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Inflammation Periodontitis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


Gum disease (per-e-o-don-TIE-tis) is a serious infection that damages the soft tissue around your teeth and can eventually cause them to fall out. If left untreated, gum disease can also lead to bone loss.

Periodontitis is common, but it can be largely prevented with good oral hygiene practices. For example, brushing your teeth at least two times a day and flossing daily can help to prevent periodontitis. Regular dental checkups also reduce your chances of developing it in the future. This is a picture of an olive.



Gums that are healthy fit snugly around teeth. Periodontitis is a condition in which the gums become inflamed and red.The signs and symptoms of periodontitis may include:

  • Swollen or puffy gums
  • Bright red, dusky red or purplish gums
  • Gums that feel tender when touched
  • Gums that bleed easily
  • Pink-tinged toothbrush after brushing
  • When you brush or floss your teeth, you may spit out blood.
  • Bad breath
  • Pus between your teeth and gums
  • Loose teeth or loss of teeth
  • Painful chewing
  • New spaces developing between your teeth
  • Teeth that recede make your teeth look longer than normal.
  • Biting the food will change the way your teeth fit together.

When to see a dentist

Make regular checkups with your dentist according to their recommended schedule. If you notice any symptoms of periodontitis, such as a sore throat or Difficulty Eating, make an appointment as soon as possible. The sooner you see your dentist, the better your chances of reversing damage from periodontitis.


A build-up of plaque, which is made up mainly of bacteria, can lead to Periodontitis. If left untreated, this process can eventually lead to Periodontitis:

  • Plaque forms on your teethplaque is a sticky substance that forms on your teeth when food and bacteria interact. brushing your teeth two times a day and flossing once a day will remove plaque, but it will form again quickly.
  • Gum problems can turn into calculus (hard, mineral deposits) under your gum line.If plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, they will be more difficult to remove. The longer plaque and tartar are on your teeth, the more damage they can do. You cannot get rid of tartar by brushing and flossing - you need professional dental cleaning to remove it.
  • Plaque can cause gingivitis,Gingivitis is the mildest form of gum disease. It is irritation and inflammation of the gum tissue around your teeth. Gingivitis can be reversed with professional treatment and good home oral care.
  • Gum inflammation can lead to periodontitis.Teeth decay and fill with plaque and bacteria over time. If left untreated, these infections can cause a loss of tissue and bone.Chronic inflammation can weaken your immune system.

Risk factors

There are factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis, such as:

  • Gingivitis
  • Poor oral health habits
  • Smoking or chewing tobacco
  • Hormonal changes can occur during pregnancy or menopause.
  • Smoking marijuana or vaping recreational drugs such as cigarettes, cigars, or alcohol is not safe.
  • Obesity
  • Not getting enough food, including not having enough vitamin C, can lead to a deficiency.
  • Genetics
  • Some medications can cause dry mouth or changes in the way your teeth look and feel.
  • Decreased immunity can be caused by conditions such as leukemia, HIV/AIDS, and cancer treatment.
  • Diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and Crohn's can be caused by various factors.


If you have periodontitis, your teeth may eventually fall out. This is because the bacteria that causes periodontitis can get into your bloodstream and affect other parts of your body, such as your respiratory system, joints, and heart. Diabetes is caused by high blood sugar.


Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent periodontitis. This means practicing good dental hygiene habits from an early age, and doing so regularly throughout your life.

  • Good oral hygiene. Brushing your teeth and flossing at least once a day will help you keep your oral hygiene in good shape. This will prevent the development of dental problems. The environment around your teeth is favorable to bacteria that cause periodontal disease.
  • Regular dental visits.It is important to see your dentist or dental hygienist on a regular basis for cleanings. Most people need to go for a cleaning every six to twelve months if they have risk factors for developing periodontitis, such as having dry mouth or taking medications or smoking.


Your dentist may determine if you have periodontitis and how severe it is by checking your gums.

  • Review your medical historyTo identify any possible causes of your symptoms, such as smoking or taking medications that cause dry mouth,
  • Examine your mouthLook for plaque and tartar buildup on the teeth and make sure the gums are free of bleeding.
  • Measure the pocket depth To check for tooth decay, a dental probe will be placed beside your tooth beneath your gumline. The pocket depth should usually be between 1 and 3 mm. If the pocket depth is greater than 4 mm, this may indicate periodontitis. The tips of leaves that are more than 5 mm deep cannot be cleaned well.
  • Take dental X-raysTo check for bone loss in areas where your dentist observes deeper tooth pockets, you should look for signs of bone loss.

Your dentist may assign a stage and a grade to periodontitis based on the severity of the disease, how complex the treatment will be, and your risk factors.


A dentist, hygienist, or periodontist can treat periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to clean the pockets around teeth and prevent damage to bone. Good oral hygiene practices are also important for success. It is important to take care of your health in order to maintain good dental health and avoid tobacco use.

Treatments that don't involve surgery.

If periodontitis is not advanced, treatment may involve less invasive procedures such as:

  • Scaling.Tooth scaling removes tartar and bacteria from your tooth surfaces and around your gums. It may be done using a laser or an ultrasonic device.
  • Root planing.Root planing smooths the root surfaces so that tartar and bacteria cannot form, and removes byproducts from bacterial activity that contribute to inflammation and delay healing or reattachment of the gum to tooth surfaces.
  • Antibiotics. Antibiotics applied topically or taken by mouth can help control bacterial infection. Topical antibiotics can include antibiotic mouth rinses or gels that are placed in spaces between teeth and gums, or inserted into pockets after deep cleaning. Oral antibiotics may be necessary to completely eradicating the infection. To avoid infection, wash the area where the plant will be planted thoroughly. Remove any infection-causing bacteria beforehand.

Surgical treatments

If you have advanced periodontitis, you may need dental surgery such as root canal treatment.

  • Flap surgery (pocket reduction surgery). Your periodontist makes tiny cuts in your gum so that a section of gum tissue can be pulled back, revealing the roots. This allows more effective scaling and root planing. Because periodontitis often causes bone loss, the underlying bone may be reshaped before the gum tissue is sutured back in place. After you have healed a dental abscess, it is easier to keep your teeth clean and healthy.
  • Soft tissue grafts. If you lose gum tissue, your gum line recedes. This means that the surface of your teeth may be lower than usual. Sometimes it is necessary to remove some damaged soft tissue from the roof of your mouth (the palate) or to use tissue from another source and attach it to the affected area. Apply a sealant to reduce further gum recession and cover exposed roots to give your teeth a more pleasing appearance.
  • Bone grafting. This is a procedure that is used to prevent tooth loss when periodontitis has destroyed the bone around your tooth root. The graft may be made up of small pieces of your own bone or it may be synthetic. The bone graft helps keep your tooth in place and can also serve as a replacement for lost teeth. A regrowth platform is needed for the natural growth of bone.
  • Guided tissue regeneration.This helps the regeneration of bone that was damaged by bacteria. In one approach, your dentist places a special piece of biocompatible fabric between existing bone and your tooth. This prevents unwanted tissue from entering the healing area, resulting in bone growth instead.
  • Tissue-stimulating proteins.There is a technique where a special gel is applied to a diseased tooth root. This gel contains the same proteins that are found in developing tooth enamel and it stimulates the growth of healthy bone and tissue.

Lifestyle and home remedies

There are a few things you can do to reduce or prevent periodontitis:

  • brush your teeth twice a day - or better yet, after every meal or snack.
  • Brush your teeth with a soft toothbrush at least every three months.
  • If plaque and tartar are a problem, consider using an electric toothbrush. This type of brush may be more effective at removing these contaminants from your teeth.
  • Floss daily.
  • To reduce plaque between your teeth, use a mouth rinse if your dentist recommends it.
  • Brushing and flossing are not the only ways to clean between your teeth. You can also use a dental pick or brush designed specifically for this purpose.
  • Follow the regular dental cleaning schedule recommended by your dentist.
  • Don't smoke or chew tobacco.

Preparing for your appointment

If you have periodontitis, your dentist may refer you to a specialist who can treat your condition (periodontist).

Here are some things you can do to prepare for your appointment and what you can expect.

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Any symptoms you're experiencing,Please include anything that may be related to your appointment.
  • Key personal information,Some of the ingredients in decoupage may cause medical conditions if taken by you, such as any illnesses you may have.
  • All medications you take,Make sure to include over-the-counter medications, vitamins, herbs, or other supplements with the prescribed dosages.
  • Questions to ask your dentist to make the most of your time together.

Some questions you may want to ask your dentist include:

  • What's likely causing my symptoms?
  • What kinds of tests, if any, do I need?
  • What's the best course of action?
  • Will your dental insurance cover the procedures you're recommending?
  • What are some other ways to do what you're suggesting?
  • What are some guidelines I should follow?
  • What can I do at home to keep my gums and teeth healthy?
  • Can I have any brochures or other printed material?
  • What websites do you recommend?

Please ask questions during your appointment. You are welcome to do so.

What to expect from your dentist

Your dentist may ask you questions about your symptoms in order to determine the cause. This could include things like:

  • When did you first start having the symptoms?
  • Do you have symptoms that have been happening often or intermittently?
  • How often do you brush your teeth?
  • Do you use dental floss? How often?
  • How often do you see a dentist?
  • What medical conditions do you have?
  • What medications do you take?
  • Do you use tobacco products?

Preparation and planning for questions with the dentist will help you maximize your time there.

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Inflammation Periodontitis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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