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Endometrial cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

What Is Endometrial Cancer?

Uterine cancer starts in the inner lining of the uterus. This lining is called the endometrium.

Uterine cancer is a common disease in women. Roughly 3 out of 100 women will be diagnosed with it at some point in their lives. More than 80 percent of people who are diagnosed with uterine cancer survive for five years or longer after receiving the diagnosis.

If you are diagnosed with endometrial cancer early, treatment is more likely to result in a remission.

 

What Is Endometrial Cancer


 

Explanation of medical terms and concept Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The female internal reproductive organ is the hollow, pear-shaped girdle organ wherever craniate development occurs. willcer|endometrial carcinoma|carcinoma} begins within the layer of cells that kind the liner (endometrium) of the uterus. Carcinoma is usually referred to as female internal reproductive organ cancer. alternative varieties of cancer can form in the uterus, as well as uterine sarcoma, however they're a lot less common than mucosa cancer. Carcinoma is usually detected at an early stage as a result of it often produces abnormal channel bleeding. If endometrial cancer is discovered early, removing the uterus surgically often cures endometrial cancer. 

- the most common gynecological malignancy in women Endometrial cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract and its early detection before symptoms even occur can save lives There are several different types of endometrial cancer and they can be broadly categorized into two groups; hyperplasia and carcinoma Hyperplasia a condition where benign (non-cancerous) cells grow excessively accounts for 80% of cases while 20% are carcinomas.

is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system and is also known as Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system and is also known as cancer of the womb Almost all cases are due to a cell change called hyperplasia (an increase in cells) The cause of this abnormal cell growth is not clearly identified but there are two leading theories First endometrial hyperplasia may be caused by an imbalance between hormones estrogen and progesterone which stimulate normal uterine tissue growth Second it has been found that some women who get endometrial tumors have inherited a genetic mutation on.

Symptoms Endometrial cancer

Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer may include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Pelvic pain

The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding. This can include: -blood spots on the toilet paper -pain during intercourse -heavy periods

  • A change in the length or heaviness of a woman's menstrual periods can indicate that she is pregnant.

  • Menstrual bleeding or spotting between periods is normal.

  • Bleeding from the vagina after menopause.

Some other potential signs of endometrial cancer include:

  • Vaginal discharge can be either watery or bloody.

  • pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis

  • pain during sex

If you experience any of these symptoms, go see your doctor. These symptoms could be a sign of a more serious condition, so it's important to get them checked out.

Abnormal vaginal bleeding can sometimes be caused by menopause or other non-cancerous conditions. But in some cases it's a sign that endometrial cancer or another type of gynecological cancer is present.

Your doctor can help you determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment if needed.

Endometrial cancer can potentially spread from the uterus to other parts of the body.

Cancer is classified into four stages based on how much it has spread:

  • Stage 1:The cancer is only present in the uterus.

  • Stage 2:The cancer is found in the uterus and cervix.

  • Stage 3:Cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but it hasn't spread as far as other parts of the body. It might be present in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina, and/or nearby lymph nodes.

  • Stage 4:The cancer has spread beyond the area where it was originally found. It might be present in the bladder, rectum, and/or distant tissues and organs.

The stage of a person's endometrial cancer affects their treatment options and the long-term outlook. Endometrial cancer is easier to treat in the early stages of the condition.

If you experience symptoms that might be indicative of endometrial cancer, make an appointment with your primary care doctor. A doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system is a gynecologist.

Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and medical history. They will examine your uterus and other reproductive organs with a pelvic exam. They may also order a transvaginal ultrasound exam to look for tumors or other abnormalities.

An ultrasound exam is a type of imaging test that uses sound waves to create pictures of your body inside your vagina. To have a transvaginal ultrasound, your doctor or other healthcare professional will insert an ultrasound probe into your vagina. This probe will transmit images onto a monitor.

If your doctor detects abnormalities during the ultrasound exam, they may order one or more of the following tests to collect a sample of tissue for testing:

  • Endometrial biopsy: A doctor will insert a thin, flexible tube through your cervix into your uterus. They will apply suction to remove a small piece of tissue from your endometrium.

  • Hysteroscopy: A doctor will insert a thin, flexible tube with a camera through your cervix into your uterus. They will use this device to look at your endometrium and take samples of abnormalities.

  • If the results of a biopsy are not clear, your doctor might collect another sample of endometrial tissue using D&C. To do so, they will dilate your cervix and use a special tool to scrape tissue from your endometrium.

Your doctor will collect a tissue sample from your uterus. The sample will be sent to a laboratory for testing. A professional at the laboratory will look at the sample under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.

If you have endometrial cancer, your doctor may order additional tests to learn if the cancer has spread. For example, they might order blood tests, x-ray tests, or other imaging tests.

There are several treatment options available for endometrial cancer. Your doctor will choose the best treatment plan based on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as your health and preferences.

Each treatment option has both advantages and disadvantages. Your doctor can help you understand the benefits and risks of each approach.

When to see a doctor

Make a briefing together with your doctor if you experience any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you. 

Causes Endometrial cancer

Doctors don't understand what causes mucosa cancer. What's' glorious' is that one thing happens: type} changes (mutations) within the desoxyribonucleic acid of cells in the mucosa — the liner of the uterus. The mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a group rate, eventually dying at a set time. Abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control, and that they don't die at a set time. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade close tissues and may break away an initial growth to unfold elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Hormone levels

Estrogen and progesterone are female sex hormones that can affect your health by affecting the health of your endometrium. If the balance of these hormones shifts in favor of increased estrogen levels, this can raise your risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Some aspects of your medical history can affect the levels of sex hormones in your body and the risk of developing endometrial cancer. These include:

  • Years of menstruation: If you have had more menstrual periods in your life, the more exposure your body has had to estrogen. This might increase your risk of endometrial cancer.

  • History of pregnancy: During pregnancy, the balance of hormones shifts in favor of progesterone. If you've never been pregnant, your chances of developing endometrial cancer are higher.

  • If you have PCOS, your estrogen levels are high and your progesterone levels are low. This can increase your chances of getting endometrial cancer.

  • Granulosa cell tumors:Granulosa cell tumors are a type of ovarian tumor that produce estrogen. If you've had one of these tumors, it raises your risk of endometrial cancer.

Some types of medications can also change the levels of estrogen and progesterone in your body.

  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be used to treat symptoms of menopause. ERT uses estrogen alone, which raises your risk of developing endometrial cancer.

  • Tamoxifen: This medication helps to prevent and treat breast cancer. It can also act like estrogen in your uterus, which could raise your risk of developing endometrial cancer.

  • Taking birth control pills reduces your risk of getting endometrial cancer. The longer you take them, the lower your risk of getting endometrial cancer.

Some medications that raise your risk of endometrial cancer may also lower your risk of other conditions. Conversely, medications that lower your risk of endometrial cancer may also increase your risk of other conditions.

Your doctor can help you weigh the benefits and risks of taking different medications, including ERT tamoxifen or birth control pills.

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is a non-cancerous condition in which your endometrium becomes too thick. Sometimes it goes away on its own. In other cases it may be treated with hormone therapy or surgery.

If endometrial hyperplasia is not treated, it can sometimes develop into cancer.

The most common symptom of endometrial overgrowth is abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Obesity

Women who are overweight (a BMI of 25 to 29.9) are twice as likely to develop endometrial cancer as women who aren't overweight. Women with obesity (a BMI of > 30) are more than three times as likely to develop this type of cancer.

This might reflect the effects that body fat has on estrogen levels. Fat tissue can turn some other hormones into estrogen. This can increase the level of estrogen in the body, which increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

Diabetes

Women with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop endometrial cancer than women without diabetes, according to the American Cancer Society.

It is uncertain as to how this connection works, but it is believed that type 2 diabetes is more common in people who are overweight or who have obesity, which is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. The high rate of obesity in people with type 2 diabetes might account for the increased risk of endometrial cancer.

History of cancer

You are more likely to develop endometrial cancer if other members of your family have had it.

If you have a family history of Lynch syndrome, you are at an increased risk for endometrial cancer. This condition is caused by mutations in one or more of the genes that repair mistakes in cell development.

If you have the genetic mutations associated with Lynch syndrome, your risk of certain types of cancer is increased greatly. According to a review published in the journal Genes, 60 percent of women with Lynch syndrome develop endometrial cancer.

If you have had breast or ovarian cancer in the past, that may increase your risk of developing endometrial cancer. Some of the risk factors for this disease are the same. Radiation therapy to your pelvis can also increase your chances of developing this type of cancer.

The cause of endometrial cancer is not always known. Experts believe that changes in the level of estrogen and progesterone often play a role.

When the levels of sex hormones are changing, it can affect your endometrium. When the balance shifts towards increased levels of estrogen, endometrial cells will divide and multiply.

If certain genetic changes occur in endometrial cells, these cells can become cancerous. These cancer cells quickly grow and proliferate to form a tumor.

Scientists are still studying the reasons why normal endometrial cells can turn into cancer cells.

Endometrial cancer is most commonly caused by adenocarcinoma, a type of cancer that develops from glandular tissue. Endometrioid cancer is the most common form of this kind of cancer.

Some forms of endometrial cancer are less common than others. These include:

  • uterine carcinosarcoma (CS)

  • squamous cell carcinoma

  • small cell carcinoma

  • transitional carcinoma

  • serous carcinoma

The different types of endometrial cancer are classified into two main groups:

  • Type 1 Olive trees tend to be relatively slow-growing and don't spread quickly to other tissues.

  • Type 2Ovarian cancer is more aggressive and tends to spread more than uterine cancer.

Type 1 endometrial cancers are more common than type 2. They are easier to treat because they tend to occur in women who have type 1 diabetes.

There are ways to reduce your risk of developing endometrial cancer:

  • Manage your weight: Losing weight might lower your risk of endometrial cancer. More research is needed to learn how different weights affect the risk of this cancer.

  • Get regular exercise: Regular exercise is linked to a lower risk of endometrial cancer. It also has many other health benefits.

  • If you are experiencing abnormal vaginal bleeding, see a doctor.If you experience abnormal vaginal bleeding, make an appointment with your doctor. If the bleeding is due to endometrial hyperplasia, ask your doctor what treatment options are available.

  • Hormone therapy can have both positive and negative effects.If you are thinking about using HRT, ask your doctor about the potential benefits and risks of using estrogen alone versus a combination of estrogen and progesterone (progestin). They can help you weigh each option.

  • Talk to your doctor about contraceptive benefits: There are many potential benefits to using contraceptives, so it's important to speak with your doctor about what is best for you.Pills that prevent pregnancy and IUDs have been linked to a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. Your doctor can help you learn about the potential benefits and risks of using these contraceptives.

  • Talk to your doctor if you have a family history of Lynch syndrome.If you have a family history of Lynch syndrome your doctor might recommend genetic testing. If you have Lynch syndrome, they might advise you to have your uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes removed to reduce your risk of developing cancer.

If you have symptoms that could be a sign of endometrial cancer or another gynecological condition, please see your doctor. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve your long-term outlook.

Risk factors Endometrial cancer

Factors that increase the risk of endometrial cancer include:

  • Changes in the balance of female hormones in the body. The ovaries create 2 main feminine hormones — sex hormone and progestin. Fluctuations within the balance of those hormones cause changes in the endometrium. A sickness or condition that will increase the quantity of estrogen, however not the extent of progesterone, in your body can increase your risk of mucosa cancer. Examples embody irregular biological process patterns, which could happen in polycystic ovary syndrome, fatness and diabetes. Taking hormones when changes of life that contain estrogen but not progesterone increases the danger of mucosa cancer. A rare kind of female internal reproductive organ neoplasm that secretes estrogen can also increase the risk of endometrial cancer. 

  • More years of menstruation. Starting at an associate early age — before age twelve — or starting climacteric later will increase the chance of mucous membrane cancer. The additional periods you've had, the more exposure your mucous membrane has had to estrogen. 

  • Never having been pregnant. If you've never been pregnant, you have a higher risk of endometrial cancer than someone who has had at least one pregnancy.

  • Older age. As you get older, your risk of endometrial cancer increases. Endometrial cancer occurs most often after menopause.

  • Obesity. Being obese increases your risk of endometrial cancer. This may occur because excess body fat alters your body's balance of hormones.

  • Hormone therapy for breast cancer. Taking the secretion medical aid drug antagonist for willcer|carcinoma} can increase the chance of developing mucous membrane cancer. If you're taking tamoxifen, discuss this risk together with your doctor. For most, the advantages of tamoxifen outweigh the little risk of endometrial cancer. 

  • An inherited colon cancer syndrome. Lynch syndrome, additionally known as hereditary nonpolyposis large intestine cancer (HNPCC), could be a syndrome that will increase the chance of carcinoma and alternative cancers, together with mucous membrane cancer. kill syndrome is caused by a point mutation passed from folks to children. If a loved one has been diagnosed with kill syndrome, discuss your risk of the genetic syndrome together with your doctor. If you've been diagnosed with kill syndrome, ask your doctor what cancer screening tests you ought to undergo. 

Prevention

To reduce your risk of endometrial cancer, you may wish to:

  • Talk to your doctor about the risks of hormone therapy after menopause. If you're considering secretion replacement medical aid to assist management of climacteric symptoms, talk over with your doctor concerning the risks and benefits. Unless you've undergone a hysterectomy, substitution steroid alone when menopause could increase your risk of mucosa willcer. Taking a mixture of estrogen and steroid hormone can scale back this risk. secretion therapy carries alternative risks, therefore weigh the advantages and risks together with your doctor. 

  • Consider taking birth control pills. Using oral contraceptives for a minimum of one year might cut back carcinoma risk. The danger reduction is believed to last for many years once you stop taking oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives have aspect effects, though, therefore discuss the advantages and risks together with your doctor. 

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity will increase the danger of mucosa cancer, thus working to attain and maintain a healthy weight. If you wish to lose weight, increase your physical activity and cut back the quantity of calories you eat every day. 

Diagnosis Endometrial cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose endometrial cancer include:

  • Examining the pelvis. During a girdle exam, your doctor rigorously inspects the outer portion of your crotch (vulva), and so inserts 2 fingers of 1 hand into your duct and at the same time presses the opposite hand on your abdomen to feel your female internal reproductive organ and ovaries. He or she conjointly inserts a tool known as a speculum into your vagina. The speculum opens your vagina in order that your doctor will read your vagina and cervix for abnormalities 

  • Using sound waves to create a picture of your uterus. Your doctor could suggest a transvaginal ultrasound to see at the thickness and texture of the mucosa and facilitate rule out alternative conditions. During this procedure, a wandlike device (transducer) is inserted into your vagina. The electrical device uses sound waves to make a video image of your uterus. This check helps your doctor rummage around for abnormalities in your female internal reproductive organ lining. 

  • Using a scope to examine your endometrium. During a hysteroscopy, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible, lighted tube (hysteroscope) through your channel and cervix into your womb. A lens on the hysteroscope permits your doctor to look at the within of your uterus and also the endometrium. 

  • Removing a sample of tissue for testing. To get a sample of cells from within your uterus, you'll doubtless bear associated mucous membrane diagnostic assay. This involves removing tissue from your female internal reproductive organ lining for laboratory analysis. mucous membrane biopsy could also exhaust your doctor' workplace and typically doesn't need anesthesia. 

  • Performing surgery to remove tissue for testing. If enough tissue can't be obtained throughout a diagnostic test or if the biopsy results are unclear, you'll doubtless have to be compelled to endure a procedure known as dilation and operation (D&C). Throughout D&C, tissue is scraped from the liner of your female internal reproductive organ and examined below a magnifier for cancer cells. If endometrial carcinoma is found, you'll likely be observed by a doctor who specializes in treating cancers involving the feminine system (gynecologic oncologist). 

Staging endometrial cancer

Once your cancer has been diagnosed, your doctor works to see the extent (stage) of your cancer. Tests used to determine your cancer' stage could embrace a chest X-ray, a X-radiation (CT) scan, antielectron emission tomography (PET) scan and blood tests. The ultimate determination of your cancer' stage might not be created till you endure surgery to treat your cancer. Your doctor uses info from these tests and procedures to assign your cancer a stage. The stages of endometrial carcinoma are indicated victimization Roman numerals starting from I to IV, with rock bottom stage indicating that the cancer hasn't grown on the far side of the uterus. By stage IV, the cancer has grown to involve near  organs, equivalent to the bladder, or has spread to distant areas of the body.

Treatment Endometrial cancer

Treatment for endometrial carcinoma is sometimes with surgery to get rid of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Another choice is irradiation with powerful energy. Drug treatments for endometrial cancer embrace therapy with powerful medication and internal secretion therapy to dam hormones that cancer cells believe in. alternative choices can be targeted therapy with drugs that attack specific weaknesses within the cancer cells and therapy to assist your system fight cancer.

Surgery

Treatment for endometrial carcinoma sometimes involves an associated operation to get rid of the womb (hysterectomy), furthermore to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy). Extirpation makes it not possible for you to become pregnant within the future. Also, once your ovaries are removed, you'll expertise menopause, if you haven't already. Throughout surgery, your operating surgeon also will examine the areas around your uterus to see for signs that cancer has spread. Your surgeon can also remove humor nodes for testing. This helps confirm your cancer' stage. 

Hysterectomy is a surgery that is often used to treat endometrial cancer.

A surgeon removes the uterus during a hysterectomy. They might also remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes in a procedure called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A hysterectomy and BSO are typically performed at the same time.

If the surgeon thinks the cancer has spread, they will also remove nearby lymph nodes. This is called lymph node dissection or lymphadenectomy.

If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the surgeon may recommend additional surgeries.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses powerful energy beams, adore X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. In some instances, your doctor may suggest radiation to cut back your risk of a cancer repeat once surgery. In bound situations, therapy might also be suggested before surgery, to shrink a neoplasm and build it easier to remove. If you aren't healthy enough to bear surgery, you'll prefer radiation therapy only.

Radiation therapy can involve:

  • Radiation from a machine outside your body. During external beam radiation, you lie on a table while a machine directs radiation to specific points on your body.

  • Radiation placed inside your body. Internal radiation (brachytherapy) involves inserting a radiation-filled device, equivalent to tiny seeds, wires or a cylinder, within your canal for a brief amount of time. 

After surgery, your doctor might recommend one or both types of radiation therapy in order to kill any cancer cells that might remain.

In some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended before surgery. This can help reduce the size of tumors so they can be more easily removed.

If you are unable to have surgery for medical reasons or if your health is not good overall, your doctor might suggest radiation therapy as your main treatment.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. you'll receive one chemotherapy drug, or 2 or a lot of medicine are often employed in combination. you'll receive chemotherapy drugs by pill (orally) or through your veins (intravenously). These drugs enter your blood so travel through your body, killing cancer cells. Therapy is typically counseled once surgery if there' an redoubled risk that the cancer would possibly return. It can even be used before surgery to shrink the cancer so it's more doubtless to be removed fully throughout surgery. Therapy is also recommended for treating advanced or continual endometrial carcinoma that has developed on the far side of the uterus. 

Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Some types of chemotherapy require only one drug while others require a combination of drugs. Depending on the type of chemotherapy you are treated with, the drugs might be delivered in pill form or through an intravenous line.

If your doctor thinks that your endometrial cancer has spread to other parts of your body, they might recommend chemotherapy. This type of treatment could also be recommended if your endometrial cancer has come back after previous treatments.

Hormone therapy

Hormone medical care involves taking medications to lower the hormone levels within the body. In response, cancer cells that think about hormones to assist them grow would possibly die. secretion therapy is also Associate in Nursing possibility if you have got advanced endometrial carcinoma that has developed on the far side of the uterus. 

Hormone therapy is using hormones or drugs to change a person's hormone levels, which can slow the growth of tumor cells.

Your doctor might recommend hormone therapy if you have stage III or stage IV endometrial cancer. They might also recommend it for endometrial cancer that has returned after treatment.

Hormone therapy is often combined with chemotherapy, which is a type of treatment that uses drugs to fight cancer.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments specialize in specific weaknesses gifts among willcer cells. By blocking these weaknesses, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted drug medical aid is typically combined with therapy for treating advanced mucous membrane cancer.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy may be a drug treatment that helps your system to fight cancer. Your body' disease-fighting immune system may not attack cancer as a result of the cancer cells manufacturing proteins that blind the immune system cells. therapy works by an officious thereupon process. For mucosa cancer, immunotherapy can be thought-about if the cancer is advanced and different treatments haven't helped.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized treatment that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a significant illness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your other doctors to supply an additional layer of support that enhances your current care. Palliative care will be used whereas undergoing other aggressive treatments, admire surgery, therapy or radiation therapy. Once palliative care is employed together with all of the opposite applicable treatments, individuals with cancer could feel higher and live longer. Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care groups aim to boost the standard of life for individuals with cancer and their families. This type of care is obtainable aboard curative or different treatments you'll be receiving. 

If you are having trouble coping with your cancer diagnosis or treatment, let your doctor know. It is common for people to experience difficulty managing the emotional and mental effects of living with cancer.

Your doctor may refer you to an in-person or online support group for people with cancer. This might make you feel better since you will connect with others who are going through the same experiences.

Your doctor might also refer you to a mental health professional for counseling. This might help you manage the psychological and social effects of having cancer.

The incidence of endometrial cancer increases with age. The vast majority of cases are diagnosed between the ages of 45 and 74 years old, according to the National Cancer Institute.

Several other factors may also increase the risk of endometrial cancer, including: -Having a history of cancer in your family -Being overweight or obese -Having high blood pressure or heart disease

  • changes in sex hormone levels

  • certain medical conditions

  • family history of cancer

Coping and support

After you receive a diagnosis of carcinoma, you'll have several questions, fears associated with them. all and sundry eventually realizes some way to touch upon an mucous membrane cancer diagnosis. In time, you'll find what works for you. till then, you would possibly strive to:

  • Find out enough about endometrial cancer to make decisions about your care. Find out enough concerning your cancer so you're feeling comfy about creating treatment choices. raise your doctor about the stage, your treatment choices and also their aspect effects. In addition to talking together with your doctor, search for information in your native library and on the internet. sensible sources of knowledge embrace the National Cancer Institute and the yank Cancer Society. 

  • Maintain a strong support system. Strong relationships could assist you to affect treatment. speak with shut friends and members of the family concerning however you're feeling. Connect with alternative cancer survivors through support teams in your community or online. raise your doctor about support groups in your area. 

  • Stay involved in your usual activities when you can. When you're feeling up to it, try to stay involved in your usual activities.

Preparing for your appointment

Make a meetinging|a rendezvous} together with your medical aid doctor or a medical specialist if you've got signs and symptoms that worry you. If you're diagnosed with mucous membrane cancer, you're doubtless to be noted by a doctor who focuses on cancers of the feminine genital system (gynecologic oncologist). As a result, appointments are often brief and there's often heaps to discuss, it's an honest plan to be prepared. Here's some data to assist you get ready, and what you'll expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking. additionally note if you've used any variety of secretion medical care within the past, as well as contraception pills, estrogen antagonist or alternative hormonal treatments. 

  • Ask a family member or friend to accompany you. Sometimes it may be troublesome to soak up all the data provided throughout AN appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll keep in mind one thing that you just lost or forgot. 

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time along with your doctor is limited, thus getting ready an inventory of queries prior time will assist you build the foremost of some time together. List your questions from most vital to least important just in case time runs out. For mucosa cancer, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there any other possible causes for my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need to diagnose endometrial cancer?

  • Are there other tests for staging the cancer?

  • What treatments are available? What side effects can I expect from each treatment? How will these treatments affect my sexuality?

  • What do you feel is the best course of action for me?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Has my cancer spread? What stage is it?

  • What's my prognosis?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask additional questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor can doubtless have queries for you. If you're able to answer them, it should facilitate reserve time to travel over points you would like to pay longer on. Your doctor may ask:

  • Have you experienced any unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge? How often does that occur?

  • Do you have any pelvic pain?

  • Have you had any other symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

  • Have you taken estrogen-only hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms?

  • Do you have any personal history of cancer?

  • Have other members of your family been diagnosed with cancer? How old was each relative when he or she was diagnosed? What types of cancer?

General summary

What is the most effective treatment for endometrial cancer?

Interval-based treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are the most effective treatment for endometrial cancer because they target tumor cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue Water-based super-selective cryoablation was previously considered the best way to get rid of tumors but this technique has been linked with poor results and a tendency to leave behind unwanted tissue.

Can endometrial cancer be cured without surgery?

Thankfully endometrial cancer is highly curable in its early stages After diagnosis many women undergo surgery as the first step to treat their cancer and prevent it from returning However researchers are looking for ways to make treatment less invasive for other women with the disease.

Can endometrial cancer come back after hysterectomy?

After a hysterectomy the uterus is removed so you will no longer have periods and will not be able to get pregnant However it is possible for endometrial cancer to come back in other areas of the body after surgery But it is unlikely that this would happen If metastases do occur they are likely to appear in the lungs or bones and may cause symptoms such as fatigue loss of appetite and weight loss.

Can endometrial cancer come back after surgery?

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers to affect women in the United States Roughly 56,000 new cases are diagnosed each year and more than 8,000 women die from endometrial cancer annually Surgery is one of the primary treatment options for endometrial cancer; however not all patients are guaranteed a remission with surgery alone In fact roughly 15 percent of all women who undergo surgery for endometrial cancer experience tumor recurrence or progression within five years after their initial treatment Fortunately many researchers are diligently working on developing new prognostic factors that can help identify which patients are at risk for rec.

Is radiation therapy painful?

Radiation therapy is not generally painful However most patients receiving radiation do experience some oral side effects such as dry mouth and significant changes in taste; these usually go away after treatment is finished Oral pain from the procedure itself may be experienced when the jaw or muscles are exposed to higher doses of radiation for larger tumors The cancer care team will work with you to manage any pain that arises during treatment.

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Endometrial cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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