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Male breast cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Male Breast Cancer?

This information is about male breast cancer. Male breast cancer is a type of cancer that affects men. It is more common in people over 50 years old, and it can occur in any part of the body. Male breast cancer may be difficult to treat, but there are treatments available.
Male breast cancer is a type of cancer that grows in a man's breast tissue. Although male breasts cannot produce milk, they do have adipose tissue, ducts, and mammary cells. Breast tissue in males is similar to breast tissue in girls before the onset of puberty. Cancer occurs when cells in these tissues get out of control and form a tumor. Treatment for male breast cancer includes chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy.The prognosis depends on the size of the tumor and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

 

What is Male breast Cancer

 

Explanation of medical terms and concept Male breast cancer

Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Although breast cancer is considered more of  a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men.

Male breast cancer is more common in older men, although it can occur at any age.

Men diagnosed with early breast cancer  have a good chance of recovery. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the breast tissue.Other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be recommended depending on your specific situation.

Breast cancer in men is rare. It affects approximately 2,600 men in the United States each year. Less than 1% of breast cancers occur in men. Male breast cancer is more common in men over the age of 60.Black men are slightly more likely to develop the disease.

awareness Breast cancer is cancer that develops from the cells of the breast In the UK around three women in every hundred will develop breast cancer during their lifetime Breast cancer can also occur in men but this is much rarer than it is for women In 2014 there were 2,202 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed in men and around 450 deaths from it Men are naturally less likely to get breast cancer because they have smaller breasts and produce less estrogen — an essential hormone for sustaining cell growth in women However a man’s risk increases with age so that by the time he reaches 75 years old his chances.

Important facts Male breast cancer is uncommon but it still occurs Every year an estimated 2,900 U.S men are diagnosed with breast cancer The disease develops almost as frequently in men as melanoma of the skin (2,600) which many more people know about because of its increased visibility and awareness To help raise public awareness about male breast cancer and to educate both male and female healthcare providers on the importance of screening for and treating this disease early detection is key.

 Types of male breast cancer

Breast cancer in men typically begins within the breast ducts. Ducts are tubes that carry milk to the nipple. Although men have milk ducts and glands that make milk, they don’t work just like the ducts and milk-producing glands in women.

The types of male breast cancer include:

  • Invasive ductal carcinoma: Cancer begins within the breast ducts and unfolds to different components of the breast. Cancer cells might also spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body. Invasive (or infiltrating) ductal cancer is the most typical kind of carcinoma in folks despite gender.

  • Invasive lobular carcinoma: Cancer begins in the lobules (glands that produce milk). Lobular breast cancer can also spread to other parts of the body.

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Cancer  cells grow within the lining of the breast ducts. they need not unfold to alternative components of the breast or the remainder of the body. Ductal malignant neoplastic disease in place is unusual in men.

  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Usually a type of invasive ductal carcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer is very rare in men. The breast tissue is swollen and red. It is warm to the touch and the skin may have dimples, but there is no lump.

  • Paget’s disease of the nipple: Cancer cells grow within the ducts and unfold to the reproductive organ and therefore the space round the nipple. Paget’s illness of the nipple is additionally known as Paget’s disease of the breast or duct gland Paget disease.

Symptoms Male breast cancer

Signs and symptoms of male breast cancer can include:

  • A painless lump or thickening in your breast tissue

  • Changes to the skin covering your breast, such as dimpling, puckering, redness or scaling

  • Changes to your nipple, such as redness or scaling, or a nipple that begins to turn inward

  • Discharge from your nipple

Causes Male breast cancer

It's not clear what causes male carcinoma.

 

Doctors apprehend that male breast cancer happens once some breast cells divide quicker than healthy cells do. The accumulating cells kind of grow which will unfold (metastasize) to nearby tissue, to the bodily fluid nodes or to alternative components of the body.

Most are born with a little quantity of breast tissue. Breast tissue consists of milk-producing glands (lobules), ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat.

throughout puberty, girls begin developing additional breast tissue, and men do not. However, as a result of men being born with a small quantity of breast tissue, they'll develop carcinoma.

Anyone can get breast cancer. Overall health, case history and genetic factors increase the danger of developing the disease. Risk factors of male breast cancer include:

  • Age: Men over 60 are more likely to develop breast cancer.

  • Overall health: Men with fleshiness could have abnormal conditions (enlarged male breast tissue which will desire a lump). an abnormal condition will increase the chance of developing breast cancer.

  • Estrogen levels: Certain medications that contain estrogen (such as medications to treat prostate cancer) cause estrogen levels to rise. cirrhosis of the liver (liver disease) also can increase estrogen levels. An inherited disorder referred to as Klinefelter syndrome will increase the danger of many health issues, as well as breast cancer.

  • Family history: Men who have a first-degree relative (of any gender) with breast cancer have a higher chance of the disease.

  • Genes: Genetic mutations increase the chance of developing breast cancer. These embody changes within the BRCA sequence (BRCA1 and BRCA2). Mutations in these genes additionally increase the risk of carcinoma and prostate cancer.

  • Radiation therapy: Men who had radiation therapy in the chest or torso have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.

  • Testicular issues: People who have had surgery to get rid of their testicles have the next risk of breast cancer. Bollock injuries conjointly increase the risk.

Risk factors Male breast cancer

Factors that increase the risk of male breast cancer include:

  • Older age. The risk of carcinoma will increase as you age. Male breast cancer is most frequently diagnosed in men in their 60s.

  • Exposure to estrogen. If you're taking estrogen-related drugs, comparable to those used for internal secretion medical aid for prostate cancer, your risk of carcinoma is increased.

  • Family history of breast cancer. If you have a close family member with breast cancer, you have a greater chance of developing the disease.

  • Klinefelter's syndrome. This genetic syndrome happens once boys are born with over one copy of the X chromosome. Klinefelter' syndrome causes abnormal development of the testicles. As a result, men with this syndrome manufacture lower levels of bound male hormones (androgens) and a lot of feminine hormones (estrogens).

  • Liver disease. Certain conditions, such as cirrhosis of the liver, can reduce male hormones and increase female hormones, increasing your risk of breast cancer.

  • Obesity. Obesity is related to higher levels of steroids within the body, which will increase the danger of male breast cancer.

  • Testicle disease or surgery. Having inflamed nuts (orchitis) or surgery to get rid of a testicle (orchiectomy) will increase your risk of male breast cancer.

Diagnosis Male breast cancer

Your tending supplier can raise concerns about your symptoms and examine your breast tissue, paying close attention to any lumps or abnormalities. Your provider might take a sample of your blood (complete blood count or complete blood count and complete metabolic panel or CMP) and send it to a science laboratory.

to see for cancer cells in breast tissue, your provider may do a biopsy. employing a skinny needle, your provider removes a sample of the breast tissue and sends it to a lab. The lab tests the tissue for cancer cells.

to ascertain footage of your breast tissue, your supplier might order imaging studies. These include:

  • Mammogram: A mammogram is an X-ray of breast tissue.

  • Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to see images of soft tissues.

  • MRI: An MRI produces images of breast tissue using a high-powered magnet and radio waves.

Male breast cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells grow in the tissues of the breast.

Male breast cancer is possible, but it is rare. Male breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer.

Some types of breast cancer are found in men.

  • Infiltration of ductal carcinoma: Cancer that has spread beyond the cells lining breast ducts. This is the most common type of breast cancer in men.

  • Cancer that is found in the lining of a duct - this is called ductal carcinoma in situ.

  • Breast cancer that is classified as inflammatory: The breast looks red and swollen, and it may feel warm.

  • Paget disease of the nipple: A tumor that has grown from ducts beneath the breast tissue onto the surface of the breast.

There is no known type of cancer that occurs exclusively in men. Instead, lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells found in one of the lobes or sections of the breast), which sometimes occurs in women, has not been seen in men.

The anatomy of the male breast is shown in this illustration. The nipple and areola are on the outside of the breast, and other parts of the inside are also shown.

There is a higher risk of breast cancer for men who have a family history of the disease and other factors.

Risk factors for cancer can be anything that increases your risk of getting the disease. However, not having any risk factors does not mean you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about your risk. Some risk factors for breast cancer are being female, having a family history of the disease, and having dense breast tissue. In men, there may be the following:

  • Radiation therapy is used to treat your breast/chest.

  • Having a disease that is linked to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis (a liver disease) or Klinefelter syndrome (a genetic disorder).

  • Having one or more female relatives who have had cancer of the breast.

  • Having mutations (changes) in genes can lead to cancer.

Some cases of male breast cancer are caused by inherited changes in genes.

The genes in cells carry the inheritance information that comes from a person's parents. Breast cancer that is hereditary accounts for about 5% to 10% of all breast cancer cases. Some genes linked to breast cancer, such as BRCA2, are more common in certain ethnic groups. Men who have a mutated gene are at a greater risk for developing this type of cancer. People who have a connection to breast cancer have an increased risk of developing this disease.

Genetic tests can detect mutated genes. Sometimes these tests are done for people who have a high risk of developing cancer. The following PDQ summaries may provide more information:

Men with breast cancer usually have lumps that can be felt.

If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to check with your doctor: lumps, changes in breast size or shape, or other signs that may indicate male breast cancer or another condition.

  • There might be a lump or thickening in or near the breast or underarm area.

  • If the breast size or shape changes, it is a sign that something is wrong.

  • If you see a dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast, it means that there is a milk blister.

  • A nipple turned inward into the breast.

  • If the milk from the breastfeeding mother is bloody, it may need to be drained.

  • If there is scaly red or swollen skin on the breast nipple or areola, it means there is a pimple on that area.

  • The breasts have dimples that look like the skin of an orange.

Breast exams are used to diagnose breast cancer in men.

These tests and procedures may be used:

  • A physical exam and health history are important parts of keeping track of your health.A medical exam of the body is conducted to look for signs of general health and disease. The patient's health history and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken into account.

  • Clinical breast exam (CBE)A doctor will examine your breasts to see if there are any lumps or abnormalities.

  • Mammogram: An x-ray of the breast.

  • Ultrasound examSonograms are pictures of body tissues that are made using high-energy sound waves. The echoes form a picture that can be seen later.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a medical test that uses magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the inside of the body.A procedure that uses a magnet and a computer to make pictures of both breasts. This is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

  • Blood chemistry studiesA test that measures the amounts of certain substances released into the blood can be used to diagnose disease. If an unusual amount of a substance is found in a person's blood, this could be a sign of a health problem.

  • BiopsyA pathologist removes cells or tissues from a person to check for signs of cancer. There are four types of biopsies that can be performed in order to detect breast cancer:

    • Excisional biopsyTissue removal means cutting away an entire lump of tissue.

    • Incisional biopsyTo remove part of a lump or sample of tissue, you would need to cut it out.

    • Core biopsyTissue will be removed using a wide needle.

    • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsyTissue or fluid can be removed using a thin needle.

If cancer is detected, tests are performed to learn more about the cancer cells.

The best treatment for a condition is based on the results of these tests. The tests provide information about:

  • How quickly the cancer may grow.

  • How likely it is that the cancer will spread throughout the body.

  • How well certain treatments might work is still being studied.

  • How likely it is that the cancer will come back.

Tests include the following:

  • Estrogen and progesterone receptor test A test to determine the amount of estrogen and progesterone receptors in cancer tissue. If there are more of these receptors than usual, the cancer is said to be estrogen or progesterone receptor positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly. The test results will show this. Can treatment to block estrogen and progesterone stop the cancer from growing?

  • HER2 test A laboratory test is used to measure how many HER2/neu genes are present in a sample of tissue. If there are more HER2/neu genes than usual, this may indicate that the cancer is HER2/neu positive. This type of breast cancer may grow more quickly. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is more difficult to treat. Drugs that target the HER2/neu protein may be used to treat the cancer.

Men who have breast cancer share many of the same challenges as women with breast cancer.

For men with breast cancer, the survival rate is similar to that of women when their stage at diagnosis is the same. However, breast cancer in men often is diagnosed at a later stage. A cancer that is found at a later stage may be less likely to be cured.

The chance of recovering from a disease or injury is influenced by many factors.

The outcome and treatment choices depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor, as well as whether it has spread to other parts of the body).

  • The type of breast cancer.

  • The level of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the tumor tissue.

  • Does cancer also exist in the other breast?

  • The man’s age and general health.

  • This passage is about cancer that has already been diagnosed or has come back.

Stages of Male Breast Cancer

Key Points

  • After being diagnosed with breast cancer, tests are done to see if the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.

  • Cancer can spread in the body in three ways.

  • Cancer may spread from where it started to other parts of the body.

  • In stage 4 breast cancer, the extent of the tumor and the presence of certain biomarkers determines where the cancer has spread.

  • The TNM system is used to describe the size of the primary tumor and how far the cancer has spread.

    • Tumor (T). The size and location of the tumor.

    • The size and location of lymph nodes where cancer has spread is determined.

    • Cancer can spread to other parts of the body.

  • The grading system is used to measure how quickly a breast tumor will grow and spread.

  • Biological testing is used to determine whether breast cancer cells have certain receptors.

  • The TNM system (a grading system and biomarker status) is used to determine breast cancer stage.

  • Talk to your doctor to find out your breast cancer stage and the best treatment plan for you.

  • The treatment of male breast cancer depends on the stage of the disease.

After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to see if the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.

After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. Knowing the stage is important so that appropriate treatment can be planned. To plan treatment for breast cancer, it is important to understand the stage of the cancer. In men, breast cancer is staged in the same way as it is in women. The spread of cancer from the breast to lymph nodes and other parts of the body appears to be similar in men and women.

Some tests and procedures may be used during the staging process:

  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy During surgery, the sentinel lymph node will be removed. This is the first lymph node that receives lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor. It is also the first node that the cancer may spread to from the primary tumor. A radioactive substance or injection will be used to identify where the cancer has spread. A blue dye is injected near the tumor. The substance or dye flows through the lymph ducts to the lymph nodes. If cancer cells are not found, the pathologist may conclude that the tumor does not exist. A sentinel lymph node is necessary to remove more nodes. Sometimes a node is found in more than one group of nodes.

  • Chest x-rayAn x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest is an image that is created with an energy beam and can be seen inside the body.

  • CT scan (CAT scan) Computer imaging is a process that makes a series of detailed pictures of different areas inside the body. The pictures are created by using x-rays and a dye. This procedure may be used to see organs or tissues more clearly. CT, or computerized tomography, is a medical imaging technique that creates detailed images of the inside of the body.

  • Bone scanA method to check for rapidly dividing cells, such as cancerous cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones with cancer and can be detected by a scanner.

  • A PET scan is an imaging test that uses radiation to create pictures of the body.A procedure to find cancer cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive sugar is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Cancer cells show up brighter in the picture because they use more glucose than normal cells.A cancer cell is more active and takes up more glucose than a normal cell does.

Cancer can spread in three ways in the body.

Cancer can spread through the body by way of the lymph system and the blood.

  • Cancer starts from one place and spreads to other areas.

  • Cancer spreads from where it began by moving through the lymph system. The cancer can travel to other parts of the body through lymph vessels.

  • Cancer spreads from its start location by entering the blood. Cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.

Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body if they break away from the original tumor. This process is called metastasis.

  • Cancer gets into the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels. This allows cancer to form a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

  • Cancer spreads through the blood. Once it has entered the bloodstream, the cancer travels to other parts of the body and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) there.

The cancer spreading from the primary tumor is the same type of cancer as the original tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. This is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

Cancer deaths are often caused when the cancer moves from the original tumor and spreads to other parts of the body. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells move from their place of origin to other parts of the body.

The stage of breast cancer is based on the size and location of the primary tumor, as well as whether certain biomarkers are present.

It is important to know your breast cancer stage in order to plan the best treatment and understand your prognosis.

There are three types of breast cancer stages:

  • Clinical Prognostic Stage First, the health of the patient is determined based on information gathered from their history, physical exam, and any imaging tests done. The stage of the cancer is then assigned using the TNM system (tumor grade and biomarker status). Breast imaging (mammography or ultrasound) may be used to check for signs of cancer. Look for lymph nodes that are enlarged or have signs of cancer.

  • Pathological Prognostic StagePathology Stage 1 is based on all the clinical information and biomarker status from tissue removed during surgery for patients who have surgery as their first treatment.

  • The TNM system is based on the size and spread of cancer as described by biomarkers. The Anatomic Stage is used in parts of the world where biomarkers are not available. It is not used in the United States.

The TNS system is used to describe the size of the primary tumor and the extent to which cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

For breast cancer, the TNM system describes the tumor in terms of its size, location, and other characteristics.

The tumor is (the size and location of) the lump.

Tumor sizes are often measured in millimeters (mm). Common items that can be used to show tumor size include: a sharp point made from a pencil or crayon (1 mm), a new point made from a pencil-top eraser (2 mm), a pea (10 mm), a peanut (20 mm), and a lime (50 mm).

  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed.

  • There is no sign of a primary tumor in the breast.

  • This means that there are two types of breast cancer that have not yet spread to other parts of the body.

    • DCIS stands for ductal carcinoma in situ. DCIS is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. At this time, there is no evidence that these abnormal cells have spread to other parts of the body. DCIS may develop into invasive cancer, but it is not yet known if this will happen. To know which lesions may become invasive, you need to examine them closely.

    • Paget disease is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the skin cells of the nipple. It is not staged according to the TNM system, which uses numerical values to indicate the stages of cancer. If Paget disease and an invasive breast cancer are present, the TNM system is used to stage the condition. Breast cancer is a type of cancer that can invade other parts of the body.

  • T1: The tumor is smaller than 20 millimeters. There are four different types of tumors based on their size:

    • The tumor is about one millimeter in size.

    • The tumor is larger than 1 millimeter, but it is not larger than 5 millimeters.

    • The tumor is larger than 5 mm but not larger than 10 mm.

    • The tumor is bigger than 10 but not bigger than 20 millimeters.

  • The tumor is bigger than 20 mm but not bigger than 50 mm.

  • The tumor is larger than 50 millimeters in size.

  • The tumor is one of the following:

    • The tumor has grown and spread to the chest wall.

    • There is a tumor on the breast, and it has grown into the skin - an ulcer has formed on the surface of the skin, and there are small tumors near the primary tumor.

    • The tumor has grown inside the chest and onto the skin.

    • If you have T4d, one-third or more of the skin on your breast is red and swollen (called peau d'orange).

The size and location of lymph nodes where cancer has spread will be determined.

When lymph nodes are removed by surgery, a pathologist looks at them under a microscope to determine their stage of the disease. The following staging is used:

  • NX: The lymph nodes cannot be assessed.

  • There is no sign of cancer in the lymph nodes or small clusters of cancer cells.

  • Cancer is one of the following: a disease, a condition, an illness, or a problem.

    • Cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the armpit area and it is larger than 0.2 millimeters but not larger than 2 millimeters.

    • One to three lymph nodes near the cancer have spread, and at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 millimeters.

    • If cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, it is likely that the cancer is located near the breastbone on the same side of the body as the primary tumor. The cancer is larger than 0.2 millimeters, and it was detected by a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Cancer cannot be detected in nearby axillary lymph nodes.

    • One or more lymph nodes in the arm or chest have been found to have cancer. The cancer is also present in one of the lymph nodes near the breastbone on the same side of the body as the primary tumor.

  • Cancer is one of the conditions that are listed as follows:

    • Four to nine lymph nodes in the armpit have cancer, and at least one of the lymph nodes has cancer that is larger than two millimeters.

    • Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer is not found in the lymph nodes near the breastbone by sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection.

  • Cancer is one of the following: a disease that affects the cells in the body, a tumor, or a mass.

    • A cancer has spread to 10 or more lymph nodes in the axillary area and the cancer in at least one of the lymph nodes is larger than 2 millimeters. OR cancer has spread to lymph nodes below the collarbone.

    • One to nine lymph nodes in the armpit have cancer and the cancer is bigger than 2 millimeters somewhere in the body. Cancer has also spread to other lymph nodes near the breastbone and it can be detected using imaging tests.
      or
      Cancer has spread to at least four to nine lymph nodes in the armpit and to one of the lymph nodes near the breastbone on the same side of the body as the primary tumor. Cancer has also spread to nearby lymph nodes that measure more than two millimeters in size and that are located in a specific area of the body. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a test that can be used to determine if a person has cancer.

    • N3c: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the same side of the body as the primary tumor.

When lymph nodes are checked with mammography or ultrasound, it is called clinical staging. This is not described in this passage.

Cancer (C) is the spread of disease to other parts of the body.

  • There is no indication that cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

  • M1: Cancer often spreads to other parts of the body. The most common places where cancer spreads are the bones, lungs, liver, or brain. If cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, the cancer in the lymph nodes is larger than 0.2 millimeters.This is a type of breast cancer that spreads to other parts of the body.

The grading system is used to measure how quickly a breast tumor will grow and spread.

The grading system tells how abnormal a tumor looks under a microscope. Low-grade tumors look more like normal cells and tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade tumors. The pathologist will look for three things that are abnormal about the cancer cells and tissue:

  • How much of the tumor is composed of normal breast tissue.

  • The size and shape of the tumor cells' nuclei.

  • How many dividing cells are present, which indicates how fast the tumor cells are growing and dividing.

The pathologist assigns a score to each feature of the tumor. A score of "1" means the cells and tumor tissue look most like normal cells and tissue, and a score of "3" means the cells and tumor tissue look most abnormal. The scores for each feature are added together to get a total score. The total score is between 3 and 9.

Three grades are possible:

  • Your score is between 3 and 5. This means that your garden is either low or well-differentiated.

  • Your score is in the G2 category, which indicates that your skills are moderately differentiated.

  • My second grader asked me what this passage means: An 8 to 9 on the Total Score scale means that the plant is high quality or poorly differentiated.

Biochemical testing is used to detect whether breast cancer cells have specific receptors.

Some healthy breast cells and some breast cancer cells have receptors that attach to hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are necessary for healthy cells to grow and divide. To check for these markers samples of tissue containing breast cancer may be taken. Samples from the breast are removed during a biopsy or surgery. The cells are tested in a laboratory to see whether the cancer cells have estrogen or progesterone receptors.

Another type of receptor that is found on the surface of all breast cancer cells is called HER2. When HER2 receptors are present, the cancer cells can grow and divide.

Testing for biomarkers associated with breast cancer includes the following:

  • The estrogen receptor is a protein in the body that helps to control the effects of estrogen.If breast cancer cells have estrogen receptors, they are called ER+ (estrogen-responsive). If breast cancer cells do not have estrogen receptors, they are called ER- (estrogen-insensitive).

  • Progesterone receptor (PR)If the breast cancer cells have progesterone receptors, they are called "PR positive" (PR+). If the breast cancer cells do not have progesterone receptors, they are called "PR negative" (PR-).

  • This passage is about a protein that is important for human skin growth.If the cancer cells have more than normal amounts of receptors for HER2, they are called HER2 positive. If the cancer cells have a normal amount of receptors for HER2, they are called HER2 negative. HER2 positive breast cancer is more likely to grow and spread than HER2 negative breast cancer.Her2-positive tumors are likely to grow and divide faster than other types of tumors.

Some breast cancer cells are described as triple negative or triple positive.

  • Triple negativeIf the breast cancer cells do not have estrogen, progesterone, or HER2 receptors, they are called triple negative.

  • Triple positiveIf the cancer cells have estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, they are called triple positive.

It is important to know the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors in order to choose the best treatment. There are drugs that can stop the receptors from attaching to hormones and stop the cancer from growing. Other drugs may be used to block the HER2 receptor. The cancer cells have receptors on their surface, which stops the cancer from growing.

The TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) system is used to determine the breast cancer stage. The grading system and biomarker status are combined to come up with this information.

Here are three examples of how the TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) system, grading system, and biomarker status can be used to find out a woman's pathological stage for her first treatment (surgery):

If the tumor size is 30 millimeters or smaller, has not spread to nearby lymph nodes, has not spread to distant parts of the body, and meets one or more of the following criteria:

  • Grade 1

  • HER2+

  • ER-

  • PR-

The cancer is stage IIA.

If the tumor size is greater than 53 millimeters (T3) but has not spread to other parts of the body (M0), then the patient is in a good condition and does not require treatment.

  • Grade 2

  • HER2+

  • ER+

  • PR-

The tumor is at stage IIIA.

If the tumor size is 65 millimeters (T3) has spread to 3 axillary lymph nodes (N1a) has spread to the lungs (M1), and the doctor thinks that the cancer may have spread to other parts of the body:

  • Grade 1

  • HER2+

  • ER-

  • PR-

The cancer has progressed to a more advanced stage.

Treatment Male breast cancer

Treatment for breast cancer in men depends on the type and stage of the disease. Your provider team  will discuss your options with you. Your medical history will help you decide which treatment is best for you.

Your doctor will consider the stage of your cancer, your general health and your preferences to determine your treatment options. Treatment for male breast cancer  often involves surgery and may involve other treatments as well.

Talk to your doctor to find out your breast cancer stage and what treatment plan would be best for you.

After surgery, your doctor will receive a pathology report that tells them about the size and location of the primary tumor, as well as whether certain biomarkers are present. This information is used to determine your breast cancer status. set up.

You may have many questions. Ask your doctor about how staging is used to determine the best treatment options for your cancer and whether there are clinical trials that may be right for you.

Treatment of male breast cancer depends on the stage of the disease.

If you have stage I, II, or IIIA breast cancer, see the treatments available for you.

If cancer has come back near the area where it first formed, there are several treatment options available. See Treatment of Locally Recurrent Male Breast Cancer for more information.

For treatment options for stage IV (metastatic) breast cancer or breast cancer that has recurred in other parts of the body, see Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Inflammatory Male Breast Cancer

Breast cancer has spread to the skin of the breast. The redness and warmth that is seen are because cancer cells have blocked lymph vessels in the skin. The skin may also show the dimpled appearance called "peau d'orange." D'orange (like the skin of an orange). If there are no lumps in the breast, it may be a sign of benign breast cancer. Breast cancer may be stage IIIB, stage IIIC, or stage IV.

Treatment Option Overview

Key Points

  • There are different types of treatments for men with breast cancer.

  • There are five standard treatments used to treat men with breast cancer:

    • Surgery

    • Chemotherapy

    • Hormone therapy

    • Radiation therapy

    • Targeted therapy

  • Some treatments for male breast cancer may cause side effects.

There are different types of treatments for men with breast cancer.

There are different types of treatments available for men with breast cancer. Some are the standard treatment and some are being tested in clinical trials. A clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments. If a new treatment is found to be better than the standard treatment, that new treatment may become the standard treatment.

Some patients who are taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice.Clinical trials are used to test new cancer treatments. The treatments that are found to be the most effective are then used as the standard treatment for cancer. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Clinical trials are a way for patients to help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when trials do not result in any new treatments, they often provide important information that helps move research forward.

Some clinical trials test new ways to treat cancer that have not yet been successful for patients who have already received treatment. Other trials test different treatments for patients whose cancer has not improved. Finally, there are trials that test new ways to prevent cancer from coming back or reducing the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are being conducted in many parts of the country. You can find information about clinical trials on the NCI website. The decision to choose the best cancer treatment is a difficult one that ideally involves you, your family, and your health care team.

Doctors use five different types of standard treatment to treat men with breast cancer:

Surgery

Mastectomy surgery for men with breast cancer is usually a radical procedure (the removal of most of the breast, the underarm lymph nodes, the lining over the chest muscles, and sometimes part of the chest wall muscles).

Radical mastectomy. A dotted line shows where the entire breast, some lymph nodes, and part of the chest wall muscle are removed.

Breast-conserving surgery removes cancerous tissue, but not the breast itself. A lumpectomy removes the tumor (lump) and a small amount of surrounding normal tissue. After surgery, radiation therapy is given to kill any cancer cells that may remain. Do not discard the leaves.

Breast cancer surgery. The dotted lines show the area of the breast containing the tumor that is removed and some of the lymph nodes near the tumor that may be removed.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach all of the cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is a treatment that affects the whole body.

See Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer for more information on the drugs that have been approved by the FDA to treat breast cancer.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones from the body or blocks their actions, which stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are substances made by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream.Certain cancers can grow as a result of certain hormones. If tests show that the cancer cells have received too much of a specific hormone, hormone therapy may be used to stop the cancer from growing. Hormones can attach to specific places (receptors) in the body, which is why drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy are used to reduce or block hormone production.

Hormone therapy with tamoxifen is often given to patients who have estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor positive breast cancer and to patients with metastatic breast cancer (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body).

Hormone therapy in which an aromatase inhibitor is given to some men with metastatic breast cancer decreases their estrogen levels by blocking an enzyme called aromatase. There are many types of aromatase inhibitors, such as letrozole and exemestane. There are inhibitors.

Hormone therapy with a LHRH agonist is given to some men who have metastatic breast cancer. This therapy affects the pituitary gland, which controls testosterone production by the testicles. Men who are taking LHRH agonists will have their pituitary gland tell their bodies how much testosterone to make. The goal of hormone therapy is to reduce testosterone production. Leuprolide and goserelin are types of LHRH agonists that can help achieve this goal.

Hormone therapies other than those derived from olives include megestrol acetate or anti-estrogen therapies such as fulvestrant.

See Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer for more information about drugs that have been approved to treat breast cancer.

Radiation therapy

Cancer treatment using radiation uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. External radiation therapy sends radiation toward the area of the body with cancer using a machine outside the body.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells. This approach usually causes less damage to normal cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy do. Monoclonal antibody therapy therapies use inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase enzyme, which is associated with cancer growth. Treatment for men with breast cancer includes kinase inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, which are types of targeted therapies that attack the cancer cells.

Monoclonal antibodies are immune system proteins that are created in the laboratory to treat many diseases, including cancer. When these antibodies attach to a specific target on cancer cells or other cells that help cancer cells grow, they can then kill the cancer. Cancer cells are blocked from growing or spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by injection. They may be used alone or in combination with other medications to carry toxins or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.

There are several types of monoclonal antibody therapy. These include the following:

  • Trastuzumab is a type of antibody that blocks the effects of the growth factor protein HER2.

  • Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that may be used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy to treat breast cancer.

  • This monoclonal antibody is linked to an anticancer drug. It may be used to treat men with breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

How do monoclonal antibodies work to treat cancer? This video explains how these antibodies block molecules that cancer cells need to grow and spread. This makes the body's immune system attack and destroy the cancer cells.

Targeted therapy drugs that block signals needed for tumors to grow are called tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Lapatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that may be used to treat people with metastatic breast cancer.

Cancer cells growth is inhibited by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is used to treat men with metastatic breast cancer.

A protein called mTOR is blocked by mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors, which may prevent cancer cells from growing and keep new blood vessels from forming.

See Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer for more information about medications that have been approved to treat breast cancer.

Some treatments for male breast cancer may cause side effects.

See the Side Effects page for information about side effects that can occur during treatment for cancer.

There are different types of cancer, and some cancers may be easier to treat than others. Treatment for localized/early-stage male breast cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

In This Section

  • Initial Surgery

  • Adjuvant Therapy

For more information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

If you have early breast cancer, treatments may include the following:

Initial Surgery

For men who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, the most common treatment is a modified radical mastectomy.

Some men may undergo breast-conserving surgery with lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy.

Adjuvant Therapy

After an operation to remove cancer cells, the patient may be given radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy as adjuvant therapy. Even if the doctor removes all of the cancer that can be seen at the time of the operation, some patients may still receive targeted therapy. You should try to kill any cancer cells that may be left.

  • There is no evidence to suggest that the response to therapy for men with node-negative cancer is any different than the response for women with breast cancer. Therefore, adjuvant therapy should be considered on the same basis as for a woman with node-positive cancer.

  • For men whose cancer is node-positive (cancer has spread to lymph nodes), adjuvant therapy may include the following:

    • Chemotherapy.

    • Hormone therapy can involve taking tamoxifen or another type of drug to block estrogen's effects, or less often, drugs that reduce the amount of estrogen in the body.

    • A monoclonal antibody is used to treat a specific disease.

Hormone therapy seems to increase the likelihood of survival in men, as it does in women. The patient's response to hormone therapy depends on whether there are hormone receptors in the tumor. Most breast cancers in men have these receptors. Hormone therapy is usually recommended for male breast cancer if there are these receptors. Ovarian cancer patients may be treated with chemotherapy, but it can have many side effects, including hot flashes and impotence.

What is the treatment for local recurrent male breast cancer? Male breast cancer typically recurs in the same area, but can also spread to other parts of the body. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.

Treatment of metastatic male breast cancer

In This Section

  • Hormone therapy

  • Targeted therapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Surgery

  • Radiation therapy

  • Other treatment options

See the Treatment Option Overview section for more information about the treatments listed below.

There are many treatment options for metastatic breast cancer (cancer that has spread to distant parts of the body). These may include:

Hormone therapy

If a man has been diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer and it is hormone receptor positive, or if the hormone receptor status is unknown, treatment may include:

Some men who have hormone receptor positive or unknown tumors that have spread only to the bone or soft tissue may be eligible for treatment with tamoxifen.

  • Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used along with or without luteinizing hormone (LHRH) agonists to treat breast cancer.

  • Hormone therapy such as megestrol acetate, estrogen, or androgen therapy may be used instead of surgery. These other treatments include medications such as megestrol acetate, estrogen, or androgen therapy, or anti-estrogen therapies such as fulvestrant.

Targeted therapy

Some men with metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor positive may receive targeted therapy such as:

  • Trastuzumab is a drug that inhibits the activity of mTOR. Pertuzumab or mTOR inhibitors are also drugs that inhibit the activity of mTOR.

  • This passage is about antibody-drug conjugate therapy with ado-trastuzumab emtansine.

  • This combination of treatments (palbociclib and letrozole) is meant to slow the growth of tumors.

If a man has metastatic breast cancer that is HER2/neu positive, treatment may include:

  • Targeted therapy such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, or ado-trastuzumab is used to treat cancer.

Chemotherapy

If a man has metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor negative and has not responded to hormone therapy, or if the cancer has spread to other organs, then treatment may include:

  • Chemotherapy with one or more drugs.

Surgery

  • For men who have an open or painful breast lesion, a total mastectomy is usually required. After the surgery, radiation therapy may be given to help destroy the cancer cells.

  • If cancer has spread to the brain or spine, surgery may be performed to remove it. After surgery, radiation therapy may be given to help treat the cancer.

  • If cancer has spread to the lung, surgery may be necessary to remove it.

  • After surgery, radiation therapy may be given to help repair or support weak or broken bones.

  • A surgery to remove fluid that has collected around the lungs or heart.

Radiation therapy

  • Radiation therapy is used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life by targeting the bones, brain, spinal cord, or breast or chest wall.

  • Strontium-89 is used to relieve pain from cancer that has spread to bones throughout the body.

Other treatment options

There are other treatments for metastatic breast cancer, such as:

  • Doctors may prescribe bisphosphonates or denosumab to reduce bone disease and pain when cancer has spread to the bones. (See the PDQ summary on Cancer Pain for more information about bisphosphonates and denosumab.)

  • New cancer treatments are being tested in clinical trials. This means that different combinations of drugs and different ways of giving treatment are being tested.

To Learn More About Male Breast Cancer

For more information about male breast cancer from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

About This PDQ Summary

About PDQ

The PDQ database is a comprehensive resource for cancer information. It contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, and supportive care. This is a medical passage. The professional version has detailed information written in technical language. The patient version is written in easy-to-understand nontechnical language. Both versions have accurate and up-to-date cancer information. There are also Spanish versions of these books.

The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not official statements from the NCI or NIH.

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ cancer information summary is meant to help you and your family with current information about the treatment of male breast cancer. It isn't a set of rules or guidelines about how to choose health care.

Reviewers and Updates

The editorial board writes the PDQ cancer information summaries and makes sure they are up to date. These summaries include experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly, and when new information is available, changes are made. The date of each summary is shown This passage is updated on (date).

This patient summary was taken from the health professional version which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.

Clinical Trial Information

A clinical trial is a study that tries to answer a scientific question such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. They help us find new and better ways to help cancer patients. People who are taking part in a clinical trial are called "patients." During the trial, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than what is currently being used, the new treatment may become standard. Patients may want to consider taking part in the trial if they want to see if it is better for them. In a clinical trial, some trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Clinical trials are available online at the National Cancer Institute's website. You can call the Cancer Information Service (CIS) at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) for more information.

Preparing for your appointment

Start by seeing your GP if you notice any uncommon signs or symptoms that worry you. If your doctor thinks you'll have breast cancer, you may be named a doctor who specializes in treating cancer (oncologist).

As a result, appointments may be brief, and since there's often a great deal of ground to cover, it's an honest plan to be well-prepared. Here's some data to assist you make preparations and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, such as not uptake solid food for an amount of your time before your appointment.

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that will appear unrelated to the explanation why you regular the appointment.

  • Write down your key medical information, including other conditions.

  • Write down key personal information, including any recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all your medications, vitamins and supplements.

  • Ask a relative or friend to accompany you, to help you remember what the doctor says.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time together with your doctor is limited, thus making a list of queries will assist you create the foremost of it slowly together. List your questions from most significant to least important just in case time runs out.

For male breast cancer, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What type of breast cancer do I have?

  • What is the stage of my cancer?

  • Has my cancer spread beyond the breast?

  • Can my cancer be cured?

  • Will I need more tests?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • What are the potential side effects of each option?

  • Is there a treatment option you feel is best for me?

  • How long will cancer treatment last?

  • How will cancer treatment affect my daily life?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the queries that you've ready to raise your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions that occur to you throughout your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them may create time to travel over points you wish to pay longer on. you'll be asked:

  • What symptoms are you experiencing? How severe are they?

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms? Are they continuous or occasional?

  • Have any of your relatives been diagnosed with cancer? If so, what type of cancer and at what age were the family members diagnosed?

General summary

Breast cancer is the most common cause of death among men who have breast tissue but it does not affect all men Breast cancer affects one out of every 1,000 women and one out of 10,000 men in the U.S Every day approximately 210 people in the U.S are diagnosed with breast cancer; about two out of every three are women and one is a man Only about 2 percent to 5 percent of all breast cancers occur in male patients; even though they account for less than 1 percent of cancer diagnoses each year.

Is male breast cancer fatal?

Male breast cancer is rare It accounts for just 1 percent of all breast cancers The average age of diagnosis is 60 and men who are diagnosed tend to live five years or more than women with the disease However as its name implies male breast cancer can affect males regardless of their gender The majority of people who develop breast cancer have a female gender identification (i.e. identify themselves as women although they were born with a male body) However even this group does not automatically develop male breast cancer if they do not undergo treatment that lowers their hormone levels and causes the development of breasts Estrogen stimulates the.

How big is a male breast cancer lump?

Early breast cancer tumors tend to be small less than one-half of an inch or one centimeter in diameter It can be difficult for a person to feel or detect the tumor with his hand because it is so tiny The lump may grow as large as two to three centimeters at its largest point before the disease is diagnosed — and often smaller if diagnosed early enough.

What is the life expectancy of a man with breast cancer?

The life expectancy of a man with breast cancer depends on the severity of the disease Breast cancer in men is rare and most cases are discovered at a stage when they can be treated successfully The five-year survival rate for early-stage breast cancer ranges from 88 to 97 percent and 88 to 99 percent for late-stage breast cancer Fortunately standard treatment options are available that combine chemotherapy with hormone therapy or surgery to ensure an excellent prognosis.

How often do males get breast cancer?

There are two types of breast cancer One form is called invasive ductal carcinoma and the other is called noninvasive lobular carcinoma Invasive ductal carcinoma starts in the cells that line a milk-producing gland such as the mammary glands in women's breasts Non Invasive lobular carcinoma does not invade or spread to other parts of the body but it can still cause problems if it grows large enough or multiplies enough to develop into an aggressive form of breast cancer Men have non invasive lobular carcinoma more often than they have invasive ductal carcinoma according to BreastC.

What is the death rate for breast cancer?

Statistics about breast cancer are staggering Each year it touches the lives of hundreds of thousands American women and countless men around the globe But by performing regular screenings on your body and talking to your doctor about risk factors you can lower your chances of developing invasive breast cancer significantly Breast cancer is a complex disease with many different subtypes and contributing factors making it hard to study its causes and effects However studies have shown that genetics appears to play a central role in whether or not a person develops breast cancer as well as how severe their condition will be upon diagnosis Other factors include the patient’s age at.

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Male breast cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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