include:

  • Where is my colon cancer located?

  • What is the stage of my colon cancer?

  • Can you tell me what the pathology report says about my condition?

  • Can I see a copy of my pathology report?

  • Can colon cancer have spread to other parts of my body?

  • Will I need more tests?

  • What are the available treatments for my colon cancer?

  • Can any of the treatments cure my colon cancer?

  • What is the chance that my colon cancer will be treated successfully?

  • How much will each treatment increase my chance of curing my colon cancer?

  • What are the potential side effects of each treatment?

  • What are the possible side effects of each treatment?

  • What would you like me to do for you?

  • What would you suggest to a family member or friend who is in the same situation as me?

  • How long will it take me to make a decision about treatment?

  • Should I seek a second opinion?

  • Should I see a doctor? How much will it cost and will my insurance cover it?

  • Can I take any brochures or printed material with me? What websites do you think I should visit?

  • Can I inherit colon cancer from my siblings or my children?

Don't be shy about asking questions during your appointment. You can ask the doctor any questions that you have prepared in advance.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you a number of questions. Being prepared to answer them may allow time to discuss other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first start having symptoms?

  • Has your illness been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What might help improve your symptoms?

  • What if anything seems to make your symptoms worse?

  • Are you at a higher risk for developing cancer because of your family history?

General summary

Is colon cancer treatable?

Yes colon cancer treatment can be effective in treating the disease Colon cancer treatment options vary and depend on several factors such as the stage at which the disease is detected as well as your overall health The two most common colon cancer treatments are surgery and chemotherapy Depending on the type of colon cancer you have it may also be possible to treat it with radiation therapy or biological therapy.

Is colon cancer curable at Stage 2?

Colon cancer is curable at Stage 2. With early diagnosis and treatment people can greatly increase their odds of successful treatment and a cure While it may seem scary to have colon cancer at the early stage rest assured that with proper care you will have an excellent chance to live a long and healthy life afterwards Here are the stages of colon cancer: Stage 1 Colon Cancer: In this stage the tumor is preparation for removal through surgery or other therapies such as radiation or chemotherapy After surgery more than 97 percent of patients in this stage survive for five years The main factor that determines survival rates after surgery is.

Can colon cancer be treated with medicine?

Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States It is also called bowel (or large intestine) cancer Doctors can treat colon cancer or remove it with surgery chemotherapy or radiation therapy If colon cancer has not spread to other parts of your body and has not grown into nearby tissues you may have surgery to remove the tumor followed by close watch for any sign that the cancer might be coming back Radiation therapy uses high-energy waves or particles to attack tumors and slow their growth and spread Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from spreading through the body Watch this video as expert.

Can colon cancer be cured if caught early?

According to the Centers for Disease Control colon cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer The disease can be cured in its early stages if detected and treated properly A comprehensive screening that includes a colonoscopy is recommended for everyone over the age of 50 but earlier screenings may be indicated depending on your medical history and family history.

Where does colon cancer spread first?

Colon cancer frequently spreads to the liver although it can also spread to other parts of the body Colon cancer that has spread to the liver can cause abdominal pain and swelling due to the growth of tumors in this organ The best way to diagnose colorectal cancer is through a colonoscopy or a procedure called an FOBT (Fecal Immunochemical Test) If you have had either of these tests and still have symptoms see your doctor right away.

Do you have to have a colostomy bag after colon surgery?

Colostomy is the procedure of diverting or bringing out the colon’s content to another part of body It is done in case when a section of large intestine becomes inflamed and painful after surgery Though it is done for people who are facing perfectly normal colorectal cancer but as this surgery involves removing stool from the intestines to be brought outside most of patients opt for having a colostomy bag The colostomy bags can be worn in several ways depending on your lifestyle and severity in stoma output Here we have listed some important tips that would help you enjoy wearing your colostomies.

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Colon cancer : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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