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Factitious disorder : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention


What is Factitious disorder?


Factitious disorder is a serious mental health disorder in which someone deliberately creates symptoms of an illness in order to receive medical attention. The symptoms are not real. People use decoupage to gain practical benefits, such as a psychological boost.

Mental illness is called "factitious disorder." It is a condition that is associated with severe emotional difficulties and the likelihood of patients harming themselves by continuing to produce more symptoms. 


What is Factitious disorder?


Medical terms

Factitious disorder is a serious disorder during which somebody deceives others by showing sick, by intentionally obtaining sick or by self-injury. unreal disorder can also happen once relations or caregivers incorrectly give others, equivalent to children, as being ill, disabled or impaired.

unreal disorder symptoms can vary from gentle (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously known as Munchausen syndrome). The person might compose symptoms or perhaps tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as speculative surgery, is needed.

 unreal disorder isn't identical as inventing medical issues for practical benefit, such as obtaining out of labor or winning a lawsuit. Although individuals with unreal disorders grasp they're inflicting their symptoms or illnesses, they'll not understand the explanations for his or her behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.

 unreal disorder is difficult to spot and exhausting to treat. However, medical and medical facilitation are important for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

  1. Factitious disorders, also known as Munchausen Syndrome, is a mental disorder in which a person deliberately pretends to have a physical or mental illness when they are not actually sick. The goal of this behavior is to gain sympathy and attention from those around them. People with factitious disorders often go to great lengths to create a convincing story of physical or mental illness, such as making up medical histories and detailed symptoms. They may even go so far as to falsify medical tests or harm themselves in order to create the appearance of being ill.

  2. Factitious disorder is a mental health condition where a person falsely presents physical or psychological symptoms to receive medical attention. Individuals with factitious disorder often present with symptoms that can be hard to distinguish from a true medical illness. The person may go to great lengths to convince people, including medical professionals, that they are genuinely ill. Additionally, their symptoms may become more severe or change often, as they are more interested in the medical attention rather than the actual medical ailment.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

What are the different types of factitious disorder?

Factitious disorders are of two types:

  • Factitious disorder imposed on self: This type of disorder includes the creation of fake psychological or physical signs or symptoms. An example of a psychological factitious disorder is pretending to have symptoms of a mental illness, such as schizophrenia.Someone who is experiencing delirium may seem confused, make strange statements, and see hallucinations. Having hallucinations (experiencing things that are not there, for example hearing voices).

  • Factitious disorder imposed on another: People with this disorder purposely create or fabricate symptoms of illness in others under their care. This most often occurs in mothers who harm their children in order to receive attention. The diagnosis is made when there are clear signs of illness in the person being cared for. The perpetrator was not given to the victim, but rather to themselves.

What are the warning signs of faked behavior?

Some warning signs that may indicate that a person is experiencing factitious disorder include:

  • A medical history that is dramatic but inconsistent.

  • If you have unclear symptoms that you cannot control, they will become worse or change once you start treatment.

  • There may be occasional setbacks following an improvement in the condition.

  • You will need extensive knowledge about hospitals and medical terminology in addition to textbook descriptions of common illnesses.

  • Presence of many surgical scars.

  • If a test results in negative results, subsequent symptoms may appear.

  • The patient only experiences symptoms when they are alone or not being observed.

  • The willingness or eagerness to have medical tests, such as surgery, done.

  • People have been seeking treatment at many hospitals and clinics in the past. This might have involved traveling to different cities.

  • The patient may be reluctant to allow healthcare professionals to meet with friends and family members who have been involved in their care before.

  • Do not refuse to have a psychiatric or psychological evaluation.

  • Despite having no evidence to support it, doctors are still predicting negative medical outcomes.

  • Something unexpected is happening that is causing the patient to stop cooperating with their discharge plans.

How common is factitious disorder?

There is no reliable information about the number of people in the United States who have a disorder called factitious disorder. It is difficult to obtain accurate statistics because patients with this condition usually don't recognize that they have it, and they tend to seek treatment. There are many different healthcare facilities, which results in statistics that are sometimes misleading. It is estimated that about 1% of those admitted to hospitals are believed to have factitious disorder, but this number may be underreported.

When to see a doctor

People with unreal disorder are also cognizant of the danger of injury or maybe death as a result of self-harm or the treatment they seek, however they can't manage their behaviors and they're unlikely to hunt easily. Even once confronted with objective proof — comparable to a videotape — that they're inflicting their illness, they typically deny it and refuse medical help.

If you think that love may be exaggerating or faking health problems, it's going to help to aim for delicate voice communication concerning your concerns. try to avoid anger, judgment or confrontation. conjointly try to reinforce and encourage more healthy, productive activities rather than specializing in dysfunctional beliefs and behaviors. supply support and caring and, if possible, facilitate finding treatment.

If your

If your love causes self-inflicted injury or makes an attempt suicide, decision 911 or emergency medical help or, if you'll safely do so, take him or her to an ER immediately.

Symptoms Factitious disorde

Factitious disorder is an illness in which a person intentionally and deliberately produces or feigns physical or psychological symptoms It is also known as Munchausen's syndrome after Baron von Munchausen the 18th-century German soldier and storyteller who popularized stories about his own exploits.

factitious disorder vs conversion disorder

Factitious disorder and conversion disorder both involve the body faking an illness One is caused by emotional issues while the other may be related to psychological dysfunction Learn the differences between factitious disorder vs conversion disorder here.

What is an example of factitious disorder?

Some mental health professionals and law enforcement officers believe that some individuals who claim to suffer from a chronic illness are actually faking it in order to gain attention and sympathy This is called factitious disorder People with this condition intentionally exaggerate fake or fabricate symptoms of an existing illness They typically do so in order to assume the role of the patient and receive care and concern from others.

What's the difference between factitious disorder and Munchausen?

Munchausen Syndrome is a type of factitious disorder that involves the fabrication or exaggeration of physical and psychological symptoms People with Munchausen syndrome will often undergo procedures in hospital emergency rooms to get attention for themselves Individuals with Munchausen by Proxy do not fabricate their own symptoms They act as caregivers for someone else usually a child and fabricate or exaggerate the symptoms of their loved one.

Is factitious disorder a psychosis?

Factitious disorder is not considered a psychosis but rather a dissociative disorder Factitious disorder involves people intentionally creating or causing physical or psychological symptoms of illness in themselves The motivation for factitious disorders is to assume the sick role and garner attention from caregivers People with this condition are also known as "malingerers.

What is the difference between malingering and factitious disorder?

Malingering is a behavior in which a person willfully and intentionally produces false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms in order to assume the sick role Factitious disorder is a mental disorder characterized by the conscious production or feigning of physical or psychological symptoms motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work evading criminal prosecution obtaining drugs (especially opioids) financial benefits and sexual gratification The main feature that distinguishes malingering from factitious disorder is that patients with factitious disorder have an internal motivation for their behavior whereas patients with malingering have an external motivation for their behavior.

Causes factitious disorder

The cause of factitious disorder is not known, but it is believed that both biological and psychological factors are involved. Some theories suggest that a history of abuse or neglect as a child or a family history of frequent illnesses can be factors. The disorder may be due to certain factors.

Many patients with Factitious Disorder have histories of abuse, trauma, family dysfunction, social isolation, or early chronic medical illness.

What are the signs of factitious disorder?

People with factitious disorder may:

  • Lie about or mimic symptoms.

  • Hurt themselves to bring on symptoms.

  • Do not tamper with diagnostic tests, such as contaminating a urine sample or injuring a wound in order to prevent it from healing.

  • Some tests and operations may be painful or risky, but it is important to be willing to undergo them in order to receive the sympathy and special attention given to people who are really ill.

Most people with this condition do not believe they are actually ill. They may not be completely aware of why they are causing their own illness. Many people with factitious disorder also have other mental disorders, such as personality or identity disorders.

Diagnosis Factitious disorder

It is difficult to diagnose factitious disorder, because doctors must rule out any possible physical and mental illnesses as well. They often use a variety of diagnostic tests and procedures before making a diagnosis.

If the healthcare provider cannot find a physical cause for the person's symptoms, he or she may refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist. Psychiatrists and psychologists use a thorough history and physical examination to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Examinations in a laboratory evaluate a person for physical and mental conditions. Imaging tests and psychological testing can be used to assess a person's condition.

The doctor bases a diagnosis on the exclusion of any physical or mental illness and on observing the patient’s attitude and behavior.

  1. Stages of disease diagnosis

Treatment Factitious disorder

The first goal of treatment is to change the person’s behavior and stop them from using medical resources in a harmful way. In the case of factitious disorder imposed on another, the main goal is to ensure the safety and well-being of any real or potential victims.

If the goal is reached, treatment will aim to resolve any underlying psychological issues that may be causing the behavior.

The primary treatment for factitious disorder is psychotherapy. This type of counseling will focus on changing the thinking and behavior of the individual with the disorder (cognitive-behavioral therapy). Family therapy may also help teach family members how to handle rewards in a way that does not reinforce the disorder. Teach the person with the disorder how to behave better.

There is no specific medication that can be used to treat factitious disorder. However, medications may be used to treat any other disorder that is related, such as depression or anxiety.

  1. Psychological rehabilitation
  2. Child medical and psychological care
  3. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

What are the possible complications of Factitious Disorder?

People with factitious disorder may experience health problems due to self-inflicted injuries, as well as problems related to multiple testing procedures and treatments. They also are at high risk for substance abuse and suicide attempts. Abuse is a fake disorder that is inflicted on another person, which can lead to their death.

Prevention Factitious disorder

There is no known way to prevent fake disorder. It may be helpful to start treatment as soon as people begin to have symptoms.

What is the long-term outlook for people with factitious disorder?

People with factitious disorder experience brief episodes of symptoms. In most cases, however, factitious disorder is a chronic or long-term condition that can be very difficult to treat. Unfortunately, because people with factitious disorder are often unaware of their condition, they will not seek help. You can do one of two things: follow the treatment or do nothing.


What you can do

if your dear gives permission for his or her doctor to contact you or meet with you, take steps to induce readiness. create a listing of:

Your loved one' health history in the maximum amount of detail as possible. embody health complaints, diagnoses, medical treatments and procedures. If possible, bring the names and make contact with information of health care professionals or facilities that provided care. Be prepared to assist your loved one sign releases of knowledge to get records and permit for conversations with different healthcare professionals.

Any current behaviors or circumstances you observe that cause you to be concerned that your dear might have artificial disorder.

Key points from your loved one' personal history, as well as abuse or different trauma that occurred throughout childhood and any important recent losses.

Medications your loved one presently takes, including supplements and over-the-counter and prescription drugs, and also the dosages.

Your queries for the doctor in order that you'll create the foremost of your discussion.

For factitious disorder, some questions to ask the doctor include:


  • How much do you expect treatment could improve the symptoms?

  • How will you monitor my loved one's well-being over time?

  • Do you think family therapy will be helpful in this case?

  • What next steps should we take?

  • What is likely causing my loved one's symptoms or condition?

  • Are there other possible causes?

  • How will you determine the diagnosis?

  • Is this condition likely temporary or long lasting?

  • What treatments are recommended for this disorder?

What to expect from the doctor

The doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • What injuries or illnesses has your loved one recently complained of or been treated for in the past?

  • Has your loved one been diagnosed with any specific medical problem?

  • What treatments has he or she had, including drugs and surgery?

  • Do you know if he or she ever had a self-inflicted injury or attempted suicide?

  • Did he or she suffer any other trauma during childhood, such as a serious illness, loss of a parent or abuse?

  • Have you talked to your loved one about your concerns?

  • How often has your loved one changed doctors or hospitals in the past?

  • Have any doctors, friends or family had concerns that your loved one may be causing or contributing to his or her illness?

  • Have any doctors, friends or family had concerns that your loved one may be causing or contributing to illness in another person?

  • How have your loved one's symptoms affected his or her career and personal relationships?

General summary 

  • The term factitious disorder is used to describe a variety of behaviors in which patients feign disease or illness for psychological reasons Factitious disorders are classified as either mild or severe depending on the extent and motivation of the faking behavior.

  • Factitious disorder is a mental illness that involves the fabrication of symptoms or the recurrence of feigned sickness to assume the sick role This disorder is also known as Munchausen syndrome which was named after Baron von Munchausen who was known for telling fanciful and improbable stories about himself Factitious disorder is an unconscious psychological process in which people feign illness or injury in order to gain attention from medical professionals caregivers or family members The person with factitious disorder may be unable to stop his behavior and may continue to fabricate symptoms even when faced with severe consequences.

  • Factitious disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which those affected act as if they have physical or psychological symptoms when they actually don’t. It is also known as Munchausen’s Syndrome and it affects roughly one in every 100,000 people. People with factitious disorder are often referred to as “fakers” or “simulators” and their symptoms can be hard to distinguish from real physical or psychological issues. People who suffer from this disorder often go to great lengths to deceive others, such as fabricating medical documents, lying about their past, or creating false identities.

Factitious disorder : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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