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Inflammation Glomerulonephritis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). These filters remove excess fluid electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream, and they pass it into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

Glomerulonephritis occurs when the body's kidneys become inflamed. This can lead to damage to your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.

Glomerulonephritis


Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis depend on which form you have and the cause. Your first clue that something is wrong might be from symptoms or from a routine urinalysis.

Some signs and symptoms of Glomerulonephritis include:

  • If he sees pink or cola-colored urine in his urine, it means that there is blood in his urine.
  • Excessive protein in the urine causes foam.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • You may have fluid retention (edema) and swelling in your face, hands, feet, and abdomen.

When to see a doctor

If you have any indications that something is wrong, make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.

Causes

There are many reasons why someone might develop glomerulonephritis. Sometimes the disease is hereditary and sometimes the cause is unknown. Some things that can cause inflammation of the kidneys' glomeruli include:

Infections

  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.Receiving a strep throat infection or having a skin infection (impetigo) may lead to glomerulonephritis.This is an inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys, which can develop a few weeks after recovering from the infection or after getting a skin infection.

    Children are more likely to develop post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis than are adults and they usually recover quickly.

  • Bacterial endocarditis. Bacteria can occasionally spread through your bloodstream and lodge in one or more of your heart valves. If you have a heart defect, such as a damaged or artificial valve, you are at greater risk of developing bacterial endocarditis. This condition is associated with The cause of glomerular disease is unknown, but the connection between the two is unclear.
  • Viral infections.HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C can cause glomerulonephritis.

Immune diseases

  • Lupus.Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs.
  • Goodpasture's syndrome.Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare lung disorder that can cause pneumonia-like symptoms, including coughing up blood and swelling in your kidneys.
  • IgA nephropathy.This primary glomerular disease is characterized by episodes of blood in the urine. This disease results from deposits of IgA in the glomeruli. The progression of this disease can go unnoticed for years.

Vasculitis

  • Polyarteritis.This type of vasculitis affects small and medium blood vessels in many parts of your body, including your heart, kidneys, and intestines.
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a disease that causes inflammation in the body's blood vessels.This condition is formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis and affects small and medium blood vessels in your lungs, upper airways, and kidneys.

Some conditions that can cause scarring in the kidneys are likely to occur.

  • High blood pressure.This might damage your kidneys and impair their ability to work normally. Glomerulonephritis can also lead to high blood pressure because it reduces kidney function and can influence how your kidneys handle salt.
  • Kidney disease caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy).Diabetes can develop slowly over time, depending on good blood sugar and blood pressure control. If kidney damage is prevented or slowed, that person might have a better chance of long-term success with diabetes management.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.There are scattered scars on some of the glomeruli in this condition. It may be the result of another disease or it may have no known cause.

There is a chance that glomerulonephritis, a condition that can affect the kidneys, might be inherited. One form of this disorder, Alport syndrome, also can cause problems with hearing or vision.

Glomerulonephritis is associated with some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, lung cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Complications

Glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys so that they can no longer filter fluid effectively. This can lead to dangerous levels of electrolytes and waste building up in your body.

Complications of glomerulonephritis may include: -Nephritis (inflammation of the kidney) -Kidney failure -Risk for other diseases that can affect the kidney, such as cancer

  • Kidney failure that happens suddenly.If the filtering part of the nephron stops working, waste products will rapidly accumulate. This can result in needing emergency dialysis - an artificial process of removing extra fluids and waste from your blood - typically through use of an artificial kidney machine.
  • Chronic kidney disease.Your kidneys gradually lose the ability to filter blood. When kidney function falls below 10 percent of normal capacity, this is known as end-stage kidney disease and requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to sustain life.
  • High blood pressure.If you damage your kidneys, this will lead to the accumulation of wastes in your bloodstream, which can raise your blood pressure.
  • Nephrotic syndrome.If you have nephrotic syndrome, your urine will have too much protein in it. This can lead to low blood protein levels and other symptoms such as high blood cholesterol and swelling (edema) of the eyelids, feet, and abdomen.

Prevention

There is usually no way to prevent most cases of glomerulonephritis. However, here are some things that might help:

  • If you have a sore throat or impetigo, seek prompt treatment.
  • To avoid infections that can lead to some forms of glomerulonephritis, such as HIV and hepatitis, follow safe-sex guidelines and avoid intravenous drug use.
  • If you have high blood pressure, it will lessen the likelihood of damage to your kidneys from hypertension.
  • If you want to prevent diabetic nephropathy, you need to control your blood sugar.

Diagnosis

If your kidney function is abnormal, glomerulonephritis may be diagnosed through tests. These tests may include an assessment of your kidney function and a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis.

  • Urine test. A urinalysis might show red blood cells and red cell casts in your urine, which can indicate possible damage to the kidneys. Urinalysis results may also show white blood cells, which is an indicator of infection or inflammation, and increased protein, which can indicate kidney damage. Other indicators If creatinine or urea levels in the blood increase, it is a sign that there may be a problem.
  • Blood tests.This test can provide information about kidney damage and impairment of the glomeruli by measuring levels of waste products like creatinine and blood urea nitrogen.
  • Imaging tests.If your doctor suspects damage to your kidneys, he or she may recommend tests that allow visualization of your kidneys, such as a X-ray, ultrasound exam, or CT scan.
  • Kidney biopsy.This process involves using a special needle to extract small pieces of kidney tissue for examination in order to determine the cause of inflammation. A kidney biopsy is almost always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis.

Treatment

The outcome of glomerulonephritis treatment depends on a variety of factors, including:

  • If you have an acute or chronic form of the disease,
  • The underlying cause
  • The type and severity of your symptoms will determine the type and amount of treatment you receive.

If someone has acute glomerulonephritis, which is a type of kidney disease, and it results from a strep infection, often the condition will improve on its own. If there is an underlying cause, such as high blood pressure or an infection, then treatment will be directed to that cause.

The goal of treatment is to protect your kidneys from further damage.

Therapies for associated kidney failure

For people with acute glomerulonephritis or acute kidney failure, dialysis can help remove excess fluid and lower blood pressure. The only long-term therapies for end-stage kidney disease are dialysis and a kidney transplant. When a transplant is not possible often, due to poor general health, people may need to use dialysis indefinitely. There is only one option for treatment - dialysis.

Clinical trials

Mayo Clinic conducts studies to test new treatments and tests in order to prevent, detect, and treat this condition.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you have kidney disease, your doctor might recommend changes in your lifestyle, such as eating a healthy diet.

  • Only consume salt in moderation to prevent fluid retention and hypertension.
  • To slow the accumulation of wastes in your blood, consume less protein and potassium.
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • If you have diabetes, you need to control your blood sugar level.
  • Quit smoking

Coping and support

Chronic illnesses can affect your emotional well-being. If you have glomerulonephritis or chronic kidney failure, you might find relief from joining a support group. A support group can provide both emotional support and helpful information.

You can find a support group by asking your doctor for a recommendation or by contacting the National Kidney Foundation to find a chapter near you.

Preparing for your appointment

If your lab tests show that you have kidney damage, you might be referred to a doctor who is specially trained in treating kidney problems (nephrologist).

What you can do

Before your appointment, ask if there are any restrictions you need to follow. Next, make a list of what you will need: food and drink items that are limited.

  • Your symptoms,It is important to tell your doctor about any changes in your kidney or urinary function, even if they began suddenly.
  • All your medications and doses,Supplementing your diet with vitamins or other supplements will help you get the most out of them.
  • Your key medical history,We will ask about any other medical conditions and your family's medical history.
  • Questions to ask your doctor

Make sure someone you trust is there to help you remember the information you're given.

Some questions to ask your doctor if you have glomerulonephritis include: -What are the symptoms I am experiencing? -How long have I been experiencing them? -Do they happen only during warm weather or do they also happen in cold weather? -Do I experience them more often when I am active or when I am not active?

  • How badly do my kidneys look?
  • What tests do I need?
  • How long will this condition last?
  • Will I need dialysis?
  • What other medical problems can I manage with this condition?
  • What restrictions do I need to follow?
  • Should I see a specialist?
  • Can I have brochures or other printed material? What websites do you think I might find helpful?

Do not hesitate to ask more questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you questions such as:

  • Has your illness been ongoing or occasional?
  • How do the symptoms seem to change when you take different medications?
  • Do any of your family members have a history of glomerulonephritis or other kidney disease?
  • Do you have a history of high blood pressure or diabetes?
Inflammation Glomerulonephritis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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