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Gallbladder cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Gallbladder Cancer?

Gallbladder cancer occurs when abnormal (cancer) cells grow in your gallbladder. The organ is a pear-shaped organ located under your liver in your upper abdomen.

The outside of your gallbladder is made up of four layers of tissue: the outermost layer is the skin, then the next layer is muscle, the third layer is fat, and the fourth layer is the gallbladder itself.

  • The inner layer (mucosal layer).

  • The muscle layer.

  • The connective tissue layer.

  • The outer layer (serosal layer).

Cancer begins in the mucosal layer (the topmost layer of the gallbladder) and spreads outward. It is often found after surgery to the gallbladder, or it may not be noticed until it has progressed to an advanced stage.


What is Gallbladder Cancer

Explanation of medical terms and concept Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer could be an abnormal growth of cells that begins within the gallbladder.

Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the correct aspect of your abdomen, simply below your liver. The gallbladder stores bile, a succus created by your liver.

Vesica cancer is uncommon. Once gallbladder cancer is discovered at its earliest stages, the prospect for a cure is incredibly good. However, most gallbladder cancers are discovered at a late stage, when the prognosis is usually very poor.

Vesica cancer might not be discovered till it's advanced as a result of it often causes no specific signs or symptoms. Also, the comparatively hidden nature of the vesica makes it easier for gallbladder cancer to grow while not being detected.

Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease that affects only three or four out of 100,000 people annually Gallstones are the most common sign of gallbladder cancer but not all people with gallstones have cancer Men and women are equally susceptible to this disease The risk for patients with certain cancers such as breast colon and rectal cancers also increases the risk of developing gallbladder cancer However no clear association has been found between gallbladder cancer and obesity or diabetes mellitus.

Gallbladder cancer is a rare form of the disease that usually results in other more common gallbladder diseases The gallbladder is a small organ located under the liver for storing bile produced by the liver Bile helps digest fat and transports waste products to the intestines where they are excreted Gallbladder cancer occurs when cancerous tumors grow within or on top of the gallbladder and can sometimes extend outside of it as well.

Can cancer in your gallbladder spread to other parts of your body?

Cancer can spread through your body in a number of ways.

  • Tissue: Cancer grows into nearby areas.

  • Lymph systemCancer spreads through the lymphatic system. This is how it travels to different parts of the body.

  • BloodCancer spreads through the bloodstream to other parts of the body.

Cancer is named after the place where it began. If you have cancer that began in your liver, it's called metastatic liver cancer.

What are the different stages of gallbladder cancer?

Cancer is one of the biggest concerns we have. It can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, and our healthcare provider will assign a number to the diagnosis. The higher the number, the more serious the cancer is. The more cancer has spread throughout your body, the worse the situation is. The stages of gallbladder cancer are as follows:

  • Carcinoma in situ (also known as Stage 0) is a cancer that has not yet spread to other parts of the body.The cancer is only located in the mucosal (inner) layer of the gallbladder.

  • Stage 1:The cancer has spread to the uppermost layer of muscle.

  • Stage 2: The cancer has spread beyond the muscle layer and into the connective tissue layer.

  • Stage 3:The cancer has spread to one of the liver's or nearby organs' tissues, or it has spread to the outer layer of the organ (the serosa) and possibly to lymph nodes.

  • Stage 4:The cancer has spread to more than three nearby lymph nodes, which are near vessels and/or organs that are located far from the gallbladder.

How common is gallbladder cancer?

Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease. In the United States each year from 2007 through 2011, around 3700 people were diagnosed with it and about 2000 people died.

Who is at a higher risk of getting gallbladder cancer?

Gallbladder cancer is more common in women than in men. You’re also more likely to get gallbladder cancer if you belong to a certain ethnic group.

  • American Indian.

  • An Alaskan native.

  • Black.

  • Asian American.

There are some factors that may increase your chance of getting sick from the flu.These include being: This includes being:

  • A smoker.

  • The textile and rubber industries expose people to chemicals.

  • Someone has been diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

  • Having cysts in your common bile duct.

  • Old. The average age of diagnosis is 72.

  • Obese.

  • Gallbladder polyps can lead to inflammation and/or infections.

  • Infected with salmonella.

  • Eating an unhealthy diet.

If you have gallstones, that doesn't mean you'll get gallbladder cancer, but it does increase your risk.

Can gallbladder cancer be inherited (passed down from parents)?

Some people do not believe that gallbladder cancer is inherited.

Does gallbladder cancer hurt?

Abdominal pain may be a sign of gallbladder cancer.

Can gallbladder cancer be mistaken for gallstones? Yes, gallbladder cancer can sometimes be mistaken for gallstones. Gallstones are a type of stone that is formed in the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a type of cancer that arises from the tissues and organs in the gallbladder.

If you have gallstones or gallbladder cancer, you may experience pain in the upper right part of your abdomen. This could be because of gallbladder cancer, which is often found when doctors are examining for gallstones.

Can gallbladder cancer be fatal? What is the survival rate?

Gallbladder cancer is usually not found until it has progressed significantly. One study found that 43% of gallbladder cancers were diagnosed after the cancer had spread to other nearby organs or lymph nodes, and 42% were found after the cancer had spread to distant organs or lymph nodes. This is because often gallbladder cancers are not recognized until they have progressed significantly. Gallbladder cancer can be deadly if it is found late after it has spread to other areas of the body.

When to see a doctor

Make an arrangement along with your doctor if you expertise any signs or symptoms that worry you.

symptoms  Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is hard to detect early on because there are no obvious symptoms and because when symptoms do occur they are similar to conditions that are less serious.The gallbladder's location makes it difficult to find cancer. The following symptoms may be indicative of gallbladder cancer: Some signs that someone may have gallbladder cancer include: - having pain in the lower right side of the stomach, on the left side near the liver, or below the rib cage on the right side - having a fever over 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) - being unable to empty one's bowel completely after eating

  • Jaundice is a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes become yellow.

  • Pain above the stomach area.

  • Fever.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Bloating.

  • Abdominal lumps.

Causes Gallbladder cancer

It is not clear what causes gallbladder cancer.

It's not clear what causes vesica cancer.

Doctors understand that gallbladder cancer kinds once healthy gallbladder cells develop changes (mutations) within their deoxyribonucleic acid. A cell' DNA contains the directions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow out of management and to continue living when alternative cells would ordinarily die. The accumulating cells form a growth which will grow on the far side of the gallbladder and unfold to other areas of the body.

Most gallbladder cancer begins in the organ cells that line the inner surface of the gallbladder. Vesica cancer that begins during this sort of cell is termed adenocarcinoma. This term refers to the method the cancer cells seem once examined underneath a microscope.

Risk factors

Factors which will increase the chance of bladder cancer include:

  • Your sex. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women.

  • Your age. Your risk of gallbladder cancer increases as you age.

  • A history of gallstones. Gallbladder cancer is most typical in folks that have gallstones or have had gallstones within the past. Larger gallstones could carry a bigger risk. Still, gallstones are quite common and even in folks with this condition, bladder cancer is extremely rare.

  • Other gallbladder diseases and conditions. Other vesica conditions which will increase the danger of gallbladder cancer embrace polyps, chronic inflammation and infection.

  • Inflammation of the bile ducts. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, that causes inflammation of the ducts that drain digestive fluid from the bladder and liver, will increase the danger of gallbladder cancer.

Diagnosis Gallbladder cancer

There are rarely any signs or symptoms in the early stages of gallbladder cancer, and those symptoms can resemble other illnesses. Gallbladder cancer is often diagnosed later when you have gallstones or need your gallbladder removed.

If your healthcare provider thinks you may have gallbladder cancer, they will examine you and ask about your medical history. Then they will do other tests, such as:

Lab tests:

  • Blood chemistries:This test measures specific types of substances in your blood, including those that could indicate cancer.

  • Liver function test:This test measures certain substances that are released by your liver when it is affected by gallbladder cancer.

  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay:This test measures levels of a tumor marker released by both healthy and cancerous cells.

  • CA 19-9 assay: This test measures the levels of a tumor marker in your blood. This substance is released by both healthy and cancer cells. Higher levels could indicate that you have gallbladder or pancreatic cancer.

Imaging tests:

  • Abdominal ultrasound:The ultrasound machine uses sound waves to create pictures of the organs in your abdomen.

  • CT (or CAT) scan:This type of X-ray is used to take detailed images of internal organs.

  • Chest X-ray.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging):A medical procedure that takes pictures of inside the body using a magnet and a computer.

  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure that allows doctors to view the inside of your stomach and small intestine.A X-ray procedure that takes pictures of the liver can show if gallbladder cancer has caused the ducts to narrow.

  • Ultrasound using a special camera that is inserted through a small incision in the skin.

Other tests:

  • Biopsy:Cancer can be examined under a microscope using a procedure.

  • Laparoscopy:A surgery in which a thin, lighted tube called a laparoscope is inserted through an incision in your abdomen to look inside your body.

Treatment Gallbladder cancer

What bladder cancer treatment choices are offered to you'll} rely upon the stage of your cancer, your overall health and your preferences.

The initial goal of treatment is to get rid of gallbladder cancer, however once that isn't possible, different therapies may facilitate management of the unfolding of the illness and keep you as comfy as possible.

What kind of healthcare provider is best suited to treat/manage gallbladder cancer?

You may see many different doctors to help treat your gallbladder cancer:

  • Surgeon/surgical oncologistA cancer treatment specialist is a surgeon who specializes in treating cancer.

  • Medical oncologistThis type of healthcare provider will help you receive chemotherapy and other medications.

  • Radiation oncologistThis provider uses radiation to help manage the growth of cancer.

  • GastroenterologistThese providers specialize in your digestive system.

Can gallbladder cancer be cured? How is gallbladder cancer treated? What are some of the medicines that may help with gallbladder cancer?

To cure gallbladder cancer, it must be found early before it has spread. The stage of the cancer affects the treatment. Localized cancer (stage 1) may be treated with:

  • Surgery:A cholecystectomy is a surgery that removes your gallbladder and nearby tissue. The surgeon may also remove lymph nodes located near the gallbladder and part of the liver near the gallbladder.

  • Radiation Radiation therapy is a way to kill cancer cells or stop them from multiplying by irradiating them with high levels of radiation. The radiation is delivered by machines outside of your body. If you receive radiation treatment, you may experience side effects such as hair loss and skin reactions. Some of the side effects of asparagus include skin problems, nausea and vomiting, tiredness, liver damage, and diarrhea.

  • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from multiplying. Drugs used in chemotherapy may be injected (by a needle) or taken orally (by mouth). Some examples of chemo drugs include Gemcitabine (Gemzar®), cisplatin (Platinol®), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine (Xeloda®), and oxaliplatin. Chemotherapy can cause tiredness, easy bruising, easy bleeding, infections, hair loss, mouth sores, loss of appetite, diarrhea and nausea and vomiting.

Some clinical trials are trying new ways of treating people:

  • Radiation sensitizers.

  • Targeted therapy.

  • Immunotherapy.

How is gallbladder cancer surgery done?

Most gallbladder cancer surgeries are laparoscopic operations with smaller cuts. In addition to removing your gallbladder, your surgeon may also remove tissues surrounding it. If you have a simple cholecystectomy, your surgeon will remove your gallbladder. An extended cholecystectomy is a more involved surgery that may also involve removing parts of the liver. In addition to removing the gallbladder, other tissues may also be cut out in this surgery.

Is the surgery inpatient or outpatient?

Discuss your surgery with your surgeon. You might not need to spend any time in the hospital, or you may only need to stay overnight.

Who performs the surgery?

A surgical oncologist.

After surgery for gallbladder cancer, what happens next?

You may need additional surgery. You may also need to receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy to lower the chances of cancer returning.

What do I have to do after I go home?

Make sure to follow up with your healthcare provider as required. Your provider might recommend that you have additional testing done every six months for at least two years.

What are the potential side effects of gallbladder surgery?

Before surgery, you must weigh the risks. These risks include:

  • Extra bleeding.

  • Blood clots.

  • Pneumonia.

  • Complications from anesthesia.

  • Infection.

How soon will I feel better after the treatment?

It may take several weeks after surgery before you fully recover.

Palliative care is a type of care that helps people who are very sick feel better.

Palliative care is a type of care that is used to manage the symptoms of a disease, even if the disease isn't cured. Your healthcare provider may suggest this kind of care if you are receiving chemotherapy or radiation treatment to treat your gallbladder.

Prevention

How can I prevent gallbladder cancer?

Gallbladder cancer cannot be prevented. However, you may be able to reduce your risk by eating well and being physically active.

Can foods or drinks prevent gallbladder cancer?

There are no known supplements or foods that can prevent gallbladder cancer.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis for people with gallbladder cancer?

Your chance of recovery depends on four things: your age, general health, the type of surgery you have undergone, and how well you respond to the medical treatment you receive.

  • The stage of your cancer.

  • Can your gallbladder be removed successfully?

  • If your cancer has come back, it means the cancer has returned.

  • Your general health.

Can gallbladder cancer just go away on its own? Gallbladder cancer can usually be cured if it is caught early enough, but it can sometimes go away by itself.

Gallbladder cancer does not require treatment.

When can I go back to work/school?

Talk to your healthcare provider about when you can resume your regular activities.

Can gallbladder cancer get worse?

Eventually, cancer can spread to other parts of your body.

Can cancer that has been treated come back?

Gallbladder cancer can recur. After it is treated, it might return to the gallbladder area or another organ.

Living With

When should I visit my healthcare provider?

If you experience any of the symptoms of gallbladder cancer, see your healthcare provider as soon as possible. It’s important to have a diagnosis and receive treatment as soon as possible in order to minimize the damage to your body.

Coping and support

Learning you have got any dangerous sickness is often devastating. And dealing with a designation of bladder cancer can be particularly troublesome as a result of the sickness often carries a poor prognosis. Some ideas for learning to contend with gallbladder cancer include:
  • Ask questions about gallbladder cancer. Write down queries you have got concerning your cancer. raise these questions at your next appointment. conjointly ask your doctor for reliable sources wherever you'll be able to get additional information.
    Knowing more about your vesica cancer and your treatment choices might make it easier once it involves creating selections about your care.

Stay connected to friends and family. Your cancer diagnosis will be trying for friends and family, too. attempt to keep them concerned in your life.
Your friends and family will doubtless raise if there's something they will do to assist you. Think about tasks you may like to help with, adore caring for your home if you have got to remain within the hospital or simply being there once you need to talk.

  • you will notice comfort in the support of a caring cluster of your friends and family.

  • Find someone to talk with. Find somebody you'll be able to consult with who has expertise with individuals facing a serious illness. Consult a counselor, medical social worker, priesthood member or a support cluster for people with cancer.

  • Write down your medical wishes. Take steps to confirm that your needs are famed and respected. raise your doctor concerning advance directives, which permit you to point what sorts of treatment you'd need within the event you can't communicate your wishes. conjointly ask about designating a medical power of attorney, that is somebody you designate to create your selections for you if you can't communicate.

Preparing for your appointment

Start by creating a meeting together with your general practitioner if you have got signs or symptoms that worry you. If your doctor suspects you will have vesica cancer, you may be observed a specialist, such as:
  • A doctor who specializes in treating digestive conditions (gastroenterologist)

  • A surgeon who operates on the liver or gallbladder

  • A doctor who specializes in treating cancer (oncologist)

Because appointments may be short, and since there's tons of data to discuss, it's an honest plan to be prepared. Here's some information to assist you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you create the appointment, make sure to raise it if there's something you wish to try to do in advance, akin to limiting your diet.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing,including any that will appear unrelated to the rationale that you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, as well as any vitamins or supplements, that you're taking.

  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it is often tough to recollect all the knowledge provided throughout an associate appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll remember one thing that you just incomprehensible or forgot.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time together with your doctor is limited, thus making ready a listing of queries can assist you create the foremost of some time together. List your questions from most significant to least important just in case time runs out. For bladder cancer, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:

  • What is my stage of gallbladder cancer?

  • Can you explain the pathology report to me? Can I have a copy of my pathology report?

  • Will I need more tests?

  • What are the treatment options for my gallbladder cancer?

  • What are the benefits and risks of each option?

  • Is there one treatment option you recommend over the others?

  • What would you recommend to a loved one in my same situation?

  • Should I get a second opinion from a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the queries that you've ready to raise your doctor, don't hesitate to ask different questions throughout your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them could permit longer later to hide different points you would like to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

The survival rate of gallbladder cancer patients is poor when it's diagnosed in advanced stages Chemotherapy can sometimes improve the chances of survival depending on the type of gallbladder cancer tumor and its stage of progress at diagnosis The treatment isn't without side effects though Chemotherapy damages healthy cells along with cancerous ones which can result in severe symptoms including nausea and vomiting.

Can you operate on gallbladder cancer?

The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ that sits just beneath the liver Its main function is to store and release bile an indispensable digestive fluid that helps break down fats in your food Gallstones are a common condition where solid matter forms in the bile within the gallbladder or bile ducts When you have gallstones it can lead to acute pain felt in the upper-right abdomen near your ribs or between your shoulder blades They also cause blockage of the bile ducts which may prevent proper digestion and absorption of nutrients from food The stones can also form into larger masses called.

Can gallbladder cancer be cured with surgery?

In general gallbladder cancer is not curable Once it has spread to other parts of the body surgery may be an option for treatment only if the tumor can be completely removed Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are also used in some cases In addition they may help relieve pain or prevent complications associated with untreated tumors by shrinking them enough to relieve pressure on nearby organs Symptoms of gallbladder cancer include jaundice abdominal pain or discomfort behind the breastbone (sternum) fever and fatigue.

What are the long term effects of gallbladder removal?

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ in your abdomen that stores and releases bile which aids in the digestion of fatty foods When you eat a meal with high fat content such as cheesecake or hot fudge sundaes cholecystokinin (CCK) is released by your small intestine CCK travels to the pancreas stimulating the release of a hormone called secretin Secretion causes bile to flow from the gallbladder into the small intestine Bile salts then help break down fats for easier digestion and absorption The waste products from this process are excreted.

Is gallbladder removal a major surgery?

If you're facing gallbladder removal surgery learn all about what to expect and how long you'll be in recovery.

How long is recovery from gallbladder surgery?

After gallbladder surgery patients are typically advised to avoid solid food for the first day or two After that doctors advise chewing your food very well and taking smaller meals more frequently during the postoperative period For most people full recovery from gallbladder surgery takes a few weeks At four weeks after surgery your doctor will likely perform tests that should show that all of the problems you had before—including pain nausea and vomiting—have been resolved.

Will I gain weight after gallbladder removal?

If you've had your gallbladder removed weight gain is still possible It depends upon what stage of the process you're in at the time If you're in the pre-operative period exercising and dieting can help keep weight gain to a minimum as well as prevent stomach upsets that may otherwise occur post-operation (due to bile not being available) In addition keep in mind that some foods – especially fats - are more difficult for your body to digest without the presence of a gallbladder This makes it important for those who've had their gallbladders removed to exercise portion control when eating such foods.

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Gallbladder cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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