Diabetes :Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect how your body uses sugar (glucose). Glucose is important for your health because it's a source of energy for the cells in your muscles and tissues. It's also the main source of energy for your brain.

There is no one underlying cause of diabetes. But diabetes can lead to an excess of sugar in the blood, which can have serious health consequences.

Diabetes conditions can include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And prediabetes can develop into gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is a condition that can occur during pregnancy but often goes away after the baby is born.

  1. Medical And Anatomical Concept Of The Human Body

Medical terms

  • Diabetes may be an unwellness that happens once your blood glucose, conjointly referred to as blood sugar, is simply too high. glucose is your main supply of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a secretion created by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. typically your body doesn’t build enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use hormones well. aldohexose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.

  • Over time, having an excessive amount of glucose in your blood can cause health problems. though polygenic disorder has no cure, you'll take steps to manage your {diabetes|polygenic disorder|polygenic unwellness} and keep healthy.

  • typically individuals decide diabetes “a bit of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms counsel that somebody doesn’t extremely have diabetes or features a less serious case, however each case of diabetes is serious.

  • Polygenic disorder affects around everyone, from the over a hundred and ten million Americans with or in danger of the disease to the numerous people that look after them.

  • Polygenic disorder may be a chronic (long-lasting) health condition that affects however your body turns food into energy.

  • Most of the food you eat is counteracted into sugar (also referred to as glucose) and free into your bloodstream. Once your glucose goes up, it signals your exocrine gland to unharness insulin. hormone acts sort of a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells to be used as energy.

  • If you have got diabetes, your body either doesn’t build enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes still because it should. Once there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, an excessive amount of blood sugar stays in your bloodstream. Over time, that may cause serious health problems, heart disease, vision loss, and excretory organ disease.

  • There isn’t a cure nonetheless for polygenic disorder, however losing weight, feeding healthy food, and being active can extremely help. Taking drugs as needed, obtaining diabetes self-management education and support, and keeping health care appointments may also cut back the impact of diabetes on your life.

  • Medications and Supplies Diabetes is a serious disease that requires special considerations in terms of food choices and lifestyle changes For some people proper medication management and dietary maintenance are not enough to keep their blood sugar under control In many cases these individuals will take additional medications as well as follow specific procedures to manage their diabetes Some of the most common medications for treating this condition include insulin sulfonylureas (glyburide) meglitinides (Repaglinide) and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose) These drugs help increase blood sugar levels in the body by either lowering its.

  • and Sleep If you have diabetes it's important to get a good night's sleep - and not just because of your busy schedule A new study shows that people with diabetes who don't get enough sleep are twice as likely to develop high blood sugar levels compared with those who aren't short on sleep.

Symptoms Diabetes

There are many different symptoms of diabetes, depending on how high your blood sugar is. Some people with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes may not experience symptoms at all. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.

Some signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are:

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Extreme hunger

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • The presence of ketones in the urine indicates that there is not enough insulin available.

  • Fatigue

  • Irritability

  • Blurred vision

  • Slow-healing sores

  • Gums and skin infections, as well as vaginal infections, are common infections.

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it's most common in children or adolescents.

 Type 2 diabetes is the more common type and can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40.

When to see a doctor

  • If you think you or your child may have diabetes, please see a doctor.If you notice any symptoms that may be indicative of diabetes, please contact your doctor. If the condition is diagnosed early, treatment can begin sooner.

  • If you have diabetes, you already know about it.You'll need close medical monitoring until your blood sugar levels stabilize after receiving your diagnosis.

Causes Diabetes

To understand diabetes, you must first understand how glucose is processed in the body.

How insulin works

Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland located behind the stomach (pancreas). Insulin helps to regulate blood sugar levels.

  • Insulin is secreted by the pancreas.

  • Insulin helps sugar enter your cells.

  • Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your blood.

  • As your blood sugar level falls, the secretion of insulin from your pancreas decreases.

The role of glucose

Sugar is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

  • Glucose comes from food and your liver.

  • Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream where it is helped by insulin.

  • Your liver stores and makes glucose.

  • When your glucose levels are low, the liver will break down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.

Causes of type 1 diabetes

The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, what is known is that your immune system attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin, which causes blood sugar levels to spike. Cell sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. However, it is still not clear what those factors are. Weight is not believed to be one of the factors that causes type 1 diabetes.

The causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are not fully understood, but it is thought that they may be caused by a combination of environmental and lifestyle factors, as well as genetics.

In prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin. This makes it difficult for your pancreas to produce insulin, which then leaves your cells with too much sugar instead of the energy they need. The decoupaged leaves will be in your bloodstream.

It is not known exactly why this happens, but it is believed that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 has a weight problem.

Causes of gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin, which helps you during your pregnancy.

If your pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance, gestational diabetes will not occur. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up, which can lead to gestational diabetes. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells, and too much stays in your bloodstream - leading to gestational diabetes.

Risk factors Diabetes

Diabetes risk factors vary depending on the type of diabetes.

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes

There is no known cause for type 1 diabetes, but factors that may increase a person's risk include:

  • Family history.If a parent or sibling has type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing the disease is higher.

  • Environmental factors.Type 1 diabetes is likely caused by factors such as getting a viral illness.

  • Autoantibodies are immune system cells that damage the body.If you have autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes, you have an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. But not everyone who has these autoantibodies develops the disease.

  • Geography.Some countries have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes.

The risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are: being overweight, exercising too little, having a family history of these diseases, and having high blood pressure.

Some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, while others do not. One factor that appears to increase the risk is that certain things increase the risk, but scientists don't yet know all of the reasons.

  • Weight.If you have a lot of fat tissue, your cells are more resistant to the effects of insulin.

  • Inactivity.If you are inactive, your risk for weight gain is greater. Physical activity uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.

  • Family history.If a parent or sibling has diabetes, your risk of developing the disease is increased.

  • Race or ethnicity.It's not clear why some people, including Black Hispanic American Indian and Asian American people, are at higher risk.

  • Age.As you get older, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. This is because you may lose muscle mass and gain weight, as well as develop type 2 diabetes.

  • Gestational diabetes.If you had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes increases.If you gave birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you are also at risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at a greater risk for developing diabetes.

  • High blood pressure.If your blood pressure is over 140/90 mm Hg, that is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.

  • Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be caused by something.If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can tell you what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are important.

Risk factors for gestational diabetes

Some pregnant women develop gestational diabetes. The risk factors for this condition include:

  • Age.Women over 25 are at increased risk.

  • Family or personal history. If you have prediabetes or if a close family member has type 2 diabetes, your risk of developing the condition increases. You're also at greater risk if you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy if your baby was unusually large or if you delivered a baby very early. You had a stillbirth that you don't understand.

  • Weight.Being overweight before pregnancy increases your risk of having a child with birth defects.

  • Race or ethnicity.Women of color are more likely to develop gestational diabetes. We don't know why this is, but it's something to keep in mind if you're pregnant.

Complications Diabetes

Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually over time. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar - which is the result of not taking insulin properly - the higher the risk of complications. Possible complications include: 1) Disabling conditions such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, or nerve damage 2) Life-threatening conditions such as heart attack, stroke, infection, or coma

  • Cardiovascular disease.Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, and arteriosclerosis. If you have diabetes, you're more likely to have these conditions.

  • Nerve damage (neuropathy).Sugar can damage the walls of your tiny blood vessels, which can cause tingling numbness, burning, or pain that usually begins at the tips of your toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
    If the damage is not treated, you may lose feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to nerves that control digestion can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. In men, it may cause problems with erectile dysfunction.

  • Kidney damage (nephropathy).The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this system, which can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease. Dialysis or a kidney transplant may be required to treat this condition.

  • Eye damage (retinopathy).Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eye (diabetic retinopathy) which could lead to blindness. Additionally, diabetes increases the risk of other serious vision conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma.

  • Foot damage.If there is nerve damage or poor blood flow to the feet, this increases the risk of various foot complications. untreated cuts and blisters can develop serious infections, which may require toe foot or leg amputation if not treated properly.

  • Skin conditions.Diabetes may make you more susceptible to skin problems, including infections by bacteria and fungi.

  • Hearing impairment.People with diabetes are more likely to have hearing problems.

  • Alzheimer's disease.Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Poor blood sugar control appears to be a major factor in this connection. Although there are theories about how this might happen, none of them has yet been proven.

  • Depression.Depression is common in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Depression can interfere with diabetes management.

Complications of gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which pregnant women have high blood sugar levels. If untreated or uncontrolled, this condition can lead to problems for both you and your baby.

Complications in your baby

Gestational diabetes can cause a variety of health problems, including:

  • Excess growth.A higher level of glucose in your blood can cross the placenta, triggering your baby's pancreas to produce more insulin. This can increase the chance that your baby will be born prematurely or with an oversized body. Very large babies are more likely to require a C-section birth.

  • Low blood sugar.Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because their own insulin production is high. By giving the baby prompt feedings and sometimes providing them with intravenous glucose, the baby's blood sugar can be returned to normal.

  • Type 2 diabetes later in life.Babies born to mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.

  • Death.If a pregnant woman has untreated gestational diabetes, her baby can die before or shortly after birth.

Complications in the mother

Gestational diabetes can also occur as a result of other conditions, including:

  • Preeclampsia.This condition is marked by high blood pressure and an excess of protein in the urine. Preeclampsia can lead to dangerous complications for both mother and baby, such as swelling in the legs and feet.

  • Subsequent gestational diabetes.If you've had gestational diabetes in one pregnancy, you're more likely to have it again with the next pregnancy. You're also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes as you get older.

Complications of prediabetes

Prediabetes can develop into type 2 diabetes.

Can diabetes be cured completely?

You're not a diabetic yet but if you follow the advice of your well-meaning friends and share their concern it might happen to you When they hear that you've dropped ten pounds or bought new clothes because you don't fit into your old ones anymore they'll suggest that a visit to the doctor is in order This can lead to your diagnosis as a type II diabetic.

What is normal blood sugar level?

Blood sugar levels are usually measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L) Normal blood sugar levels are considered to be between 70 and 110 mg/dL before meals and less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals Blood glucose targets for children with diabetes vary according to their age size and activity level with a target range of 80-110 mg/dL.

Is 200 blood sugar normal after eating?

Yes it is normal to have your blood sugar level drop as low as 30 mg/dL or more after eating This is especially true for people with type 2 diabetes who don't take insulin and the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to handle the glucose from food Blood sugar levels will also be higher in diabetics who do not get enough exercise and those who are overweight.

What drink lowers blood sugar?

The glycemic index is a system that ranks foods according to how fast they raise blood sugar A food with a high GI raises your blood sugar quickly while one with a low GI doesn't cause as much of a spike Knowing which drinks are best for you depends on your own general health and whether or not you've got diabetes.

Prevention Diabetes

There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. However, the same healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes and gestational diabetes can also help prevent type 1 diabetes.

  • Eat healthy foods.Choose foods that are lower in fat and calories. Choose fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Try to eat a variety of foods to avoid getting bored.

  • Get more physical activity.Try to do 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity on most days or at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week.

  • Lose excess pounds.If you're overweight, losing even 7% of your body weight — for example 14 pounds (6.4 kilograms) if you weigh 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms) — can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
    Do not try to lose weight while you are pregnant. Talk to your doctor about the amount of weight that is healthy for you to gain during this time.
    Losing weight is a long-term goal. To make this happen, focus on making permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. Remember the benefits of weight loss, such as a healthier heart, more energy, and improved self-esteem.

Sometimes medication can be an option. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glumetza Fortamet others) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. But maintaining a healthy lifestyle is still essential. Have your blood sugar checked at least once a year to make sure you haven't developed type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or the body's cells do not respond to insulin properly.

Diagnosis Diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes, your symptoms may suddenly appear. To check your blood sugar levels, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has guidelines for screening. Depending on when your symptoms first appear, you may not be aware of them. People who are at risk for diabetes should be

  1. Blood analysis

  2. Blood count

  3. Blood typing

screened. The following people should be checked for diabetes:

  • Anyone who has a BMI above 25, no matter their age, is at risk for developing obesity-related health problems.People who have additional risk factors such as high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, a sedentary lifestyle, or a history of polycystic ovary syndrome or heart disease are more likely to develop diabetes.

  • Anyone older than age 45 People who are at risk for developing diabetes are advised to have their blood sugar screened initially and then, if the results are normal, be screened every three years thereafter.

  • Women who have had gestational diabetesPeople who have diabetes are advised to be screened for the disease every three years.

  • If you have been diagnosed with prediabetes, it is advised to be tested every year.

There are tests that can be used to determine whether someone has diabetes or prediabetes.

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.This blood test does not require fasting. It indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months by measuring the percentage of blood sugar that is attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
    If your blood sugar levels are high, you'll have more hemoglobin with sugar attached. A level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes.A level between 5 is average.7 and 6.4 % indicates prediabetes. Below 5.Seven is a normal number.

If your A1C test results are not consistent, your doctor may use other tests to help determine if you have diabetes. If you have certain conditions, such as being pregnant or having a rare form of hemoglobin, your doctor may not be able to use the A1C test. To diagnose diabetes, a doctor will examine your blood sugar levels.

  • Random blood sugar test.A blood sample will be taken at a random time. If your blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL or higher, this suggests you have diabetes.

  • A blood sugar test that is done while fasting. A blood sample will be taken after a complete overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have prediabetes. Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses the sugar in your blood.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test.For this test, you fast overnight and your blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid and your blood sugar levels are monitored for the next two hours.
    A blood sugar level of less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after two hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.

If you suspect you have type 1 diabetes, your urine will be tested to see if there is a byproduct produced when muscle and fat tissue are used for energy because the body doesn't have enough insulin. Your doctor may also run a test to see if you have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system cells that are linked to diabetes.

Tests for gestational diabetes

Your doctor will look for risk factors for gestational diabetes during your early pregnancy.

  • If you are at high risk of developing gestational diabetes, you should take steps to prevent it.If you have any of the following conditions, your doctor may check for diabetes during your first prenatal visit: being obese when you became pregnant; having gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy; or having a parent, sibling, or child with diabetes.

  • If you are at average risk for gestational diabetes, you should: -eat a balanced diet -exercise regularly -monitor your blood sugar levelsYou may have a screening test for gestational diabetes sometime during your second trimester. This test is typically performed between 24 and 28 weeks into your pregnancy.

Your doctor may use the following tests to check your health:

  • Initial glucose challenge test. You will begin the glucose challenge test by drinking a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you will have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level. A blood sugar level below 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is usually considered normal on a glucose challenge test although this may vary depending on your individual situation. Some clinics or labs have more expertise in certain areas of health.
    If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, it means you have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. Your doctor will order a follow-up test to determine if you have gestational diabetes.

  • Testing to see how well your body handles glucose. For the follow-up test, you'll need to fast overnight and then have your blood sugar level measured. Then you'll drink a sweet solution that contains a higher concentration of glucose and your blood sugar level will be checked hourly for a period of time. Leave the leaf decoupage for about three hours.
    If at least two of the blood sugar readings from three hours during the test are higher than normal values, you will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

Treatment Diabetes

Diabetics with different types of diabetes will need to monitor their blood sugar with a glucose meter and insulin, as well as take oral medications. A healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and participating in regular physical activity are all important in managing diabetes.

Treatments for all types of diabetes

Maintaining good diabetes management and overall health requires a healthy diet and exercise plan.

  • Healthy eating. Diabetics don't have to follow a specific diet, as long as they eat more fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains - high in nutrition and fiber and low in fat and calories. Diabetics should also reduce their intake of saturated fats and refined foods. Carbohydrates and sweets should not be the only things you eat. In fact, it's a good plan for the whole family. Sometimes sugary foods can be part of your meal plan as long as they are not the only thing you eat.
    It can be hard to know what to eat. A registered dietitian can help you create a meal plan that meets your health goals based on your preferences and lifestyle. This might include counting carbohydrates if you have type 1 diabetes or use insulin regularly. Treatment involves using a particular method to solve the problem.

  • Physical activity is important for your health. Exercise is important for everyone, and people with diabetes need it just as much as anyone else. Exercise helps move sugar into your cells, which uses it for energy. It also makes you more sensitive to insulin - meaning your body needs less insulin to manage blood sugar levels. Sugar helps your cells to function.
    Before you start exercising, get your doctor's okay. Choose activities you enjoy and make physical activity a part of your daily routine. What's most important is enjoying yourself while exercising.
    Aim for 30 minutes or more of aerobic activity most days of the week or 150 minutes of moderate physical activity a week. Bouts of activity can be as brief as 10 minutes three times a day. If you haven't been active for a while, start slowly and build up gradually. It is a good idea to get up and move if you have been sitting for more than 30 minutes.

There are different treatments for diabetes, depending on the type.

Diabetes treatment involves taking insulin injections or using an insulin pump, frequently checking blood sugar levels, and counting carbohydrates. Type 2 diabetes can be managed with a combination of lifestyle changes (monitoring blood sugar levels) and medications (insulin or both).

  • Monitoring your blood sugar. If you have diabetes, you may need to check your blood sugar at least four times a day. This is the best way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within a target range. If you don't have diabetes, you may only need to check your blood sugar once or twice a day. Insulin generally controls blood sugar levels less frequently.
    Insulin therapy recipients may also choose to use a continuous glucose monitor. This technology can significantly reduce the number of fingerstick tests needed to check blood sugar levels. This passage includes important information about blood sugar levels.
    Even with good management, blood sugar levels can sometimes change unpredictably. You'll get help from your diabetes treatment team to learn how your blood sugar level changes in response to eating, physical activity, medications, illness, alcohol, stress, and for women fluctuations in hormone levels.There are different levels of difficulty.
    Your doctor will likely recommend regular blood sugar monitoring to measure your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. This testing is also called A1C testing.
    A1C testing is better than daily blood sugar tests in indicating how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. An elevated A1C level may signal the need for a change in your oral medication insulin regimen or meal plan.
    Your A1C goal may vary depending on various factors, such as your age and other medical conditions. However, the American Diabetes Association usually recommends an A1C below 7%. Ask your doctor what your A1C target is.

  • Insulin.People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections to stay alive. Many people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes also require insulin therapy.
    There are many types of insulin available, including regular insulin, rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin, and intermediate options. Depending on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout the day and night.
    Insulin cannot be taken orally to lower blood sugar because the stomach's enzymes will interfere with its action.Insulin is often injected using a thin needle and syringe or an insulin pen - a device that looks like a large ink pen.
    Insulin pumps may be an option. The pump is a small device about the size of a cell phone that you wear on your outside body. A tube connects the reservoir of insulin to a catheter that's inserted under your skin.
    A wireless pump that works without the need of a tube is now available. You can program the pump to dispense specific amounts of insulin according to meal activity level and blood sugar levels.
    In September 2016 the Food and Drug Administration approved the first artificial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes who are age 14 and older. A second artificial pancreas was approved in December 2019. Since then, systems have been approved for children older than 2 years old.
    An artificial pancreas is a device that helps to manage diabetes by monitoring blood sugar levels and automatically delivering the right amount of insulin when needed. You will need [something] to do this.
    There are more closed-loop artificial pancreas systems currently in clinical trials.

  • Oral or other medications.Sometimes other medications are prescribed to help control diabetes.Some diabetes medications make the pancreas produce and release more insulin. Others inhibit the production and release of sugar from the liver, meaning you need less insulin to transport it into your cells.
    Some medicines can block the action of enzymes in your stomach or intestines that break down carbohydrates or make your tissues more sensitive to insulin.Metformin is usually the first medication prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes.
    A type of medication called SGLT2 inhibitors can be used. These work by preventing the kidneys from absorbing sugar into the bloodstream.The sugar is eliminated in the urine.

  • Transplantation.If you have type 1 diabetes, a pancreas transplant may be an option. Islet transplants, in which a healthy pancreas is transplanted into someone who has type 1 diabetes, are also being studied. If you had a successful pancreas transplant, you would no longer need to take insulin.
    transplants are not always successful- and this can have serious consequences. You will need lifelong medications to prevent organ rejection. These drugs may have serious side effects, so transplants are usually reserved for people who have diabetes that cannot be controlled with other treatments. People who need a kidney transplant must have controlled blood pressure levels.

  • Bariatric surgery. Some people with type 2 diabetes may benefit from surgery that changes the size and shape of their stomach. People who have undergone a gastric bypass have seen improvements in their blood sugar levels. There is still some uncertainty about the long-term risks and benefits of this procedure for people with type 2 diabetes.

How to treat gestational diabetes

It is essential to maintain a healthy blood sugar level in order to keep your baby safe during delivery.Aside from maintaining a healthy diet and exercising, you may need to monitor your blood sugar levels or use insulin or oral medications in order to help manage them.

Your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level during labor. This can help to prevent high levels of insulin from being released, which could lead to low blood sugar right after the birth.

Treatment for prediabetes

If you have prediabetes, healthy lifestyle choices can help you bring your blood sugar level back to a normal range or keep it from rising toward the levels seen in type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight through exercise and healthy eating can help. Exercising for at least 150 minutes each week and keeping a healthy diet are key. Losing about 7% of your body weight may help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

Sometimes medications to control diabetes, such as metformin (Glucophage Glumetza others) can also be an option if you are at high risk for developing diabetes or if your prediabetes is worsening. Additionally, medications that cause liver disease, fatty liver disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome can all be options if you have these conditions.

If you have high cholesterol, your doctor might prescribe medications to lower it. Some people need cholesterol-lowering statins, while others might need aspirin to reduce their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle choices still play a role in health. The key is a small, metal object with a hole in the middle that is used to open and close the locks on doors.

Signs of trouble in any type of diabetes

Sometimes blood sugar problems can arise that require immediate attention, such as when something is wrong with your body that requires medical care.

  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Your blood sugar level can rise for many reasons, including eating too much, being sick, or not taking enough medication to lower your blood sugar level. Check your blood sugar level as directed by your doctor and watch for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar, such as frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth. If you have blurry vision or fatigue, it may be caused by your diabetes. If this is the case, you may need to adjust your diabetes medications or eat differently to avoid these symptoms.

  • If you have high levels of ketones in your urine (diabetic ketoacidosis), this means that you are having a difficult time controlling your blood sugar.If your cells are not getting enough energy, your body may start breaking down fat. This produces toxic acids called ketones. You may experience a loss of appetite, weakness, vomiting, fever, stomach pain, and a fruity breath.
    To check for ketones in your urine, you can purchase an over-the-counter ketones test kit. If you have too many ketones in your urine, please see your doctor right away. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes.

  • HHSNS is a condition in which a person has too much sugar in their blood.This life-threatening condition has signs and symptoms including a blood sugar reading that's over 600 mg/dL (33.3 mmol/L) dry mouth extreme thirst fever drowsiness confusion vision loss and hallucinations. Hyperosmolar syndrome is caused by sky-high blood sugar that makes the blood thick and syrupy.
    If you have signs or symptoms of type 2 diabetes, contact your doctor or go to the hospital right away. This condition is often seen in people who have previously had an illness.

  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). If your blood sugar level falls below a target range, this is known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). If you're taking medication that lowers your blood sugar, for example insulin, your blood sugar level can drop for many reasons including skipping a meal and getting more physical activity than usual. If your blood sugar is normal, low blood sugar can also occur if you take too much insulin or an over-the-counter glucose-lowering medication.
    Make sure to check your blood sugar regularly and watch for signs of low blood sugar, such as sweating, shakiness, weakness, hunger, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, heart palpitations, irritability, slurred speech, drowsiness, confusion, fainting and seizures. If you experience any of these symptoms related to low blood sugar, quickly treat it with appropriate measures. The food will be absorbed into the body through carbohydrates such as fruit juice or glucose tablets.

More Information

  • Blood glucose meters

  • Intensive insulin therapy

  • Using insulin

  • Blood sugar levels can change for many reasons.

  • Can aspirin therapy prevent heart problems in people with diabetes?

  • Bariatric surgery

  • A pancreas transplant is when a new pancreas is put into someone's body.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Diabetes is a serious disease. It requires ongoing commitment to treatment. Proper management of diabetes can help reduce your risk of serious complications, even death.

  • Make a promise to manage your diabetes.Be as informed about diabetes as you can. Work with a diabetes educator to develop a trusting relationship. Then ask your diabetes treatment team for advice when you need it.

  • Eat healthy foods and stay at a healthy weight.If you are overweight, losing 5% of your body weight can help to improve your blood sugar control if you have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. A healthy diet includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and legumes with a limited amount of saturated fat.

  • Make physical activity a part of your daily routine. This will help keep you healthy.Regular exercise can help prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Exercise that is moderate in intensity (such as brisk walking) most days of the week is recommended. To maintain better blood sugar control, people with diabetes should aim for at least 150 minutes per week.At least thirty minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week.
    It's a good idea to get up and move around at least every 30 minutes or so. When you're sitting still, you're likely to feel tired.

Lifestyle for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

If you have diabetes, make sure to eat foods with added sugar or glucose.

  • Identify yourself.Make sure you have a diabetes tag or bracelet and keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of an emergency with low blood sugar. Tell your friends and family how to use it if necessary.

  • Make sure to have yearly physical and regular eye exams.Your regular diabetes check ups are not meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams. During your physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications and screen for other medical problems. Your eye care specialist will look for signs of retinal damage, cataracts, and other conditions.Glaucoma is a condition in which fluid builds up in the eye, causing vision to become blurry.

  • Make sure your vaccinations are up to date. If your blood sugar is high, your immune system can be weakened. You should get a flu shot every year and your doctor may also recommend the pneumonia vaccine. Finally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends hepatitis B vaccination if you haven't previously been vaccinated against it. If you are an adult aged 19 to 59 and have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you may be at risk for hepatitis B.
    The most recent CDC guidelines advise getting a vaccine for type 1 or type 2 diabetes as soon as possible after diagnosis. If you are 60 or older and have diabetes, talk to your doctor about whether it's right for you to get the vaccine.

  • Pay attention to your feet. Wash your feet daily with lukewarm water. Dry them gently, especially between the toes. Apply lotion to them, but avoid putting it in between the toes. Check your feet every day for any changes, such as blisters, cuts, sores, redness, or swelling. If you have a problem with your feet that doesn't seem to be healing quickly, consult a doctor. It is a plant's own.

  • Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels under control.Eating healthy foods and exercising can help to control high blood pressure and cholesterol. Sometimes medication is needed too.

  • Take care of your teeth.If you have diabetes, you are at a higher risk of developing more serious gum infections. Brush and floss your teeth at least twice a day, and if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, make sure to get regular dental exams. If you notice that your gums are bleeding or look swollen, go see your dentist right away.

  • If you smoke or use other types of tobacco, you should ask your doctor for help in quitting.Smoking increases your risk of developing various diabetes complications. Nonsmokers who have diabetes are more likely to survive cardiovascular disease than are smokers, according to the American Diabetes Association. Talk to your doctor about ways to quit smoking or to cut back on your intake of other types of tobacco.Nicotine is in tobacco.

  • If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly.Drinking alcohol can cause either high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and if you eat at the same time. If you choose to drink, drink only in moderation - one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men - and always with food.
    Remember to include the carbohydrates from any alcohol you drink in your daily carbohydrate count. And check your blood sugar levels before going to bed, just to be safe.

  • Take stress seriously.If you're under a lot of stress, your body may release hormones that can prevent your insulin from working properly. This could lead to high blood sugar and more stress. Try to set limits for yourself and focus on completing tasks in a reasonable amount of time. Practice relaxation techniques and get enough sleep.

More Information

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Alternative medicine

Some substances have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in some studies, while other studies fail to find any benefit for blood sugar control or for lowering A1C levels. Because the conflicting results make it difficult to recommend any alternate therapies, at this time there are no recommended treatments. everyone with diabetes management.

If you decide to try any type of alternative therapy, be sure to tell your doctor about it. Make sure that the therapies will not have any adverse effects on your current medication regimen.

There are no alternative or conventional treatments for diabetes that can cure it, so people with diabetes who are using insulin therapy must continue to do so unless directed to do otherwise by their physicians.

Coping and support

It can be difficult to live with diabetes. Sometimes even when you do everything right your blood sugar levels may rise. But stay with your diabetes management plan and you'll likely see a positive difference in your A1C when you visit your doctor.

Diabetes management can be time-consuming and often overwhelming, so some people find it helpful to speak with someone. Your doctor may recommend a mental health professional for you, or you may want to try a support group.

Talking about your diabetes with people who understand it can be helpful. You may find that they have advice about managing the disease.

Your doctor may know of a local support group or you can call the American Diabetes Association or the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation for help.

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Preparing for your appointment

If you are having symptoms associated with diabetes, you should first see your primary care doctor. If your child is having symptoms of diabetes, you might see your pediatrician. If blood sugar levels are high, you may be sent to the emergency room.

If your blood sugar levels are not high enough to put you or your child in danger, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in diabetes. After diagnosis, you'll likely meet with a diabetes educator and a dietitian to get more information about managing the disease. This information will help you manage your diabetes.

Here is some information about your appointment and what to expect.

What you can do

  • Remember to avoid any restrictions that may be in place before your appointment.When you make the appointment, ask if there are any requirements in advance. This might include restricting your diet for a blood sugar test.

  • Please write down any symptoms you're experiencing so that we can figure out what is going on. including any that may seem unrelated.

  • Write down key personal information,Testing your blood sugar levels at home is important if you are experiencing major stresses or recent life changes. Bring a record of the glucose results to document when and how the testing was done.

  • List any allergies you have and all of the medications you are taking.Ask your doctor or health care professional what vitamins and supplements you're taking.

  • Record your family medical history.Look for relatives who have had diabetes, heart attacks, or strokes.

  • Take a family member or friend.It is helpful to have someone with you when you are learning something new.

  • Write down questions to askTalk to your doctor. Ask about any aspects of your diabetes management that you're not sure about.

  • If you need to refill any prescriptions, be sure to do so soon.Your doctor can refill your prescriptions while you're in the office.

Listing questions ahead of time can help make the most of your time with your doctor. For diabetes, some questions to ask include:

  • Are the symptoms I'm experiencing related to diabetes or something else?

  • Do I need any tests?

  • What else can I do to protect my health?

  • What are some other ways to manage my diabetes?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see another doctor, such as a nutritionist or diabetes educator?

  • Can I find a similar medicine that does not have the same ingredients as the one you are prescribing?

  • Can I take any brochures or other printed material with me? What websites do you think I should visit?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you a number of questions, such as: "What are your symptoms?"

  • What are your symptoms?

  • Do you have symptoms constantly or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Do you have a family history of preeclampsia or diabetes? Preeclampsia is a condition that can develop during early pregnancy and lead to high blood pressure, edema (swelling), and even heart attack. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce insulin properly, leading to high blood sugar levels.

  • Tell me about your diet.

  • Do you exercise? What type and how much?

General summary

  1. Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body cannot effectively use the insulin it makes Without enough insulin sugar builds up in the bloodstream instead of entering cells to produce energy It eventually leads to serious complications such as blurred vision nerve damage and heart disease There aren't any proven methods for preventing diabetes But there are several treatments that can help control your blood sugar levels if you already have diabetes: Weight loss (if overweight) Healthy eating habits Regular exercise A healthy lifestyle with diet exercise and medical treatment may reduce.

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