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Diabetic neuropathy : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic pathology may be a serious and customary complication of type one and a kind of polygenic disorder. It’s a kind of nerve injury caused by semi permanent high blood glucose levels. The condition usually develops slowly, generally over the course of many decades.

If you have got diabetes and spot numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in your hands or feet, you must see your doctor. These are early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. The danger is typically after you can’t feel pain associate degreed an ulceration develops on your foot.

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic Neuropathy

In cases of severe or prolonged peripheral neuropathy, you'll be prone to injuries or infections. In serious cases, poor wound healing or infection will cause amputation.

There are differing types of diabetic pathology that have an effect on completely different areas of your body, inflicting a range of symptoms. If you have got diabetes, it’s necessary to frequently check your blood sugar levels and phone your doctor if you have any symptoms of neuropathy.

  1. Nervous system

Medical terms 

Diabetic nerve damage is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body Diabetic nerve damage mostly damages nerves in your legs and feet

Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes The condition may affect as many as 50% of people with diabetes You can sometimes prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress through consistent blood sugar management and a healthy lifestyle

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of all types of diabetes. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes can develop neuropathy that causes numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, and lower extremities. Other symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include muscle pain, weakness, and loss of sensation in the extremities. Neurotoxicity is uncertain but is thought to result from a combination of high blood sugar that damages the nerves of small blood vessels and a genetic predisposition to nerve damage from exposure to excess blood sugar (glucose) as well as free radicals that consist of oxidative stress from high blood glucose Levels are also thought to contribute.

  • Diabetic neuropathy is one of the complications of diabetes. It is caused by high blood sugar levels damaging the nerves. Over time, this damage may lead to the loss of feeling in the feet and legs. Diabetic neuropathy can also make it hard to control blood sugar levels.

  • Diabetic neuropathy is a complication of diabetes that results in damage to the nerves of the body. The most common type of neuropathy is peripheral neuropathy, which affects the arms, legs, and feet. Diabetic neuropathy can also cause problems with the autonomic nervous system, which controls blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion. Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes that can lead to pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected limbs.

Symptoms Diabetic neuropathy

It’s common for symptoms of pathology to look gradually. In several cases, the primary kind of nerve injury to occur involves the nerves of the feet. this will result in the symptom of generally painful “pins and needles” in your feet. Symptoms vary depending on the areas affected. Common signs and symptoms of the various sorts of diabetic neuropathy include: 

  • sensitivity to touch

  • loss of sense of touch

  • difficulty with coordination when walking

  • numbness or pain in your hands or feet

  • burning sensation in feet, especially at night

  • muscle weakness or wasting

  • bloating or fullness

  • nausea, indigestion, or vomiting

  • diarrhea or constipation

  • dizziness when you stand up

  • excessive or decreased sweating

  • bladder problems, such as incomplete bladder emptying

  • vaginal dryness

  • erectile dysfunction

  • inability to sense low blood glucose

  • vision trouble, such as double vision

  • increased heart rate

Diabetic neuropathy comes in four main types: You can have one type or more than one type

Your symptoms will depend on the type of disorder and which nerves have been affected Usually your symptoms develop gradually but they may not be noticed until considerable nerve damage has occurred

Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is a common type of diabetic neuropathy It is usually caused by the hormones in the body that cause blood sugar levels to rise and falls Diabetic neuropathy often affects the feet legs and hands first Symptoms may include:

  • Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes in the hand

  • Tingling or burning sensation

  • Sharp pains or cramps

  • Some people have increased sensitivity to touch even when they are not injured

  • Foot problems such as ulcers and infections bone and joint pain

Autonomic neuropathy

Autonomic nervous system control of the heart the bladder the stomach the intestines and sexual organs can affect nerves in zones of these bodies where diabetes can occur

  • People may not be aware that their blood sugar levels are low even though they have symptomatic hypoglycemia

  • Bladder or bowel problems

  • Gastroparesis causes nausea vomiting and loss of appetite

  • Changes in the way your eyes adjust from light to dark

  • Decreased sexual response

Diabetic polyradiculopathy

This type of neuropathy — also called diabetic amyotrophy — often affects nerves in the thighs, hips, buttocks or legs. It can also affect the abdominal and chest area. Symptoms are usually on one side of the body, but may spread to the other side. You may have:

  • Severe pain in the hip or buttock is a common complaint especially among older adults

  • Atrophied muscles weaken and shrink

  • Difficulty getting up from a sitting position

  • Severe stomach pain

Mononeuropathy (focal neuropathy)

There are two types of mononeuropathy—cranial and peripheral Mononeuropathy refers to damage to a specific nerve Mononeuropathy may also lead to:

  • Difficulty focusing or double vision

  • Aching behind one eye

  • Bell’s palsy attacks one side of your face

  • Numbness or tingling in your hand or fingers, except your pinkie (little finger)

  • A hand that may cause you to drop things

When to see a doctor

If you have any of the following symptoms contact your doctor:

  • A cut or sore on your foot that is infected or won't heal

  • Burning tingling weakness or pain in your hands or feet that interferes with everyday activities and sleep

  • Changes in digestion, urination or sexual function

  • Dizziness and fainting

The yankee polygenic disorder Association recommends that screening for diabetic pathology begin now once someone is diagnosed with sort two diabetes, and 5 years after diagnosing for somebody with type one diabetes. Once that, screening is suggested annually.

Causes Diabetic neuropathy

The exact reason behind every variety of pathology is unknown. Researchers assume that over time, uncontrolled high glucose damages nerves and interferes with their ability to send signals, resulting in diabetic neuropathy. High blood sugar conjointly weakens the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that provide the nerves with O and nutrients.

Risk factors Diabetic neuropathy

Anyone who has diabetes is more likely to develop neuropathy These risk factors make you more likely to get nerve damage: A decrease in the number of nerves and axons in your body A decrease in the density of your nerve endings (which are found at the end of these nerves) A decrease in the quantity of sensory receptors that are located along these axons which transmit information from many different parts within your body to the central nervous system Some people with diabetes may

  • Poor blood sugar control.Uncontrolled blood sugar puts you at risk of diabetes complications including nerve damage

  • Diabetes history.Diabetic neuropathy is a complication of diabetes that can lead to nerve damage The longer you have diabetes and the worse your blood sugars are the greater your risk for diabetic neuropathy

  • Kidney disease.It’s pretty hard to determine which way the wind is blowing

  • Being overweight.Having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher may increase your risk of developing diabetic neuropathy

  • Smoking.Smoking hardens and narrows your arteries reducing blood flow to your legs and feet This makes it more difficult for wounds to heal and damages the peripheral nerves

Complications Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy can cause a number of serious complications, including:

  • Hypoglycemia unawareness. Blood sugar levels below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) normally cause shakiness, sweating and a fast heartbeat. But if you have autonomic neuropathy, you may not notice these warning signs.

  • Loss of a toe, foot or leg.Nerve harm will cause you to lose feeling in your feet, thus even minor cuts can be converted into sores or ulcers while not realizing it. In severe cases, an infection can unfold to the bone or cause tissue death. Removal (amputation) of a toe, foot or maybe the lower leg is also necessary.

  • Urinary tract infections and urinary incontinence. If the nerves that control your bladder are injured, you will be unable to totally empty your bladder. bacteria can build up within the bladder and kidneys, inflicting tract infections. Nerve damage may have an effect on your ability to feel once you have to be compelled to urinate or to regulate the muscles that unharness urine, resulting in discharge (incontinence).

  • Sharp drops in blood pressure. Damage to the nerves that manage blood flow can have an effect on your body' ability to regulate blood pressure. This will cause a pointy call in pressure once you stand when sitting, which can result in lightheadedness and fainting.

  • Digestive problems. If nerve harm strikes your organic process tract, you'll be able to have constipation or diarrhea, or both. Diabetes-related nerve damage can result in gastroparesis, a condition within which the abdomen empties too slowly or not at all, which causes bloating and indigestion

  • Sexual dysfunction. Autonomic neuropathy often damages the nerves that affect the sex organs. Men may experience erectile dysfunction. Women may have difficulty with lubrication and arousal.

  • Increased or decreased sweating. Nerve damage can disrupt how your sweat glands work and make it difficult for your body to control its temperature properly.

Prevention Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is prevented and/or delayed by closely monitoring blood sugar levels and by taking care of your feet

Blood sugar management

To resolve the conflict between yourself and your spouse it might be a good idea to ask for their opinion on your decision

When you grow your own food you know what’s in it When someone else grows your food they can add chemicals or other ingredients to change how it tastes

Foot care

IFoot issues, as well as sores that don't heal, ulcers and even amputation, are common complications of diabetic neuropathy. However, you'll stop several of those problems by having intensive foot communication a minimum of once a year, having your doctor check your feet at every workplace visit and taking excellent care of your feet at home.


Follow your doctor' recommendations for permanent foot care. to safeguard the health of your feet:

  • Check your feet every day. Look for blisters, cuts, bruises, cracked and peeling skin, redness, and swelling. Use a mirror or ask a friend or family member to help examine parts of your feet that are hard to see.

  • Keep your feet clean and dry. Wash your feet every day with lukewarm water and mild soap. Avoid soaking your feet. Dry your feet and between your toes carefully.

  • Moisturize your feet. This helps prevent cracking. But don't get lotion between your toes, because it might encourage fungal growth.

  • Trim your toenails carefully. Cut your toenails straight across. File the edges carefully to avoid sharp edges.

  • Wear clean, dry socks. Look for socks made of cotton or moisture-wicking fibers that don't have tight bands or thick seams.

  • Wear cushioned shoes that fit well. Always wear shoes or slippers to guard your feet. ensure your shoes match properly and permit your toes to move. A specialist will teach you the way to shop for properly fitted shoes and to stop issues cherishing corns and calluses. If you qualify for Medicare, your setup might cowl the value of a minimum of one try of shoes every year.

Why does diabetic neuropathy get worse at night?

Diabetic neuropathy is an umbrella term for the various conditions that affect people with diabetes. Neuropathy means nerve damage and diabetic neuropathy is caused by high blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. High blood sugar can kill cells in the nerves and lead to loss of function. Time Diabetic neuropathy can cause tingling and weakness, but it usually causes discomfort at night because high blood sugar usually occurs afterward.

How long can you live with diabetic neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes, and it occurs when the level of blood sugar (glucose) in the body rises too high over a long period of time. You may have difficulty walking or even grasping.

Is walking good for neuropathy?

Walking is a great exercise for both body and mind. It improves blood circulation, strengthens bone and muscle tone, and massages internal organs. A new study from the American Academy of Neurology has discovered that walking may also protect your brain from degeneration in participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) who walked at least 10 hours. per week were 23% less likely to have cognitive problems than those who did not walk that much time per week. Walking is a light activity that can be done anywhere without it.

Can you recover from diabetic neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy, also known as diabetic neuropathic pain, is nerve damage in the body caused by diabetes. It is a common complication of the disease and affects up to a third of people with diabetes. Damage or damage which makes you more susceptible to infection. A serious problem such as skin ulcers or infection.

What is the best treatment for diabetic neuropathy?

Good treatment options for neuropathy include medications, surgical treatments, and alternative medicine. The best treatment for neuropathy for a particular patient depends on the type of neuropathy he or she has as well as other factors such as age and health status.

Diagnosis Diabetic neuropathy

The best way to resolve a conflict is to work with the person who is causing the problem paraphrased:

  1. Palpation

  2. Percussion

Your doctor will check your:

  • Overall muscle strength and tone

  • Tendon reflexes

  • Sensitivity to touch and vibration

Diabetic neuropathy can be diagnosed by performing a physical exam or ordering specific tests These tests include:

  • Filament test.Your doctor will brush soft nylon fibers over your skin The fiber is a type of fabric that has a few strands running through it and you can feel these strands with your fingertips When the doctor brushes these fibers against your skin you can tell if a certain area is sensitive; if so the doctor knows where to apply pain relieving cream or anesthetic

  • Sensory testing.This test is used to determine how your nerves respond to vibration and temperature changes

  • Nerve conduction testing.This test measures how quickly the nerves in your arms and legs conduct electrical signals It is often used to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

  • Muscle response testing.Electromyography is a means of measuring electrical discharges in the muscles It is usually done with nerve conduction studies

  • Autonomic testing.Special blood pressure tests may be done to determine how your blood pressure changes while you are in different positions and how much you sweat

Treatment Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy has no known cure The goals of treatment are to: 1) control blood sugar levels as well as other components in the body that affect nerve function 2) prevent complications such as infections and eye problems 3) maintain adequate oxygenation of the nervous system 4) limit pain via medications and support for the nerves throughout the body

  • Slow progression of the disease

  • Relieve pain

  • Manage complications and restore function

Slowing progression of the disease

Consistently maintaining your blood sugar targets is the key to preventing or delaying nerve injury Good blood sugar management may even improve some of your current symptoms Your doctor will figure out a target range that works best for you based on your age how long you've had diabetes and other factors such as whether you are pregnant or have complications related to it You have diabetes and your overall health

Blood sugar levels may need to be individualized but in general the American Diabetes Association recommends the following target blood sugar levels for most people with diabetes:

  • The blood sugar level ranges between 80 and 130 mg/dL which is between 4.4 and 7.2 mmol/L before meals

 generally recommends the following target blood sugar levels before meals:

  • Between 80 and 120 mg/dL (4.4 and 6.7 mmol/L) for people aged less than 59 who have no other medical conditions

  • Between 5.6 and 7.8 mmol/L (100-140 mg/dL) for people age 60 or older people with diabetes or other medical conditions including heart failure kidney failure or lung problems

Other ways to help slow or prevent neuropathy from getting worse include keeping your blood pressure in check and maintaining a healthy weight Regular physical activity will also help to slow or prevent neuropathy from getting worse

Relieving pain

Many prescription medications are on the market for diabetes-related nerve pain, however they don't work for everyone. Once considering any medication, ask your doctor regarding the advantages and doable aspect effects to search out what would possibly work best for you. Pain-relieving prescription treatments may include:

  • Anti-seizure drugs.Some drugs used to treat seizures are also being used to ease nerve pain Like pregabalin Lyrica (a drug used for seizure disorders) and Gabapentin (also works well for nerve pain) are an option Side effects may include drowsiness dizziness and swelling

  • Antidepressants. Some antidepressants ease nerve pain even if you are not depressed Tricyclic antidepressants may help with mild to moderate nerve pain as well as dry mouth and constipation Side effects can be bothersome but they include dry mouth and constipation drowsiness
    Serotonin norepinephrine and reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are different types of antidepressants that may help with nerve pain They have fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants The American Diabetes Association recommends duloxetine (Cymbalta) as a first treatment for people with nerve pain Another option is venlafaxine (Effexor XR) Side effects include nausea sleepiness dizziness decreased appetite and constipation

Some antidepressants can be combined with anti-seizure drugs These drugs may also be used along with pain relievers such as over-the-counter medications including acetaminophen (Tylenol others) or ibuprofen (Advil Motrin IB others) or a skin patch with lidocaine (a numbing agent) It’s pretty hard to resolve a conflict when everyone assumes that they are right Don’t assume that you know what is best for the child without consulting the child Whenever possible seek approval from others who have been through this process before so as to help you make a well-informed decision on behalf of your child

Managing complications and restoring function after an accident

You may need assistance from a doctor who treats urinary disorders (urologist) and another doctor who treats heart problems (cardiologist) to help prevent or treat complications

The treatment you'll need depends on the neuropathy-related complication you have:

  • Urinary tract problems. Your doctor may recommend changing your medications if they affect your bladder function Timed urination or drinking a lot of fluids can help some bladder problems Other methods include: Using a special alarm to wake you in the middle of the night and making sure that you do not drink too much water (drink at least 60 ounces every day) Avoiding salt caffeine and alcohol for several days before surgery Avoiding certain foods such as nuts garlic onions and chili peppers for several days Urinating a person who has nerve damage may be necessary to remove urine from the damaged bladder

  • Digestive problems.To relieve mild signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ) — regurgitation belching nausea or vomiting — doctors suggest eating smaller more-frequent meals diet changes and medications may help relief

  • Low blood pressure on standing (orthostatic hypotension) Treatment starts with simple lifestyle changes such as avoiding alcohol drinking plenty of water and changing positions such as sitting or standing slowly Sleeping with the head of the bed raised 6 to 10 inches can help prevent blood pressure swings Your doctor may also recommend compression stockings Several medications may be used to treat orthostatic hypotension but all of them should be taken as directed

  • Sexual dysfunction.

Lifestyle and home remedies

These measures can help you feel better and reduce your risk of diabetic neuropathy:

  • Keep your blood pressure under control.If you have high blood pressure and diabetes you have an even greater risk of complications If your doctor recommends a certain range of blood pressure make sure it is maintained at all times It is also important to keep your blood pressure checked at every visit

  • Make healthy food choices.It is important to eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of healthy foods such as vegetables fruits and whole grains It is also vital to limit portion sizes so that you do not exceed your caloric intake (At this point I let the kids do a math problem by themselves) The National Cancer Institute estimated that 2/3 of Americans are overweight or obese!

  • Be active every day. Exercise can help lower blood sugar improves blood flow and keeps your heart healthy The American Diabetes Association recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise a week for most adults with diabetes It's also a good idea to take a break from sitting every 30 minutes to get a few quick exercise breaks throughout the day
    Before you start exercising talk with your doctor or physical therapist to find out whether you can start exercising safely and whether a particular type of exercise is right for you If your legs feel weak or numb after exercise don't walk Instead try walking on softer surfaces such as grass or padded floors You may want to ask your doctor about using an ankle brace during exercise if an ankle injury has occurred

  • Stop smoking.

Alternative medicine

There are also many alternative therapies and natural remedies that may help with pain relief on their own or in combination with medications However check with your doctor to see if any alternative therapy or dietary supplement might interact with your medication so that you don't risk a negative effect.For diabetic neuropathy you may want to try Calcium/Vitamin D3 supplements along with the other supplements listed below:

  • Capsaicin.Capsaicin cream, applied to the skin, can reduce pain sensations in some people. Side effects may include a burning feeling and skin irritation. 

  • Alpha-lipoic acid. his powerful antioxidant is found in some foods and may help relieve nerve pain symptoms in some people 

  • Acetyl-L-carnitine.Be aware of which foods are in your pantry at all times Keep an eye on expiration dates and unopened packages of food If there is a question about the freshness or safety of a food throw it out after the date you’re given!

  • Your doctor may prescribe this treatment which may help prevent pain signals from reaching your brain TENS delivers tiny electrical impulses to specific nerve pathways through small electrodes placed on your skin Although safe and painless TENS does not work for everyone or for all types of pain

  • Acupuncture.Use a gentle touch when applying the decoupage paraphrased: When applying the decoupage use a light touch

Coping and support

Living with diabetic pathology may be tough and frustrating. If you discover yourself feeling depressed, it's going to facilitate speaking to a counselor or therapist. Support teams can also supply encouragement and recommendation regarding living with diabetic neuropathy. raise your doctor if there are any in your area, or for a referral to a therapist. The yank polygenic disorder Association offers on-line support through its website. 

Preparing for your appointment

If you do not already see an endocrinologist you may likely be referred to one if you start showing signs of diabetes complications An endocrinologist is a doctor who specializes in treating metabolic disorders such as diabetes You may also be referred to a neurologist which is a doctor who treats brain and nerve disorders including epilepsy; head injuries or concussions; Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis This is a good way to know how much food you need for the family paraphrased:

Before your appointment you should:

  • When you make an appointment ask if there is anything you need to do in advance such as restrict your diet

  • Have you ever had a conflict with your partner? Have you ever tried to resolve it? How did the conflict end? Did it get resolved or did it just sort of die out over time on its own without any resolution and without ever really being resolved?In this recipe the “sauce” is made from raw honey Adding applesauce to cookies or cakes can make them less sweet It also has a nice flavor for dipping fruit in The macaroni and cheese recipe uses milk which contains a high fat content and provides nourishment for the body after having a little carbohydrate in the meal In this recipe I used an egg yolk to add richness to the sauce because it makes it thicker and cream

  • Write down key personal information,your current lifestyle including major stresses or recent life changes

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements you're taking.

  • Write down your recent blood sugar levels, if you check them at home.

Ask a family member or friend to come with you. It will be troublesome to recollect everything your doctor tells you throughout AN appointment. somebody who accompanies you will remember one thing that you just incomprehensible or forgot.

  • you will additionally need to jot down inquiries to raise your doctor. For diabetic neuropathy, some basic queries include:

  • Is diabetic neuropathy the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Do I need tests to confirm the cause of my symptoms? How do I prepare for these tests?

  • Is this condition temporary or long lasting?

  • If I manage my blood sugar, will these symptoms improve or go away?

  • Are there treatments available, and which do you recommend?

  • What types of side effects can I expect from treatment?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

  • Do I need to see other doctors, a certified diabetes educator or a dietitian?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • How effective is your diabetes management?

  • When did you start having symptoms?

  • Do you always have symptoms or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to make your symptoms worse?

  • What's challenging about managing your diabetes?

  • What might help you manage your diabetes better?

General summary

  1. Treatment: Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the amount of glucose in the blood remains above normal. A defect in the communication between the nerves and the brain. This damage may cause tingling in your hands or feet. Pain caused by pressure on these nerve endings; loss of sensation in the areas around these nerves; or weakness It is not uncommon for people with diabetes to develop diabetic neuropathy which can be caused by high blood sugar levels over time.

  2. Symptoms: causes and treatment Each year more than 200 million people suffer from diabetes and is often referred to as a silent killer. This disease occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or is unable to use it properly. Diabetes can lead to problems Chronic health conditions such as stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. But its most common complication is diabetic neuropathy. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include numbness in the hands and feet, burning sensations in the extremities, muscle cramps, and an abnormal gait.

  3. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your legs and feet to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart.

 Diabetic neuropathy : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

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