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Head trauma: First aid/Conditions/Prevention

 Head trauma

If you see someone with head trauma, call or your local emergency number. Any of the following symptoms may mean a serious head injury:

Head trauma


  • If you have a lot of bleeding from your head or face, you need to get help.
  • If you have bleeding or fluid leakage from your nose or ears, that means you have an infection.You should go to the doctor for treatment.
  • Vomiting
  • Severe headache
  • It is important not to be unconscious for more than a few seconds.
  • If you have black-and-blue discoloration below your eyes or behind your ears, it means you are feeling sick.
  • Not breathing
  • Confusion
  • Agitation
  • Loss of balance
  • If you have a weakness or an inability to use an arm or leg, it is probably due to a medical condition.
  • Unequal pupil size
  • Slurred speech
  • Seizures


  • The signs or symptoms for adults are the same as for children.
  • Persistent crying
  • Refusal to eat
  • Infants have a soft spot on the front of their head that may bulge.
  • Repeated vomiting

When waiting for emergency medical help to arrive, take the following first-aid steps:

  • Keep the person still.If someone is injured, they should lie down on their back with their head and shoulders slightly elevated. Do not move the person unless necessary and avoid moving their neck.If the person is wearing a helmet, do not take it off.
  • Stop any bleeding.Wrap the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth. Be sure to apply firm pressure to the wound, but don't apply pressure to the area near a skull fracture unless you are sure it is not there.
  • Be on the lookout for any changes in your child's breathing or alertness.If someone does not appear to be breathing, coughing, or moving, begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation).
  • If you have symptoms such as nausea, unsteadiness, headaches, or difficulty concentrating after being hit in the head, you should see a doctor.
  • A head injury is a serious condition that can occur when someone's head hits something hard, such as the ground or another person.
  • To reduce the risk of concussion, be aware of the concussion danger signs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a list of warning signs to watch for.
  • If you have a neck or back injury, go to the emergency room. The American College of Emergency Physicians has more information on this topic.
  • Traumatic brain injury. This is a condition that can occur after a blow to the head. It can cause problems with thinking, feeling, and movement.
  • Concussion is a type of brain injury that can be severe.
Head trauma: First aid/Conditions/Prevention

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