Proctitis : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is Proctitis?

Proctitis is an inflammation of the lining of the rectum. The rectum is a muscular tube that's connected to the end of your colon. Waste passes through the rectum on its way out of the body.

What is Proctitis?

Proctitis is a condition that can cause rectal pain, diarrhea, bleeding, and discharge. Symptoms can last for a short time or become chronic.

Proctitis is common in people with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis). Sexually transmitted infections are also often a cause. Proctitis can also be a side effect of radiation therapy for certain cancers.

  1. Digestive system

Medical terms

  • Proctitis is an infection inside your rectum, that's the decreased end of your big gut just earlier than your anus. “Procto” means “rectum,” and “itis” means “infection”. Your rectum can come to be inflamed if bacteria or chemical substances worsen the inner lining, or if it’s suffering from inflammatory bowel disorder. It can motivate uncomfortable symptoms, which includes ache, rectal bleeding and poop adjustments.
  • Proctitis may be acute, that means that the character has symptoms for a brief period because of an unmarried precise motive. It can also be chronic, wherein case, the character will revel in signs and symptoms over an extended length.
  • The type and severity of the symptoms will often depend upon the underlying purpose of the inflammation. In any case, proctitis calls for a remedy to prevent complications.

Symptoms Proctitis

Proctitis symptoms may include: -Fever -Swelling of the rectum or anus -Chronic diarrhea or constipation

  • Having to go to the bathroom often or experiencing a continuous need to go to the bathroom

  • Rectal bleeding

  • Passing mucus through your rectum

  • Rectal pain

  • Pain on the left side of your abdomen

  • A feeling of fullness in your rectum

  • Diarrhea

  • Pain with bowel movements

When to see a doctor

If you have any signs or symptoms of proctitis, make an appointment with your doctor.

Causes Proctitis

Inflammation of the rectal lining can be caused by a number of diseases and conditions.

  • Inflammatory bowel disease.About 30% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have inflammation in the rectum.

  • Infections. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can spread through sexual activity, most notably anal intercourse. STIs that can cause proctitis include gonorrhea, genital herpes, and chlamydia. gastroenteritis-related infections such as salmonella and E. coli are also possible causes. Campylobacter infections can also cause rectal inflammation.

  • Radiation therapy for cancer.Radiation therapy directed at your rectum or nearby areas can cause rectal inflammation. Rectal proctitis can start during treatment and last for a few months afterward. It may also occur years after treatment.

  • Antibiotics.Antibiotics can kill helpful bacteria in the intestines, allowing harmful Clostridium difficile bacteria to grow.

  • Diversion proctitis.Colon surgery can cause proctitis, which is an infection of the rectum.

  • Food protein-induced proctitis.Proctitis can happen to infants who drink either cow's milk or soy-based formula. Infants who are breast-fed by mothers who eat dairy products may also develop the condition.

  • Eosinophilic proctitis.This condition occurs when a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) accumulates in the rectum. Eosinophilic proctitis affects only children younger than 2.

Risk factors Proctitis

Risk factors for proctitis include:

  • Unsafe sex.Having multiple sex partners, not using condoms, and having sex with someone who is infected with an STI increases your risk of contracting an STI.

  • Inflammatory bowel diseases.Having an inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) increases your risk of getting proctitis.

  • Radiation therapy for cancer.Radiation therapy that is directed at or near your rectum (such as for rectal ovarian or prostate cancer) increases your risk of developing proctitis.

Complications Proctitis

If proctitis is not treated, it may lead to complications including:

  • Anemia.Chronic bleeding from your rectum can cause anemia. Anemia is a condition in which you don't have enough red blood cells. This can cause fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, headache, pale skin, and irritability.

  • Ulcers.Inflammation in the rectum can lead to open sores on the inside of the rectum.

  • Fistulas.Ulcers can sometimes go all the way through the intestinal wall, creating a hole (fistula) that can connect different parts of your intestines, between your intestines and the skin, or between your intestines and other organs.

Prevention Proctitis

To reduce your risk of proctitis, take steps to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The surest way to prevent an STI is to abstain from sex, especially anal sex. If you choose to have sex, reduce your risk of an STI by:

  • Limiting your number of sex partners

  • To prevent STDs, it is important to use a latex condom each time you have sexual contact.

  • It is not safe to have sex with anyone who has any unusual sores or discharge in the genital area.

If you are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection, stop having sex until your doctor tells you it is safe to do so. Ask him or her when the best time to have sex again is.

Diagnosis Proctitis

Proctitis can be diagnosed by tests that include:

  • Blood tests.These can detect blood loss or infection.

  • Stool test.You may be asked to collect a stool sample for testing. A stool test may help determine if your proctitis is caused by a bacterial infection.

  • Check your last portion of your colon for any obstructions.During this test, your doctor will use a slender, flexible lighted tube to examine the last part of your colon (sigmoid) and the rectum. He or she may also take small samples of tissue (biopsy) for laboratory analysis.

  • Scope exam of your entire colon.A colonoscopy allows your doctor to view your entire colon with a thin, flexible lighted tube and an attached camera. Your doctor can also take a biopsy during this test.

  • To test for sexually transmitted infections, a doctor or nurse will do some kind of examination.These tests involve obtaining a sample of urine or feces from your body.

Treatment Proctitis

The treatment for proctitis will depend on the underlying cause of the inflammation.

If you have proctitis, there are treatments available.

If your doctor detects an infection, they may prescribe medications to treat it.There are many possible treatments, including:

  • Antibiotics.If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic for bacterial infection, it may be doxycycline (Oracea Vibramycin others).

  • Antivirals.If your doctor believes that you have a viral infection such as herpes, he or she may prescribe an antiviral medication such as acyclovir.

Treatment for proctitis caused by radiation therapy includes rest, antibiotics, and pain relief.

Radiation proctitis can occur in mild or moderate cases, but some people may not require treatment. In more severe cases, radiation proctitis can cause intense pain and bleeding, which requires treatment from a doctor. Some possible treatments include:

  • Medications.Medications are given in pill or enema form. These include sucralfate (Carafate), mesalamine (Asacol HD Canada), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), and metronidazole (Flagyl). These medications help control inflammation and reduce bleeding.

  • Stool softeners and dilation.These can help move things through your bowel.

  • Treatment to destroy damaged tissue.These techniques help to improve proctitis symptoms by destroying abnormal tissue that is bleeding. Ablation procedures used to treat proctitis include Argon plasma coagulation (APC), cryoablation electrocoagulation, and other therapies.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can cause proctitis.

Treatment of rectal proctitis is aimed at reducing the inflammation in your rectum. Treatment may include:

  • There are medications that can be used to control rectal inflammation.Your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medications such as mesalamine (Asacol HD Canasa others) or corticosteroids (prednisone (Rayos) or budesonide (Entocort EC Uceris)) to reduce inflammation in people with Crohn's disease. Inflammation is often a symptom of Crohn's disease.This means that the person needs to take medication that suppresses their immune system in order to heal. These medications include azathioprine (Azasan Imuran) or infliximab (Remicade).

  • Surgery.If your doctor can't relieve your symptoms with medication, he or she may recommend surgery to remove a damaged section of your digestive tract.

Making sure you are prepared for your appointment.

If you have rectal pain or bleeding, see your family doctor or general practitioner. If you feel the need to have a bowel movement frequently, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in digestive system diseases. A gastroenterologist is a doctor who specializes in the care of the stomach and intestines.

Here is some helpful information to help you get ready for your doctor's visit and to know what to expect.

What you can do

  • Make sure you are aware of any restrictions that may be in place before your appointment.Make sure to ask if there are any requirements before your appointment, such as limiting your diet.

  • Keep track of any symptoms you are experiencing.Please bring any items that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information,The reading should be done in a relaxed environment, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications,Make sure to tell your doctor about all of the supplements and vitamins you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend alongThis booklet will help you remember everything that your doctor and you discussed.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • Can proctitis be the cause of my symptoms or condition?

  • What are some possible causes for my proctitis?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • What are the benefits and risks of each treatment option?

  • I have other medical conditions. How can I best manage them while also managing my proctitis?

  • Are there any rules that I need to follow?

  • Do you have any other prescriptions that could be used for my illness?

  • Can I take any printed material with me when I leave?

  • What websites do you recommend?

  • Should I plan for a follow-up visit?

Do not be afraid to ask other questions.

General summary

  1. Proctitis may be chronic or acute, relying on the motive. Acute approach is surprising and brief, whilst chronic disease lasts a long time. Different reasons for proctitis produce different sorts that once in a while go by exclusive names. For example, sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) can cause “infectious proctitis,” radiation remedy can cause “radiation proctitis” and ulcerative colitis can motivate “ulcerative proctitis.

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