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Autoimmune hepatitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

What is Autoimmune hepatitis?

Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by the body's immune system. The exact cause is unknown, but it may be caused by genetic and environmental factors that interact over time.

Autoimmune hepatitis can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) if it is not treated. However, if it is diagnosed and treated early, often drugs can suppress the immune system and control the disease.

What is Autoimmune hepatitis?
Autoimmune hepatitis

If autoimmune hepatitis doesn't respond to drug treatments, a liver transplant may be an option. Liver disease can be advanced in cases where the autoimmune hepatitis doesn't respond to drug treatments.

  1. Digestive system
  2. Liver

    Medical terms

    • Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory liver disease which occurs when the body’s immune system attacks healthy liver tissue. It is caused by an abnormal immune response, leading to inflammation and damage to the liver cells. It is a serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment, as it can lead to liver failure and even death. Symptoms can vary widely between individuals, but common symptoms may include abdominal pain, fatigue, jaundice, dark urine, and itchy skin.

    • Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic condition caused by the body’s immune system attacking the liver. The attack leads to inflammation and swelling of liver cells, which can lead to permanent damage. Common symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can include fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, and dark urine. Diagnosing autoimmune hepatitis is done through physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies.

    • Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic, long-term condition in which the body's immune system attacks the liver and causes it to become inflamed. This condition can be divided into two subtypes, Type I and Type II, and is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. It is estimated to affect over one million people worldwide and can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to note that autoimmune hepatitis is different from other causes of hepatitis, such as viral hepatitis infections, and requires different treatments.

    Symptoms Autoimmune hepatitis

    Some people with autoimmune hepatitis experience few if any recognized problems at the beginning of the disease, while others may experience signs and symptoms that may include:

    • Fatigue

    • Abdominal discomfort

    • If jaundice is present, the skin and whites of the eyes will become yellow.

    • An enlarged liver

    • Abnormal blood vessels can be found on the skin (spider angiomas).

    • Skin rashes

    • Joint pains

    • Loss of menstrual periods

    When to see a doctor

    If you are concerned about any signs or symptoms, see your doctor.

    Causes Autoimmune hepatitis

    Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own liver. This can result in chronic inflammation and serious damage to liver cells. It's not clear why the body starts attacking itself in this way, but researchers are exploring this area of research. Some researchers think that autoimmune hepatitis could be caused by the interaction of genes that control the immune system and exposure to particular viruses or drugs.

    Types of autoimmune hepatitis

    Doctors have identified two main forms of autoimmune hepatitis. One form is caused by the body attacking its own cells, and the other form is caused by the body attacking other things in the environment.

    • Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is the most common type of this disease. It can occur at any age, but about half of people with it have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or ulcerative colitis.

    • Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis is most common in children and young adults, but it can also occur in adults. Other autoimmune diseases may occur along with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Risk factors Autoimmune hepatitis

    There are some factors that may increase your risk of developing autoimmune hepatitis, including:

    • Being female.Autoimmune hepatitis is more common in females.

    • A history of certain infections.If you are infected with the measles, herpes simplex, or Epstein-Barr virus, you may develop autoimmune hepatitis. The disease is also linked to hepatitis A, B, or C infections.

    • Heredity.Studies suggest that a predisposition to autoimmune hepatitis may be inherited.

    • Having an autoimmune disease.People who have an autoimmune disease such as celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or hyperthyroidism are more likely to develop autoimmune hepatitis.

    Complications Autoimmune hepatitis

    If autoimmune hepatitis is not treated, it can cause permanent scarring of the liver tissue (cirrhosis).Complications of cirrhosis may include:

    • Your esophagus may have enlarged veins.If the portal vein is blocked, blood may accumulate in other veins, mainly in your stomach and esophagus. The thin walls of these veins make them susceptible to bleeding.If you are bleeding from your esophagus or stomach, it is an emergency that requires immediate medical attention.

    • Fluid in your abdomen (ascites).A person with liver disease may accumulate a lot of fluid in their abdomen. Ascites can be very uncomfortable and can interfere with breathing. This is usually a sign of advanced liver cirrhosis.

    • Liver failure.If your liver is severely damaged, you will need a liver transplant.

    • Liver cancer.People with cirrhosis are at a higher risk for liver cancer.

    Can autoimmune hepatitis go away?

    • Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the liver. It is a chronic condition that can lead to scarring and long-term damage of the liver, as well as other related issues. While autoimmune hepatitis is not curable, it can be managed with treatments such as drugs and lifestyle changes. In some cases, the disease may even go into remission, meaning that it will no longer cause any symptoms.

    • Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver condition that occurs when the immune system attacks healthy liver cells. While there is no known cure, it can be managed with proper medical care and lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the condition can go into remission with the right treatment, which usually involves medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options vary depending on each patient's individual needs and can help to reduce inflammation, restore liver function, and reduce symptoms.

    Diagnosis Autoimmune hepatitis

    Tests and procedures used to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis include: 1. A physical examination to look for symptoms 2. Blood tests to measure levels of liver enzymes and other blood proteins 3. A CT scan or MRI to find the source of the inflammation

    • Blood tests.Testing a small sample of your blood to look for antibodies can identify autoimmune hepatitis, which is different from viral hepatitis and other conditions with similar symptoms. Antibody tests also help identify the type of autoimmune hepatitis you have.

    • Liver biopsy. Doctors perform a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the severity of liver damage. During the procedure, a small amount of liver tissue is removed using a thin needle that is inserted through a small incision in your skin. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for examination. A laboratory is where the analysis of samples takes place.

    Treatment Autoimmune hepatitis

    The goal of treatment for autoimmune hepatitis is to slow or stop the immune system's attack on your liver. This may help reduce the progression of the disease. To achieve this goal, you'll need medications that lower your immune system activity. The first step in treatment is Prednisone is usually prescribed. A second medication, azathioprine (Azasan Imuran), may also be recommended in addition to prednisone.

    Prednisone can have a wide range of serious side effects, including diabetes, thinning bones (osteoporosis), broken bones (osteonecrosis), high blood pressure, cataracts, glaucoma, and weight gain.

    Doctors typically prescribe prednisone at a high dose for the first few weeks of treatment. After that, they gradually reduce the dose over the next several months until it is at the lowest possible dose that controls the disease. Adding azathioprine also helps to reduce the risk of side effects. avoid prednisone side effects by taking the appropriate steps.

    It can take a few years after starting treatment for the disease to go away, but it is likely to come back if the drug is discontinued. Depending on your situation, you may need lifelong treatment.

    Liver transplant

    If medications don't stop the disease's progress or if you develop irreversible scarring (cirrhosis) or liver failure, the only other option is a liver transplant.

    A liver transplant involves the removal of a diseased liver and its replacement with a healthy one from a donor. Liver transplants are most often done using livers from deceased donors, but in some cases a living donor can be used. In a living-donor transplant, you only receive a portion of the liver - the rest is transplanted into the recipient's body. A healthy liver is usually obtained from a living donor. Both livers begin regenerating new cells almost immediately.

    1. Liver transplant

    Preparing for your appointment

    If you have any symptoms or signs that concern you, see your primary care doctor. If your doctor suspects you may have autoimmune hepatitis, you may be referred to a specialist in liver diseases (hepatologist).

    Since appointments are often short, and there is a lot to talk about, it is a good idea to be prepared. Here are some things to know before your appointment so that you have a good experience.

    What you can do

    • Make sure you are aware of any pre-appointment restrictions.When you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there are any specific dietary restrictions that must be followed.

    • When you experience symptoms, write them down so you can remember them.Make sure to bring any materials that may be related to your appointment - for example, a picture of the problem you are experiencing.

    • Write down key personal information,Reading this passage is important because it includes things that can stress you out or cause recent life changes.

    • Make a list of all medications, vitamins, and supplements you may be taking. that you're taking.

    • Take a family member or friend alongThis information will help you remember everything that was discussed.

    • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

    Some basic questions that your doctor may ask you if you have autoimmune hepatitis include:

    • What are the most likely causes of my symptoms?

    • Are there any other possible causes?

    • What tests do I need to determine that I have autoimmune hepatitis?

    • How severe is the damage to my liver?

    • What is the likelihood of my condition being temporary or chronic?

    • What are my treatment options?

    • Can treatment cure my autoimmune hepatitis?

    • What are the possible side effects of each treatment plan?

    • What might treatment for autoimmune hepatitis affect the management of my other medical conditions?

    • Do any of my medications or habits increase the risk of my liver problems, or make my liver problems worse?

    • What are the dietary restrictions I need to follow?

    • Should I see a specialist?

    • Can I find a similar medicine that does not have the same ingredients as the medicine you are prescribing me?

    • Can I take any brochures or printed material with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

    • How often will I need follow-up visits?

    What to expect from your doctor

    Your doctor may ask you a number of questions. Being prepared to answer them may save time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your doctor may ask:

    • When did you first notice that something was wrong?

    • Has your illness been continuous or sporadic?

    • How severe are your symptoms?

    • Do you notice anything that makes your symptoms better or worse?

    • Do you have any current medical conditions that might be causing your symptoms?

    • Do you have a family history of liver disease?

    General summary

    1. Autoimmune hepatitis is a serious condition where the body’s own immune system attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage. It is most common in women between the ages of 15-40, though it can affect people of any age or gender. It can lead to cirrhosis, which is the irreversible scarring of the liver and can lead to organ failure. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, but in some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to improve quality of life.

    2. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an autoimmune disease that affects the liver and is caused by the body’s own immune system attacking the liver. It is a silent but serious condition that, if left untreated, can lead to long-term damage or even death. AIH is most commonly seen in young women, although it can occur at any age in both genders. It is often diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, blood tests, ultrasound, and biopsy.

    Autoimmune hepatitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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