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Concussion : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Concussion?

A brain injury called a concussion can cause problems with your brain function. These effects might include headaches, memory problems, and coordination difficulties.

Concussions are usually caused by a blow to the head or violently shaking of the head and upper body.

Most concussions do not cause you to lose consciousness. However, some do.

Concussions are caused by falls. They are also common in contact sports such as football and soccer. Most people usually recover fully after a concussion.


What is Concussion

Medical terms

  • A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head. It occurs when the brain is shaken violently inside the skull, resulting in a disruption of normal brain function. It can be caused by a direct blow to the head, a fall, or an injury in which an individual’s head and upper body is violently shaken. Symptoms of a concussion can range from mild to severe, and include headaches, confusion, nausea, memory loss, dizziness, slurred speech and balance issues.

  • Concussion is a common injury among sports players and athletes, especially in contact sports. It is caused by a direct blow to the head, neck, or upper body and results in a temporary loss of brain function. Symptoms of a concussion can range from feeling dizzy or confused to losing consciousness or experiencing amnesia. It’s important for athletes and spectators to be aware of the signs of concussion and for athletes to take the necessary safety precautions when participating in contact sports.

Headaches everyday

If you are suffering from headaches everyday, it is important to find out their exact cause.There may be simple reason behind them such as a tension headache or migraine but there can also be more complicated reasons such as a sinus infection or even brain tumor.There are several things that can trigger a headache and it varies from one person to the other.In case you are suffering from headaches regularly, talk to your doctor about the underlying reason and what he/she can recommend for relief.

It is best to avoid strenuous activity, which will only aggravate the symptoms.Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used for pain relief.If you experience headaches more than three times a week or if your head feels like it’s being squeezed or like there is pressure in your head, see a doctor immediately.

I don’t know about that, but I do have a headache everyday.It started when I was a teenager and it hasn’t stopped yet.Ever since then, I have to take my medicine in the morning and then again in the evening so that I don’t end up in pain at work and such.

Headaches at night

Some headache sufferers complain of pain only during the day, while others experience it at night.There’s no clear reason why headaches strike when they do, but the following factors may be involved:

from watching porn Headaches are one of the most common side effects of watching too much porn.The most likely cause is that you’re spending too much time sitting in front of your computer, which can lead to a lot of problems down the road (like headaches).

Headaches at night are one of the most common types of headaches.Although they do not occur frequently, they can be a major source of distress.

Headaches top of head

and between eyebrows headaches top of head and between eyebrows and neck, can be caused by a number of factors.The origin of the pain is usually in the upper right side of the head, because nerve endings around there become sensitive to pressure or tension.There are many reasons for headaches top of head and between eyebrows and neck, such as: stress, anxiety or depression; overuse of your eyes; eyestrain while reading or working on the computer; improper diet with too much salt.

  • pain

  • Headaches on top of head

Causes of Headaches

  • Headaches are one of the most common illnesses in the world.The headaches can be caused by different factors.Mostly, the cause is some kind of an injury or stress-related factor.But if you suffer from headache regularly, it is a sign that something is wrong with your health.There are several kinds of headaches, but most common types include stress related headache, migraine and tension-type headache.

  • Headaches are the most common complaint of patients visiting the primary care physician, and about 10-20% of all American adults will complain of headaches in any given year.While there are a number of different causes for headaches, many times these symptoms can be attributed to disorders within or adjacent to the head space such as:

  • Headaches are a very common problem in people of all ages.Fortunately, they can usually be treated with home remedies and over-the-counter medications.However, if you have recurrent or severe headaches that are not related to any particular injury then you should see your doctor for a full physical exam and appropriate tests to determine the cause.

Headache back of head

  • , neck pain and shoulder pain Headaches can be debilitating, painful and even unpleasant.They can range from a dull ache to a sharp jab.Headaches are often the first sign of an underlying health issue such as sinus or tooth issues, or even dehydration.It is vital that you see your doctor for diagnosis if your headaches become frequent and regular.The following tips may help in the meantime:

  • A headache is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.It can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or it can exist on its own.The most common type of headache is a tension-type headache, which usually involves tightening muscles at the back of the neck and scalp.A mild tension-type headache may last for only a few minutes and go away without any treatment. However, if you have a severe headache that lasts longer than two hours, you may be suffering.

  • A headache is pain anywhere in the region of the head, often radiating down the neck and into the shoulders.Headaches can be caused by a number of factors including:stress, hangovers, common colds, allergies and eye strain.We’ve compiled a list of some common types of headaches and their symptoms so you can learn to recognize them and get relief faster.

How do I make my headache go away?

  • Are you suffering from migraines or a more serious problem? If so, you may want to consider consulting a neurologist.These are the doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating those that suffer from head pain and other neurological conditions.Here is what to expect when visiting one for the first time:

  • There are a few things you can do and medications that you can take to help make your headache go away.But first, it’s important to understand what causes headaches.The most common types of headaches are:

  • Headaches can be caused by a number of factors.The most common headache is the tension headache, which affects millions of people from around the world.Tension headaches are caused by tightness in the neck, shoulders or scalp muscles and occur when you make minor movements such as when you raise your eyebrows or smile. A tension headache usually occurs on both sides of your head at the same time and is characterized by a pressing feeling on your forehead that may extend to behind your eyes and down over.

Symptoms Concussion

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be subtle, and they may not show up immediately. Symptoms can last for days, weeks, or even longer.

After a concussive brain injury, people may experience headache, loss of memory (amnesia), and confusion. The amnesia usually occurs after the person loses knowledge about what caused the concussion.

Some physical signs and symptoms of a concussion may include:

  • Headache

  • Ringing in the ears

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Fatigue or drowsiness

  • Blurry vision

Some signs and symptoms of a concussion include:

  • Feeling confused or like you're in a fog.

  • Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event

  • Dizziness or "seeing stars"

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be seen by a witness.

  • Some people may lose consciousness when they are injured.

  • Slurred speech

  • Delayed response to questions

  • Dazed appearance

  • If someone asks you the same question multiple times, it is likely because they have forgotten what you said the first time.

Some symptoms of concussions may occur immediately, and some may take days or even weeks to show up. These symptoms can include:

  • Concentration and memory complaints

  • Changes in mood and personality can occur when someone is using decoupage.

  • Sensitivity to light and noise

  • Sleep disturbances

  • Depression is a problem with your emotions, and it can be caused by psychological factors.

  • Disorders of taste and smell

Symptoms in children

Head trauma is very common in young children. But it can be difficult to recognize a concussion in infants and toddlers because they may not be able to describe how they feel. Concussion clues may include: - having headaches or feeling dizzy - not being able to focus on one thing - vomiting or having diarrhea

  • Dazed appearance

  • Listlessness and tiring easily

  • Irritability and crankiness

  • Loss of balance and unsteady walking

  • Excessive crying

  • Change in eating or sleeping patterns

  • Lack of interest in favorite toys

  • Vomiting

  • Seizures

When to see a doctor

See a doctor within 1 to 2 days if:

  • Even if you or your child doesn't require emergency care after a head injury, you or they may still experience some symptoms.

If your child doesn't have any signs of a serious head injury and they are still alert, move around normally, and respond to you as if there was no injury- the injury is probably mild. If your child does have signs of a serious head injury, further testing may be needed.

If your child wants to sleep, it's okay. However, if worrisome signs develop later seek emergency care.

If you see an adult or child who has been injured in the head and signs and symptoms such as confusion, headache, dizziness, nausea, or vomiting, go to the emergency room immediately.

  • Repeated vomiting or nausea

  • A person who loses consciousness for longer than 30 seconds is in critical condition.

  • A headache that gets worse over time

  • Nose or ear bleeding is abnormal fluid or blood draining from the nose or ears.

  • If you have vision or eye trouble, such as pupils that are larger than normal (dilated pupils) or pupils that are of different sizes,

  • My ears are ringing, but it's not going away.

  • Weakness in the arms or legs

  • If a plant's leaves start to turn pale after being out in the sunlight for a while, it means that the plant is tired.

  • Changes in behavior

  • When someone is confused or disoriented, they may have trouble recognizing people or places.

  • If someone has slurred speech or other changes in speech, they may be sick.

  • The person has difficulty with their mental or physical abilities.

  • Physical coordination changes, such as stumbling or clumsiness.

  • Seizures or convulsions

  • Lasting or recurrent dizziness

  • Symptoms that worsen over time

  • Children who are younger than 12 months old, or have large bumps or bruises on areas other than their foreheads, may need to see a doctor.

Athletes

Do not return to play or vigorous activity while you have symptoms of a concussion.

Experts recommend that an athlete with a suspected concussion not return to activities that are associated with a higher risk of another concussion while still showing symptoms. This means that the athlete should not participate in things like sports that require a lot of running or jumping, since these activities may increase the risk of another concussion.

Children and adolescents should be evaluated by a health care professional who is trained to evaluate and manage pediatric concussions.

Experts recommend that adults who have experienced a concussion not return to play the same day as the injury.

Causes Concussion

Your brain is made up of jelly-like materials. This cushioning protects it from everyday shocks and bumps, as well as the fluid that resides inside your skull.

A hard hit to the head or upper body can cause your brain to move back and forth against the insides of your skull.

A sudden change in the direction of the head, such as when a car crashes or is violently shaken, can cause brain injury.

These injuries can affect brain function, usually for a brief period of time. This will result in signs and symptoms of a concussion.

Brain injuries may cause bleeding in or around the brain, which can lead to symptoms such as prolonged sleepiness and confusion. Symptoms may develop immediately or later.

If you experience bleeding in your brain, it can be deadly. That's why anyone who has a brain injury needs to be monitored for symptoms over the next few hours and receive emergency care if they get worse.

Risk factors Concussion

Activities and factors that may increase your risk of a concussion include: -Being younger than 18 years old -Having a head injury in the past - Playing contact sports

  • Falls happen most often in children and adults over the age of 50.

  • Playing a high-risk sport such as football, hockey, soccer, rugby or boxing can be dangerous.

  • Not wearing proper safety equipment when participating in high-risk sports can lead to injury.

  • A motor vehicle collision can happen if you are involved in it.

  • If you are involved in a pedestrian or bicycle accident, it is important to get medical attention as soon as possible.

  • Being a soldier involved in combat

  • Being a victim of physical abuse

  • Having had a previous concussion

Complications Concussion

Concussion can have potential complications, including:

  • Post-traumatic headaches.Some people experience headaches up to seven days after a brain injury.

  • Post-traumatic vertigo.Some people experience a feeling of spinning or dizziness for a few days, weeks, or even months after a brain injury.

  • Post-concussion syndrome.Some people (about 15% to 20%) may experience headaches, dizziness, and difficulty thinking after a head injury. If these symptoms persist beyond three weeks, this is known as post-concussion syndrome.

  • The multiple brain injuries that a person has can have a cumulative effect.There is currently active research into the effects of head injuries that do not cause symptoms (subconcussive injury). At this time, there is no conclusive evidence to support the idea that repeated brain injuries accumulate and have negative effects.

  • Second impact syndrome.If you have only had one concussion before your symptoms from the first concussion have resolved, you are more likely to experience brain swelling and die very quickly.
    It's important for athletes not to return to sports while they are still experiencing symptoms of concussion.

Prevention Concussion

Some tips to help you avoid or reduce your risk of head injury include:

  • When playing sports or engaging in other recreational activities, it is important to wear protective gear. This will help to prevent injuries.Make sure the equipment you are using is in good condition and fits properly. Be sure to follow the rules of the game and be a good sport.
    When bicycling, motorcycling, or snowboarding, always wear protective headgear in case of injury.

  • Buckling your seat belt.Wearing a seat belt may prevent serious injury, including a head injury, during a traffic accident.

  • Making your home safe means taking precautions to protect yourself and your family from harm.Make sure your home is well-lit and keep the floors free of any potential tripping hazards. Falls in the home are one of the leading causes of head injuries.

  • Protecting your children.To reduce the risk of head injuries to your children, block off stairways and install window guards.

  • Exercising regularly.Regularly exercise to strengthen your leg muscles and improve your balance.

  • Educating others about concussions.Teaching coaches, athletes' parents, and others about concussions can help raise awareness. Coaches and parents can also help promote good sportsmanship.

Diagnosis Concussion

Your doctor will look at your signs and symptoms, as well as your medical history and neurological examination. It can take hours or days for signs and symptoms of a concussion to appear.

Your doctor may perform tests to assess your neurological condition and cognitive abilities.

Neurological examination

Your doctor will ask questions about your injury, and may also perform a neurological examination. This evaluation includes checking your brain function.

  • Vision

  • Hearing

  • Strength and sensation

  • Balance

  • Coordination

  • Reflexes

Cognitive testing

Your doctor may perform several tests to evaluate your thinking skills during a neurological examination. These tests may include evaluation of several factors, including your:

  • Memory

  • Concentration

  • Ability to recall information

Imaging tests

Some people with signs and symptoms of a brain injury may be recommended for brain imaging. This test can determine if the injury is severe and has caused bleeding or swelling in the skull.

A CT scan is the standard test to assess brain damage in adults. A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to get cross-sectional images of your skull and brain.

If a child has been diagnosed with a concussion, CT scans are only performed if certain criteria are met. For example, the injury might require exposure to radiation, and so CT scans are not always necessary.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify changes in your brain or to diagnose complications that may occur after a concussion.

MRI scans use powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of your brain.

Observation

After a concussion, you may need to spend the night in the hospital for observation.

If your doctor thinks that you may be able to stay home, someone will need to stay with you at all times to make sure that you're doing well.

Your caregiver may need to shake you awake occasionally to make sure you are able to wake up normally.

  1. Stages of disease diagnosis

Headache treatment

and prevention Headaches can be extremely painful and are often caused by a number of different factors.Headaches may be classified into two general categories:primary headaches and secondary headaches.The most common primary headache is migraine, which affects women more than men, and those aged 15 to 45 years.Other types include tension-type headache, cluster headache, chronic daily headache (CDH), abdominal migraine and sinusitis-associated headache. Secondary headaches are caused by medical conditions such as tumors or infections

Treatment Concussion

B-12 deficiency or an underactive thyroid gland.

Brain imaging

Your doctor may order an MRI or CT scan to detect evidence of a brain tumor stroke or bleeding

Mental status testing

The Minimal Mental Status Exam can be done in about 10 minutes During the exam doctors ask people to complete several tasks and answer several questions such as naming today's date or following a written instruction

Longer forms of neuropsychological testing can provide additional information about your cognitive function compared with that of people in the same age and educational attainment range These tests may also help identify patterns of change that offer clues about the underlying cause of your symptoms

Treatment Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

There are things you can do to help your brain heal and speed recovery.

Physical and mental rest

For a concussion to heal properly, you should rest for the first few days. Your doctor will recommend that you take it easy both physically and mentally.

It is recommended that the person who has a concussion take some "relative rest" which includes limiting activities that require thinking and concentration. However, complete rest such as lying in a dark room and avoiding all stimuli is not helpful and is not recommended during the first two days after a concussion. In the first 48 hours following a concussion, it is important to do things like eat properly, get plenty of fluids, and sleep. If you have symptoms when you do high-focus activities, like playing video games, watching TV, doing schoolwork, or using a computer, you should limit those activities.

Until your symptoms stop being provoked by physical activity, you should avoid any strenuous activities.

After a period of rest, it's recommended that you gradually increase your daily activities, such as screen time, if you can tolerate them without worsening your symptoms. You can start both physical and mental activities at levels that do not cause a major worsening of your symptoms. Light exercise and occasional mild activities are also okay. Physical activity can start a few days after an injury, as long as it is tolerated. Activities that are low-risk, such as walking, have been shown to speed recovery; however, until you are fully recovered, avoid any activities that could cause another head impact.

Your doctor may recommend that you take short breaks during the day or modify your schoolwork in order to recover from a concussion. They may also recommend different therapies, such as rehabilitation for vision. Cognitive rehabilitation helps to improve balance problems or problems with thinking and memory.

  1. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Returning to routine activity

As your symptoms improve, you may gradually add more activities that require thinking, such as doing more schoolwork or work assignments or spending more time at work.

Your doctor will let you know when it's safe for you to resume light physical activity. Usually, after the first few days after an injury you're allowed to do light physical activity, such as riding a stationary bike or walking lightly, as long as your symptoms haven't completely gone away. It does not significantly worsen symptoms.

Eventually, once all signs and symptoms of concussion have resolved, you and your doctor can discuss the steps you'll need to take to safely play sports again. Getting back into sports too soon increases the risk of another brain injury.

Pain relief

Headaches may occur after a concussion. To manage pain, ask your doctor if it's safe to take over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol others). Avoid taking other pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Advil Motrin IB others) and aspirin, as these medications may increase the risk of another concussion. Bleeding occurs when fluid seeps from the leaf.

Preparing for your appointment

Even if you don't need emergency care, it's important to see a doctor if you have a head injury.

If you are concerned about your child's head injury, please call their doctor right away. Depending on the signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend seeking medical care right away.

Here are some tips to make the most of your upcoming medical appointment.

What you can do

  • Follow any pre-appointment restrictions or instructions. The most important thing for you to do while waiting for your appointment is to stay as inactive as possible. Avoid strenuous activities or mental tasks that may make your symptoms worse. When you make the appointment, ask the doctor what steps you should take to prepare for it. Athletes should not return to play until they have been examined by a doctor. Recovery from an injury may be encouraged with care and attention, like taking your child to the doctor.

  • Tell me about the symptoms you or your child have been experiencing. and how long they've been occurring.

  • List key medical information,Take into account any other medical problems your child is being treated for and any history of head injuries. Also list the names of any medications, vitamins, supplements, or other natural remedies your child is taking.

  • Take a family member or friend along.It is possible to forget some of the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you have not remembered.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

When you have a concussion, some basic questions you might ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have a concussion?

  • What kinds of tests are needed?

  • What do you think should be done to fix the damage?

  • How soon will symptoms begin to improve?

  • What is the risk of future concussions?

  • What are the potential long-term consequences?

  • When can I return to competitive sports?

  • When will it be safe to resume normal exercise?

  • Is it safe to return to school or work?

  • Can I drive my car or use power tools? Yes, it is safe to drive a car or operate power equipment.

  • I have other medical problems. How can they be treated together?

  • Should I see a specialist? That will likely cost more than going to the doctor and may not be covered by my insurance. I might need to call my insurance company for more information.

  • Can I take any brochures or printed material home with me? What websites do you think I should visit?

Do not hesitate to ask questions during your appointment, as you may have additional questions. Additionally, please prepare questions that you would like to ask your doctor.

What to expect from your doctor

If you are prepared to answer your doctor's questions, it may reserve time for more in-depth discussion.

If you or your child gets injured, be prepared to answer these questions:

  • Do you play contact sports?

  • How did you get this injury?

  • What were some of the symptoms you experienced right after the injury?

  • What happened before and after the injury?

  • Did you faint after the injury?

  • Did you have seizures?

  • Since the injury, have you been feeling nauseous or vomiting?

  • Do you have a headache? How long has the pain been present?

  • Are you having any difficulty with your physical coordination since the injury?

  • Can you remember anything from before the injury?

  • Have you noticed any changes in your vision or hearing?

  • Do you have any changes in mood, including being irritable, anxious, or depressed?

  • Do you feel tired or lethargic since the injury?

  • Is it hard for you to get sleepy or stay asleep?

  • Do you notice that your sense of smell or taste has changed?

  • Do you have any dizziness or vertigo?

  • What other reasons are you having for being concerned about the condition?

  • Have you had any previous head injuries?

What you can do in the meantime

Before your appointment, make sure to avoid activities that significantly increase your symptoms or those that have an increased risk of another head injury. This includes avoiding sports or other physical activities that increase your heart rate. A vigorous muscle contraction, such as weightlifting, causes the muscles to contract vigorously.

Continue your regular activities, including screen time, as gradually as you are able without worsening your symptoms.

If you have a headache, acetaminophen (Tylenol others) may help relieve the pain. Do not take other pain relievers, such as aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil Motrin IB others), if you think you have had a concussion. These medications may increase the risk of bleeding.


Concussion : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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