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Genetic disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


What are genetic disorders?

Genetic disorders happen when a mutation or change to a gene is harmful. This can happen when you have the wrong amount of genetic material, or when a mutation affects your genes. genes are made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which contains instructions for cell function and physical characteristics. You'll make a unique addition to your costume.

You inherit half of your genes from each of your biological parents. Sometimes this results in a gene mutation. This can increase your risk of having a genetic disorder. Some of these disorders are present at birth, while others develop over time.

Genetic disorders

Genetic disorders can be:

  • Chromosomal: This type of cancer can affect the structures that hold your genes/DNA within each cell (chromosomes). This can lead to people missing or having duplicate chromosome material.
  • Complex (multifactorial): These disorders are caused by a combination of gene mutations and other factors. These can include exposure to chemicals, improper diet, certain medications, and tobacco or alcohol use.
  • Single-gene (monogenic): This group of conditions is caused by a single gene mutation.

What are common genetic disorders?

There are many types of conflicts. They include:

Chromosomal disorders

  • Down syndrome (Trisomy 21).
  • FragileX syndrome.
  • Klinefelter syndrome.
  • Triple-X syndrome.
  • Turner syndrome.
  • Trisomy 18.
  • Trisomy 13.

Multifactorial disorders

  • Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Arthritis.
  • Autism spectrum disorder, in most cases.
  • Cancer, in most cases.
  • Coronary artery disease.
  • Diabetes.
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Spina bifida.
  • Isolated congenital heart defects.

Monogenic disorders

  • Cystic fibrosis.
  • If you are deaf from birth, it is called congenital deafness.
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia is a type of high cholesterol disease that is passed down through families.
  • Hemochromatosis is a condition that results in too much iron in the blood.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • Sickle cell disease.
  • Tay-Sachs disease.

What are some other types of genetic disorders?

Rare diseases can be caused by genetic disorders. This group of conditions affects fewer than two million people in the United States. Experts believe that there may be up to seven thousand rare diseases.

Rare genetic disorders include:

  • AA amyloidosis.
  • ALD is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain, spinal cord, and adrenal glands.
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
  • Mitochondrial diseases.
  • Usher syndrome.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the causes of genetic disorders?

Understanding genetic disorders is helpful if you want to know how they happen. Most of the DNA in your genes controls what proteins the body makes. These proteins start complex interactions inside cells that help you stay healthy.

Mutations happen when changes occur to the genes' protein-making instructions. This can cause missing proteins or problems with the ones that are already present. Environmental factors, also called mutagens, that can cause genetic mutations include:

  • Chemical exposure.
  • Radiation exposure.
  • Smoking.
  • UV exposure from the sun.

What are the symptoms of genetic disorders?

Different symptoms will occur depending on the type of disorder that the organs are affected and how severe it is. You may experience:

  • Behavioral changes or disturbances.
  • Breathing problems.
  • When the brain can't process information as it should, there are cognitive deficits.
  • Some developmental delays include difficulties with speaking or interacting socially.
  • A diet that is not well suited for digestion can lead to eating problems such as difficulty swallowing or an inability to absorb nutrients.
  • Abnormalities on the limbs or face, such as missing fingers or a cleft lip and palate.
  • Muscle stiffness or weakness can cause movement disorders.
  • Neurological problems such as seizures or a stroke can occur.
  • Poor growth or short stature.
  • Vision or hearing loss.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are genetic disorders identified?

If you have a family history of a genetic disorder, you may want to consider genetic counseling in order to see if genetic testing is appropriate for you. Tests can typically show whether you have gene mutations that are responsible for that condition. In many cases, having the mutation does not always mean that you will develop the condition. You will end up with it. Genetic counselors can explain your risk and what steps you can take to protect your health.

If you want to have a baby, genetic testing can be a part of the process. There are many different options, including family history DNA testing.

  • Carrier testing:This blood test can determine whether you or your partner have a mutation that is associated with genetic disorders. This test is recommended for anyone who is considering getting pregnant, even if there is no family history of these disorders.
  • Prenatal screening:This testing involves taking blood from a pregnant woman to see if she has a common chromosome condition.
  • Prenatal diagnostic testing:You can find out whether your unborn child has a higher risk for certain genetic disorders by doing a prenatal test. This test uses a sample of fluid from the womb (amniocentesis).
  • Newborn screening:This test uses a sample of your newborn baby’s blood. It is performed on all babies born in Ohio to detect genetic disorders. If a disorder is detected early, your child may receive timely care.

Management and Treatment

What are treatments for genetic disorders?

There is no cure for most genetic disorders, but some may have treatments that slow the progression of the disease or lessen its impact on your life. The best treatment for you depends on the type and severity of the disorder. Sometimes we may not have a cure, but we can provide medical support. We are going to be looking for complications to try and catch them early.

You may need:

  • Some medications are used to manage symptoms or chemotherapy is used to slow the growth of abnormal cells.
  • Dietary counseling or supplements that can provide the nutrients your body needs.
  • Physical or speech therapy to help you maximize your abilities.
  • A blood transfusion is used to restore levels of healthy blood cells.
  • Surgery is used to repair abnormal structures or treat complications.
  • Cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy, are specialized.
  • A transplant is a procedure to replace a nonfunctioning organ with one from a healthy donor.


How can I prevent a genetic disorder?

There is little you can do to prevent a genetic disorder. But by learning more about your risk, you may be able to get help in preventing it from happening to your children. Genetic counseling and testing can help with this.

Outlook / Prognosis

What are the chances for people with genetic disorders?

There is a bleak prognosis for some conditions, like rare and congenital diseases that cause death within days. Children born with anencephaly typically only live for a few days. Other conditions, like a cleft lip, do not affect lifespan much, but you may need regular specialized care to stay comfortable.

Living With

What are some things you should know about living with a genetic disorder?

If you have a genetic disorder, you may need to see a healthcare provider frequently. It is important to see someone who specializes in that condition. They are more likely to know which treatments will work best for you.

You may find support from others who have a similar genetic disorder. These groups can provide you with resources that make your life easier. They may also organize events where you can meet other families going through the same challenges.

Read also

Genetic Disease:Disease analysis results/What causes genetic disorders?

Genetic disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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