JavaScript is not enabled!...Please enable javascript in your browser

جافا سكريبت غير ممكن! ... الرجاء تفعيل الجافا سكريبت في متصفحك.


Pseudomembranous colitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

What is Pseudomembranous colitis?

Pseudomembranous colitis (a type of inflammatory bowel disease caused by an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile) is also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficile colitis. This condition is associated with inflammation of the colon.

People who are over 65 years old are more likely to get a C. difficile infection. This infection is often associated with a recent hospital stay or antibiotic treatment.

What is Pseudomembranous colitis?
Pseudomembranous colitis

  1. Digestive system

Medical terms

Pseudomembranous rubor is inflammation (swelling, irritation) of the massive internal organ. In several cases, it happens when taking antibiotics. Mistreatment antibiotics will cause the bacteria eubacteria difficile (C. diff) to grow and infect the liner of the internal organ that produces the inflammation. bound antibiotics, like antibiotic, clindamycin (Cleocin®), the cephalosporins and therefore the fluoroquinolones, make C. diff overgrowth a lot possible.

Pseudomembranous rubor is inflammation (swelling, irritation) of the massive internal organ. In several cases, it happens when taking antibiotics. Mistreatment antibiotics will cause the bacteria eubacteria difficile (C. diff) to grow and infect the liner of the internal organ that produces the inflammation. bound antibiotics, like antibiotic, clindamycin (Cleocin), the cephalosporins and therefore the fluoroquinolones, make C. diff overgrowth a lot possible.

People who have the best risk for developing pseudomembranous rubor include:

  • Residents of nursing homes

  • People who have been in the hospital for a long time

  • People living with another, severe medical condition

Symptoms Pseudomembranous colitis

Some signs and symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis may include:

  • Watery diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps, pain or tenderness

  • Fever

  • Pus or mucus in your stool

  • Nausea

  • Dehydration

The symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis can begin as soon as a few days after you start taking an antibiotic, or as long as several months after you finish taking the antibiotic.

If you are feeling sick, it is a good idea to see a doctor.

If you are taking antibiotics and develop diarrhea, contact your doctor even if the diarrhea is mild. Also see your doctor if you have severe diarrhea with a fever, painful abdominal cramps, or blood or pus in your stool.

When to see a health practitioner

Causes Pseudomembranous colitis

Antibiotics and other medications can upset the balance of bacteria in your colon. This can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, in which certain bacteria rapidly outgrow other bacteria that are normally present and keep them in a healthy balance. Make sure. Checking for toxins produced by C. difficile can indicate when the level of damage to the colon is high enough for treatment.

Almost any antibiotic can cause pseudomembranous colitis, but some antibiotics are more commonly linked to this condition than others. These include:

  • Some fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and levofloxacin, have antibiotic properties.

  • Amoxicillin and ampicillin are types of antibiotics.

  • Clindamycin (Cleocin)

  • Cephalosporins are medications such as cefixime (Suprax).

Other causes

Some medications other than antibiotics can sometimes cause pseudomembranous colitis. Chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat cancer may upset the normal balance of bacteria in the colon.

People who have diseases that affect the colon, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, may also be predisposed to pseudomembranous colitis.

Spores from C. difficile are resistant to many common disinfectants, and they can be passed from the hands of health care professionals to patients. Increasingly, people with no known risk factors have been reporting getting sick from C. difficile. This is called community-acquired Clostridium difficile.

Emergence of a new strain

A new strain of C. difficile has emerged that produces more toxins than other strains. Possibly because this strain is resistant to certain medications, it has shown up in people who have not been in the hospital or taken antibiotics.

Risk factors Pseudomembranous colitis

There are some things that may increase your risk of pseudomembranous colitis, including:

  • Taking antibiotics

  • Staying in the hospital or a nursing home is not a good idea.

  • Increasing age, especially over 65 years

  • Having a weakened immune system

  • Having an inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer is bad because it can lead to other diseases.

  • Undergoing intestinal surgery

  • Cancer treatment involves taking drugs to kill the cancer cells.

Complications Pseudomembranous colitis

Treating pseudomembranous colitis is usually successful. However, even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, pseudomembranous colitis can be life-threatening. Possible complications include: 1) Death from complications of the illness; 2) Long-term problems such as bowel obstruction or cancer; 3) Difficulties with eating and drinking, because pseudomembranous colitis can make it difficult to digest food.

  • Dehydration.Dehydration can lead to a significant loss of fluids and minerals. This can make it difficult for your body to function normally and can cause your blood pressure to drop dangerously low levels.

  • Kidney failure.Dehydration can happen so quickly that kidney function rapidly deteriorates (kidney failure).

  • Toxic megacolon.If you have this rare condition, your colon is not able to expel gas or stool. This can cause it to become greatly distended (megacolon). If you don't get treatment, your colon may rupture, and bacteria from the colon may enter your abdominal cavity. If this happens, you may require emergency surgery and may die as a result.

  • If you have a hole in your large intestine (bowel), that means you have a serious medical condition.This is a rare condition and can result from extensive damage to the lining of your large intestine or after taking toxic megacolon. If your bowel becomes perforated, this can allow harmful bacteria to spill into your abdominal cavity, leading to a life-threatening infection (peritonitis).

  • Death.If you have a C. difficile infection, it can quickly become a deadly disease if not treated promptly.

Sometimes pseudomembranous colitis may return a few days or weeks after it is apparently treated successfully.

Prevention Pseudomembranous colitis

To stop the spread of C. difficile, hospitals and other health care facilities have strict infection-control guidelines. If you have a friend or family member in a hospital or nursing home, don't be afraid to remind caregivers of the recommended precautions.

Preventive measures include:

  • Hand-washing. Healthcare workers should practice good hand hygiene before and after treating each person. Soap is a better choice for hand hygiene because alcohol-based hand sanitizers do not effectively destroy the spores of C. difficile. You should wash your hands before and after visiting the room or using the bathroom.

  • Contact precautions.People who are hospitalized with C. difficile must stay in a private room or share a room with someone who has the same illness. Hospital staff and visitors must wear disposable gloves and isolation gowns until 48 hours after diarrhea ends.

  • Thorough cleaning.All surfaces in the setting should be disinfected with a product that contains chlorine bleach to destroy C. difficile spores.

  • Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics.antibiotics are sometimes prescribed for viral illnesses that do not respond to other treatments. Take a wait-and-see attitude with mild cases. If you do need an antibiotic, ask your doctor to prescribe one that is effective against a narrow range of viruses and that you take for the shortest time possible.

How long does it take to recover from pseudomembranous colitis?

The length and degree of discomfort associated with a pseudomembranous colitis attack depend on the severity of the individual case Mild attacks tend to resolve within days while severe cases may take weeks or even months to fully recover from symptoms In most cases people who have had multiple bouts of pseudomembranous colitis will experience milder and less frequent flare-ups as time progresses.

Does pseudomembranous colitis go away?

Pseudomembranous colitis is a condition that results from an overgrowth of bacteria in the colon Symptoms include diarrhea cramping and abdominal discomfort These symptoms may be caused by a variety of factors but are typically treated with antibiotics To determine whether pseudomembranous colitis has cleared up or not a doctor can perform stool cultures to see if the infection is gone.

Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis include watery diarrhea abdominal cramps and pain nausea and vomiting Other signs are fever and blood or pus in the stool These symptoms usually occur within two to eight days after antibiotics have been taken; they may last one to four weeks.

Diagnosis Pseudomembranous colitis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose pseudomembranous colitis and to search for complications include: - Checking the patient's symptoms - Conducting tests to determine the cause of the pseudomembranous colitis - Monitoring the patient for complications

  • Stool sample.There are a number of different stool tests that can be used to detect C. difficile infection of the colon.

  • Blood tests.If you have an abnormally high white blood cell count (leukocytosis), this may indicate that you have an infection, like C. difficile.

  • Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.Your doctor will use a tube with a miniature camera to examine your colon for signs of pseudomembranous colitis - lesions that are yellow and swollen.

  • Imaging tests.If you have severe symptoms your doctor may do an abdominal X-ray or CT scan to look for complications such as a toxic megacolon or colon rupture.

Treatment Pseudomembranous colitis

Treatment strategies include:

  • If it is possible, stop the antibiotic or other medication that is thought to be causing your signs and symptoms.This may help resolve your condition or at least lessen the symptoms.

  • It is likely that the antibiotic will be effective against C. difficile.If you are still experiencing signs and symptoms after taking the antibiotic your doctor may switch to another antibiotic to treat the C. difficile infection. This will help the normal bacteria to grow back and restore the healthy balance of bacteria in your colon.
    Antibiotics can be given to you in various ways. For some people, they may be taken by mouth through a vein or a tube that is inserted through the nose into the stomach (nasogastric tube). If these drugs are not available or if you cannot tolerate them, then metronidazole (a drug used to treat infections) may be prescribed. Flagyl (a medication) may be used.
    If your doctor thinks you have a severe case of disease, he or she may prescribe vancomycin by mouth in combination with intravenous metronidazole or a vancomycin enema.

  • Having fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).If your condition is very severe or if you have had more than one recurrence of the infection, you may be given a fecal transplant from a healthy donor. The donor stool may be delivered through a nasogastric tube inserted into your stomach.Doctors may use antibiotics followed by fecal transplantation to treat a colon infection.

If you are taking care of pseudomembranous colitis, your symptoms may start to improve within a few days.

Treating recurrent pseudomembranous colitis

Pseudomembranous colitis is becoming more difficult to treat with antibiotics, because there are now more aggressive strains of C. difficile that are resistant to them. When pseudomembranous colitis recurs, your chance of having another recurrence increases.

Treatment options may include:

  • Repeat antibiotics.You may need a second or third round of antibiotics to cure your condition and may need more treatment time than initially planned.

  • Surgery.People who have progressive organ failure and a rupture of their colon may need surgery. This could involve removal of part or all of their colon (a total colectomy or subtotal colectomy).
    A newer surgery that involves a laparoscopic creation of a loop of the colon and cleaning it (loop ileostomy and colonic lavage) is less invasive and has had positive results.

  • Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT).FMT is a treatment for recurrent pseudomembranous colitis. You will receive healthy, clean stool in a capsule nasogastrically or through your colon.

  • Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of human monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab to reduce the risk of recurrence of C. difficile infection. This antibody is used in combination with antibiotics, and it has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of infection. However, it can be expensive. There may be a limit to how much of this material we can use.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Some research suggests that taking concentrated supplements of good bacteria and yeast (probiotics) can help prevent C.Some studies suggest that probiotics may help prevent a difficile infection, but more research is needed to determine if they are effective for treating recurrences. Probiotics are safe to use and can be taken in capsule or liquid form without a prescription.

To help with the diarrhea and dehydration that can occur with pseudomembranous colitis, try to do the following:

  • Drink plenty of fluids. Water is best, but fluids that contain added sodium and potassium (electrolytes) are also beneficial. For example, sports drinks (Gatorade Powerade others), oral rehydration solutions (Pedialyte Ceralyte others), non caffeinated soft drinks broths and fruit juices. Avoid beverages that are high in sugar. These products may aggravate your symptoms, such as headaches and nausea.

  • Avoid irritating foods.Avoid foods that make your symptoms worse, such as spicy fatty or fried foods, as well as any other food that makes you sick.

Preparing for your appointment

Your primary care doctor can usually treat pseudomembranous colitis. Based on your symptoms, you may be referred to a specialist in digestive diseases (gastroenterologist). If your symptoms are severe, you may be told to seek emergency treatment.

Here are some tips to help you prepare for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

Preparing for a specific test involves preparing in advance. When you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there are any requirements you need to meet, such as fasting beforehand. Include on your list anything you need to do in advance, such as fasting.

  • Your symptoms,Please bring any materials that seem related to your appointment, but not just the materials you were specifically asked to bring.

  • Key personal information,This questionnaire includes major stresses from recent life changes and family medical history.

  • All medications, vitamins, or other supplements require a doctor's approval. you take, including the doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Some things you might want to ask your doctor include: -Are you feeling well? -What is your general health like? -Do you have any symptoms or problems? -Is there anything you have been eating or drinking that you should avoid?

  • What could be the cause of my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need to take?

  • Does my condition seem to be temporary or long-term?

  • What treatments are available and which would you recommend for me?

  • What other health conditions do you have? How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Can I have printed material? Do you have any websites that I can visit?

Don't be afraid to ask more questions. And if you can, take someone along who can help you remember what you were told.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you a few questions such as:

  • When did you first notice any changes in your health?

  • Do you have diarrhea?

  • Is there blood or pus in your stools?

  • Do you have a fever?

  • Are you having abdominal pain?

  • Do you still have the same symptoms or have they gotten worse since your last visit to the doctor?

  • Are you currently taking antibiotics, having surgery, or being hospitalized?

  • Has anyone in your home been diagnosed with diarrhea in the past few weeks?

  • Have you ever had diarrhea caused by C. difficile or antibiotics?

  • Do you have a disease called ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease?

  • Do you have any other medical conditions?

  • Have you recently traveled to an area with unsafe water supplies?

  • Do any of the things in the passage seem to help with your symptoms?

  • If anything seems to make your symptoms worse, what might be the cause?

What you can do in the meantime

Drink plenty of fluids while you're waiting for your appointment. Sports drinks, oral rehydration solutions (such as Pedialyte and Ceralyte), non-caffeinated soft drinks, broths, and fruit juices are all good options to prevent dehydration.

General summary

  1. Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon (large intestine) in humans dogs and cats that causes inflammation and sores on the lining of the colon The primary symptom is diarrhea mixed with mucus; this symptom has earned this condition its nickname "spa wastebasket disease" or pseudomembranous colitis It is caused primarily by Clostridium difficile a bacteria normally found in the intestines Other names for this infection include antibiotic-associated colitis or infectious colitis.

  2. due to Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile (C difficile) is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis in humans C difficile infection (CDI) usually occurs after antibiotic use The most commonly used antibiotics associated with CDI are clindamycin penicillins and cephalosporins It spreads within health care settings—especially in long-term acute care facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals—where it devastates the intestines of vulnerable patients whose immune.

  3. Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) The major symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis include fever abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea The disorder typically doesn't last long and responds well to treatment If the disorder is severe or persistent your doctor may recommend an operation to remove the diseased part of your colon Because pseudomembranous colitis can be a symptom of another condition you'll likely need tests such as X-rays blood tests and stool samples for analysis.

  4. When you're trying to figure out what the heck is going on with your body it's easy to check symptoms lists and make a list of things that might be causing your problems It doesn't take much effort or thought Then when you truly don't know what's going on you look back at those lists and read them again And then maybe again And in doing so you forget that each symptom has its own meaning and may or may not actually point toward IBD (irritable bowel disorder).

  5. Antibiotic-associated colitis is a common digestive problem In fact approximately one in ten people experience this illness while taking antibiotics Symptoms of antibiotic-associated colitis include: * Abdominal cramps or pain * Nausea * Diarrhea * Fever (sometimes).

Pseudomembranous colitis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

usa-good- clinic

    No comments
    Post a Comment