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Meningitis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Meningitis?

Meningitis is Associate in Nursing inflammation of the fluid and membranes (meninges) encompassing your brain and neural structure.

The swelling from infectious disease generally triggers signs and symptoms like headache, fever and a stiff neck.

Most cases of infectious disease within the us ar caused by a virus infectionhowever microorganism, parasitic and flora infections ar alternative causes. Some cases of infectious disease improve while not treatment in an exceedingly few weeks. Others is critical and need emergency antibiotic treatment.

Seek immediate treatment if you think that somebody has infectious disease. Early treatment of microorganism infectious disease will stop serious complications.

What is Meningitis



Explanation of medical terms and concepts Meningitis


Vaccine Comments Meningitis is an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord which can be life-threatening Untreated meningitis may result in permanent disability or death Fortunately you can protect against meningitis with Meningitis vaccine CDC recommends two types of vaccines to prevent meningococcal disease: a series of 4 shots called Menactra® that's given as a shot into your thigh (upper arm for children younger than 10 years) at age 11 or 12; and then a booster dose during high school at around 15 years old The other type of vaccine is called Menveo® (called N

vaccination Meningitis is a potentially life-threatening illness that strikes suddenly often with little or no warning About 400 people in the UK are diagnosed every year usually during the winter months Sadly one in 10 will die from it and around two thirds of survivors have long-term problems such as brain damage learning difficulties epilepsy or paralysis Although meningitis can affect anyone at any age most cases happen in babies and young children under five years old – that's because they're more likely to get meningococcal meningitis (the most common form) than older people This is mainly because the

Meningitis is AN infection of the protecting membranes that surround the brain and neural structure (meninges).
It will have an effect on anyone, however is most typical in babies, young youngsters, teenagers and young adults.
Meningitis is terribly serious if not treated quickly.
It will cause grievous blood disease (septicaemia) and lead to permanent harm to the brain or nerves.
A number of vaccinations square measure accessible that provide some protection against infectious disease.

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. This can happen when the fluid surrounding the meninges becomes infected.

Meningitis is most commonly caused by viral and bacterial infections. Other causes may include:

  • cancer
  • chemical irritation
  • fungi
  • drug allergies

Some viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. They can be spread through coughing, sneezing, or contact.

The symptoms of viral and bacterial meningitis can be similar at the beginning. However, bacterial meningitis symptoms are usually more severe. Symptoms also vary depending on your age.


Viral meningitis symptoms

Viral meningitis in infants may cause:

  • decreased appetite
  • irritability
  • sleepiness
  • lethargy
  • fever

In adults, viral meningitis may cause:

  • headaches
  • fever
  • stiff neck
  • seizures
  • sensitivity to bright light
  • sleepiness
  • lethargy
  • nausea and vomiting
  • decreased appetite

Bacterial meningitis symptoms

Meningitis symptoms can develop suddenly, including:

  • altered mental status
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to light
  • irritability
  • headache
  • fever
  • chills
  • stiff neck
  • When purple areas of skin appear, it is usually a sign that someone has been bruised.
  • sleepiness
  • lethargy

If you experience any of these symptoms, go to the hospital right away. Bacterial and viral meningitis can be deadly, and there is no way to know which type you have just by how you are feeling. Your doctor will need to do tests to determine which type of meningitis you have.

Fungal meningitis symptoms

Some symptoms of fungal meningitis may look like other types of infections. These may include:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to light
  • fever
  • headache
  • confusion or disorientation

Each type of meningitis has some specific symptoms. You can learn more about these so you can understand the differences between each type of meningitis.

If you have meningococcal meningitis, one of the signs that you are infected is a rash on your skin. The bacteria from a meningococcal meningitis infection can reproduce in your blood and attack cells around the capillaries. This damage leads to the development of a rash. Bleeding and mild bruises will occur. The spots will look like little pinpricks and may resemble bruises.

As the infection worsens, the rash will become more obvious. The spots will grow darker and larger.

People with darker skin may have a harder time seeing signs of meningitis rash. Areas of skin that are lighter, such as the palms of hands and the inside of the mouth, may show symptoms more easily.

Not every rash looks the same. Look at photos of rashes to see how they might appear.

Meningitis is caused most commonly by viruses or bacteria. Other forms of meningitis are less common, such as those caused by fungi or cancer.

Viral meningitis

Meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. Viruses in the Enterovirus category are responsible for 85% of cases. These viruses are more common during the summer and fall, and include:

  • coxsackievirus A
  • coxsackievirus B
  • echoviruses

There are different types of viruses in the Enterovirus category, which cause about 10 to 15 million infections each year. However, only a small percentage of people who get infected will develop meningitis.

Other viruses can cause meningitis. These include: -A cold or the flu -Mumps -Rubella -CMV (cytomegalovirus)

  • West Nile virus
  • influenza
  • mumps
  • HIV
  • measles
  • herpes viruses
  • Coltivirus, which causes Colorado tick fever

Meningitis typically goes away without treatment in most cases. However, some causes may require treatment.

Bacterial meningitis

Meningitis is a contagious disease that is caused by infection from certain bacteria. It is fatal if not treated properly. Between 5 to 40 percent of children and 20 to 50 percent of adults with this condition die even with proper treatment.

Bacteria that can cause bacterial meningitis are most commonly types of:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniaePneumococcal meningitis is a condition caused by bacteria that's typically found in the respiratory tract and sinuses and can result in what's called "pneumococcal pneumonia."
  • Neisseria meningitidisMeningococcal meningitis can be caused by being exposed to the bacteria which is spread through saliva and other respiratory fluids.
  • Haemophilus influenzaMeningitis can cause infection of the blood, inflammation of the windpipe, cellulitis, and infectious arthritis.
  • Listeria monocytogenes, which are foodborne bacteria
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria that typically lives on the skin and in the respiratory tract. It can cause “staphylococcal meningitis”, which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord.

Fungal meningitis

Meningitis is a rare disease caused by a fungus. This fungus can infect your body and then travel through your bloodstream to your brain or spinal cord.

People with a weakened immune system are more likely to develop fungal meningitis. This is a condition that affects people with cancer or HIV.

Meningitis is caused by different types of fungi. The most common fungi that are related to meningitis are listed below.

  • CryptococcusBirds droppings may contain bacteria that can be inhaled.
  • BlastomycesFungi other than mushrooms are found in soil, especially in the Midwest.
  • HistoplasmaBat and bird droppings are found in environments that are heavily contaminated with them. This includes areas near the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the Midwestern United States.
  • CoccidioidesThe cactus is found in specific areas of the United States Southwest and South and Central America.

Parasitic meningitis

Meningitis of this type is less common than viral or bacterial meningitis. It is caused by parasites that are found in dirt, feces, and on some animals and food.

There are three types of parasitic meningitis. One is rarer than the other two. It’s called eosinophilic meningitis (EM). The three main parasites that cause it include:

  • Angiostrongylus cantonensis
  • Baylisascaris procyonis
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum

Meningitis caused by parasites is not passed from person to person. Instead, the parasites infect an animal, and if the parasite eggs are infectious when they're ingested, an infection may occur.

There is a very rare type of parasitic meningitis that can be deadly. This type is caused when one of several types of ameba enters the body through the nose while you are swimming in contaminated water. The parasite can damage brain tissue and may eventually kill you. Naegleria fowleri can cause hallucinations, seizures, and other serious symptoms.

Non-infectious meningitis

Meningitis that is not infectious is not an infection. It is caused by other medical conditions or treatments, such as:

  • lupus
  • a head injury
  • brain surgery
  • cancer
  • certain medications

Meningitis has a different cause for each person, but all of them result in the same thing: The bacterium, fungus, or parasite spreads through the bloodstream until it reaches the brain or spinal cord. Once it's there, it causes problems in the area's protective membranes and starts to affect the person's health. A more advanced infection is developing.

Meningitis is caused by a physical injury or another condition, without an infection.

There is a vaccine for several types of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis, caused by Neisseria meningitidis, is one type of bacterial meningitis for which a vaccine is available. While viral meningitis is more common, bacterial meningitis can be more dangerous if it's not diagnosed and treated quickly. Do it quickly.

Meningitis is caused by a variety of bacteria. The two primary meningitis vaccines are designed to protect against bacterial causes. The first meningococcal conjugate vaccine offers more prolonged and broader protection against four of the most common types of bacteria, even if you don't get the shot every year. shots of energy.

MenB vaccine targets a specific strain, and its protection window is much shorter. Only certain groups of people are recommended to receive it.

After receiving a meningitis vaccine, some people may experience soreness, redness, and burning at the injection site. Some people may experience a low-grade fever for a day or two following the injection. Others may experience chills, headache, joint pain, and fatigue.

Who should get vaccinated against meningococcal meningitis?

These five groups of people are at risk for meningitis and should get a meningitis vaccine:

  • College freshmen who live in dormitories and haven't been vaccinated
  • adolescents who are 11 to 12 years old
  • People who are traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is common should take precautions. These include getting a meningococcal vaccine, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and washing their hands often.
  • Children 2 or older who don't have a spleen or who have a weakened immune system should not take this supplement.

Teens should protect themselves by getting a meningitis vaccine. There are times when the vaccine must be received, so find out when that is for your child.

The treatment I provide will depend on the cause of your meningitis.

If you think someone has bacterial meningitis, they need to go to the hospital right away. Early diagnosis and treatment will help prevent brain damage and death. Bacterial meningitis is treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is no specific antibiotic that can be used for bacterial meningitis, it depends on the type of bacteria involved.

Meningitis caused by fungi is treated with antifungal agents.

Meningitis can have two different outcomes. In some cases, the infection may be treated only with symptoms in mind. In other cases, if the infection is caused by a virus, your doctor may attempt to treat the virus directly. However, even if this treatment doesn't work, antibiotics may eventually help. If the infection becomes worse, your doctor may try to treat the infection by using antibiotics.

Some causes of viral meningitis may be treated with intravenous antiviral medications. Viral meningitis can usually resolve on its own, but some cases may require treatment with antiviral medications.

Certain types of meningitis are not contagious. Fungal, parasitic, and non-infectious meningitis are not contagious.

Meningitis is contagious. You can catch it by coming into contact with body fluids, such as mucus, feces, and saliva. These droplets can be spread when you sneeze or cough. You don’t have to be in close contact with an infected person to get the virus.

Meningitis is the most serious form of meningitis. It can also be contagious, especially if it's meningococcal meningitis. It's spread through contact with an infected person. Schools, daycare centers, military barracks, hospitals, and college dormitories are all places where it can be spread easily. You can get meningitis from other people. Some types of meningitis are contagious, but not all are. Learn more about the types of meningitis that can be spread from person to person, and how to avoid them.

Some signs and symptoms of meningitis may differ depending on the age of the person infected. These symptoms can include:

  • fever
  • jaundice
  • body or neck stiffness
  • high-pitched crying
  • inconsolable behaviors
  • sleepy and difficulty waking
  • irritable and grumpy
  • If a mother feels poorly and cannot draw enough milk when breastfeeding, it is a sign that she may have a problem.

Viral meningitis is common in infants. It develops when a person gets a cold, sore throat, or flu. The viruses that cause these common conditions also cause viral meningitis.

Bacterial meningitis is common and can be life-threatening, but it most likely spreads from an infection in a nearby part of the body. For example, the bacteria from a severe ear infection or sinus infection can enter the bloodstream and find their way to your brain or spinal cord, causing a bigger problem. A cold is an infection.

Meningitis becomes more common as children grow older and reach higher school and college ages. Symptoms of viral and bacterial meningitis in children may be very similar to symptoms in adults. These include: 1) Feeling feverish or sick 2) A stiff neck 3) Jitters, shakes, or a fast heartbeat 4) Trouble breathing

  • sudden fever
  • body and neck aches
  • confusion or disorientation
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • tiredness or fatigue

Are you curious if your child has a high risk for developing meningitis? Read more about the risk factors for this condition.

The risk of several forms of meningitis decreases after young adulthood. That's due to changing circumstances, such as when a young adult leaves school and college dormitories. Once an adult ages out of these settings, the risk of contracting a form of meningitis goes down. The infection is beginning to decline.

After age 60, the risk of developing cancer starts to increase again. That's because of underlying diseases or health conditions that weaken the immune systems in older individuals.

People who have a compromised immune system are at a greater risk for developing meningitis. People who work in close contact with others, such as teachers, healthcare providers, or daycare staffers, are also at a greater risk for an infection.

To diagnose meningitis, your doctor will start with a health history and physical exam. Important clues include age, residence and attendance at day care centers. During the exam your doctor may look for:

  • a fever
  • an increased heart rate
  • neck stiffness
  • reduced consciousness

Your doctor will also order a spinal tap. This test allows your doctor to look for increased pressure in the central nervous system. It can also detect inflammation or bacteria in the spinal fluid. This test can also determine the best antibiotic for treatment.

Other tests may be ordered to diagnose meningitis. These tests might include:

  • Blood cultures identify bacteria in the blood. Bacteria can cause sepsis and meningitis, among other things, if they get into the blood. N. meningitidis and S. pneumonia are some of the bacteria that can be found in the blood.
  • A complete blood count measures the number of red and white blood cells in your blood. This information is important for people with a high risk of infection, such as meningitis.
  • A chest X-ray can reveal the presence of pneumonia, tuberculosis, or fungal infections. Meningitis can occur after any of these infections.
  • A CT scan of the head may reveal problems like a brain abscess or sinusitis. The bacteria can spread from the sinuses to the membranes that surround the brain.

Your doctor may do a glass test to see if you have meningitis. If the rash doesn't fade under pressure, it's likely you have meningitis. If the rash does fade, it might be a sign of another condition.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is important, even if you're at increased risk. This includes eating a balanced diet, getting enough exercise, and avoiding risky behaviors.

  • getting adequate amounts of rest
  • not smoking
  • avoiding contact with sick people

If you have been in close contact with someone who has meningococcal bacteria, your doctor may give you preventive antibiotics in order to decrease your chances of developing the disease.

Meningitis can be prevented with vaccinations, including the following:

  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine
  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • meningococcal vaccine

Good personal hygiene can help you prevent meningitis. Some types of meningitis are spread through contact with an infected person's body fluid, such as saliva and nasal secretions. Avoid sharing drinking utensils and other personal items that may contain saliva or other fluids. Here are some steps to prevent meningitis.

Meningitis is typically accompanied by these complications:

  • seizures
  • hearing loss
  • vision loss
  • memory problems
  • arthritis
  • migraine headaches
  • brain damage
  • hydrocephalus
  • A subdural empyema is a condition in which a build-up of fluid occurs between the brain and the skull.

A meningitis infection can cause bacteria to spread in the bloodstream. These bacteria multiply and some release toxins. This can damage blood vessels and allow blood to leak out of the skin and organs.

Meningitis is a serious infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Gangrene may damage skin and tissue, and in rare cases amputation may be necessary. Several other serious complications can occur in people with meningitis, including long-term effects. Read more about them to learn what to watch for and how to best care for yourself if you are infected.

Meningitis caused by the pneumococcus is a rare but serious disease. In about 20 percent of cases, people with this type of infection die.

A lot of people have bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae in their throats and noses. These bacteria cause common illnesses like pneumonia, sinus infections, and ear infections.

Sometimes bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause inflammation and infection in the brain, spinal cord, or fluids near them.

If you get meningitis, you may experience these symptoms:

  • chills
  • high fever
  • vomiting
  • chest pain
  • headache
  • cough
  • confusion
  • weakness
  • disorientation

There are two vaccines available to prevent pneumococcal meningitis. You can learn more about them and other ways to protect yourself from this deadly infection here.

Some of the risk factors for meningitis are as follows:

Compromised immunity

People with immune deficiency are more vulnerable to infections. This includes meningitis, which is an infection that can affect the brain. Certain disorders and treatments can weaken your immune system. These include:

  • HIV/AIDS
  • autoimmune disorders
  • chemotherapy
  • organ or bone marrow transplants

Meningitis caused by a fungus is the most common form of meningitis in people who have HIV.

Community living

Meningitis is easily spread when people are in close quarters. This is especially true when people live in small spaces, such as in a crowded room.

  • college dormitories
  • barracks
  • boarding schools
  • day care centers

Pregnancy

Pregnant women have a higher risk of listeriosis, an infection caused by the Listeria bacteria. Infection can spread to the baby inside of them.

Age

Everyone is at risk for meningitis, but certain age groups have a higher risk. Children under the age of five are at increased risk for viral meningitis. Infants are at increased risk for bacterial meningitis.

Working with animals

Farmworkers and others who work with animals are at a higher risk of getting Listeria infection.

Risk factors Meningitis

Risk factors for meningitis include:

  • Skipping vaccinations. Risk rises for anyone United Nations agency hasn't completed the suggested childhood or adult vaccination schedule.
  • Age. Most cases of infectious agent infectious disease occur in youngsters younger than age fivemicroorganism infectious disease is common in those underneath age twenty.
  • Living in a community setting. College students living in dormitories, personnel on military bases, kidren|and youngsters|and kids} in boarding colleges and child care facilities ar at bigger risk of meningococcal infectious diseasethis is often in all probability as a result of the bacteria is unfold through the metabolism route, and spreads quickly through massive teams.
  • Pregnancy. Pregnancy will increase the danger of listeria meningitis — Associate in Nursing infection caused by eubacteria} bacteria, which can additionally cause infectious diseaselisteria meningitis will increase the danger of miscarriage, miscarriage and premature delivery.
  • Compromised immune system.AIDS, alcoholism, diabetes, use of medication medicine and alternative factors that have an effect on your system conjointly cause you to additional prone to infectious disease. Having your spleen removed conjointly will increase your risk, and anyone while not a spleen ought to get insusceptible to attenuate that risk.

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical care if you or someone in your family has meningitis signs or symptoms, such as:

  • Fever
  • Severe, unrelenting headache
  • Confusion
  • Vomiting
  • Stiff neck

For meningitis, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • What treatment do you recommend?
  • Am I at risk of long-term complications?
  • If my condition is not treatable with antibiotics, what can I do to help my body recover?
  • Am I contagious? Do I need to be isolated?
  • What is the risk to my family? Should they take preventive medication?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the prescription medicine you're recommending?
  • Do you have any printed information I can have? What websites do you recommend?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
  • How severe are your symptoms? Do they seem to be getting worse?
  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?
  • Have you been exposed to anyone with meningitis?
  • Does anyone in your household have similar symptoms?
  • What is your vaccination history?
  • Do you take any immunosuppressant medications?
  • Do you have other health problems, including allergies to any medications?

General summary

Rifampicin is the best antibiotic for meningitis It has been shown to be effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria which cause meningitis Rifampicin works by preventing DNA replication in the bacterial cell thus killing it

Can a person recover from meningitis?

When an individual has meningitis the blood vessels in his brain become inflamed which can cause permanent neurological damage if left untreated If a meningococcal infection is not treated quickly and aggressively with antibiotics it can lead to deadly consequences However people who are treated early enough and taken care of properly through the healing process manage to recover fully or regain most of their abilities

Is meningitis easily treatable?

Meningitis is a serious infection of the brain and spinal cord membranes that can lead to permanent damage and even death The illness progresses very quickly often sending people to the hospital's emergency department as early as two days after they first show symptoms One of the reasons for meningitis' rapid progression is that it's caused by bacteria called Neisseria meningitides which spreads through contact with respiratory secretions such as saliva cologne or even tears from an infected person Bacterial meningitis requires immediate treatment with antibiotics to prevent serious complications like brain damage and hearing loss Viral meningitis doesn't respond

How long does meningitis last?

Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial infection that affects the meninges the membranes that cover your brain and spinal cord In general meningitis can be classified as either community-acquired (which means you are around other people) or one of the types transmitted from person to person — for example through kissing or close contact with an infected individual — such as during sexual intercourse Once contracted symptoms usually develop within two days although this period can range from 6 hours to 5 days Meningococcal disease typically progresses rapidly in the initial phase The bacteria replicate quickly causing inflammation of the membranes surrounding your

How serious is meningitis?

Meningitis is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord Many people think that they can fight off this infection This is a dangerous myth because it may delay treatment which could result in permanent injury or death If you suspect someone has meningitis call your doctor or an ambulance right away

What are the chances of surviving meningitis?

The outlook depends on which type of meningitis you have - bacterial viral or fungal If caused by a virus or fungus the outlook is usually good if caught early and treated quickly Bacterial meningitis can develop into life-threatening illnesses requiring long periods in hospital intensive care units (ICUs) Bacterial meningitis is likely to be more severe than meningococcal septicaemia (blood poisoning spread throughout the body through infected blood) but having had bacterial meningitis does not protect against a second attack because many of the bacteria survive in your nose and throat all of your life They

What is the main cause of meningitis?

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges which are three layers of tissue that cover the spinal cord and brain The most common cause of meningitis is a viral or bacterial infection that spreads from another person's nose mouth or throat through coughing kissing or sharing cups or eating utensils

Who is generally at highest risk for meningitis Why?

The most serious complication of meningitis occurs when the membranes covering the brain (meninges) become inflamed causing a potentially fatal condition known as meningitis Although anyone can get this life-threatening infection some people are at an increased risk for acquiring it--the types of meningitis and their causes differ


Meningitis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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