Molar Pregnancy : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is a molar pregnancy?

A molar pregnancy occurs when the egg and sperm join incorrectly at fertilization, resulting in a noncancerous tumor. This tumor or mole cannot support a developing embryo and the pregnancy ends. It is also called a hydatidiform mole.

What is a molar pregnancy?
 molar pregnancy

Molar pregnancies are a type of pregnancy that results from a tumor growing in the uterus. These cysts are filled with fluid and resemble clusters of grapes.

  1. Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the pelvis, that contribute to the human reproductive process. The main functions of the female reproductive system are to: 1) produce eggs; 2) protect and nurture the fertilized egg or fetus; and 3) channel away body wastes. Externally, the main functions are: 4) to attract a mate; and 5) to provide sexual pleasure. The organs of the female reproductive system include: the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, cervix, pelvic floor muscles, and vagina.

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina

Medical terms

  • A physiological state|hydatid mole|hydatidiform mole|abnormality|abnormality|abnormal condition} — conjointly referred to as abnormalcy — could be a rare complication of pregnancy characterized by the abnormal growth of trophoblasts, the cells that ordinarily be converted into the placenta.

  • There are 2 units of hydatidiform mole, complete hydatidiform mole and partial hydatidiform mole. In a very complete hydatidiform mole, the placental tissue is abnormal and swollen and seems to make fluid-filled cysts. there is conjointly no formation of vertebrate tissue. in a very partial hydatidiform mole, there could also be traditional placental tissue in conjunction with abnormally forming placental tissue. There might also be formation of a craniate, however the craniate isn't ready to survive, and is sometimes miscarried early within the physiological state.

  • A hydatidiform mole will have serious complications — together with a rare style of cancer — and needs early treatment.

  • A physiological state|hydatid mole|hydatidiform mole|abnormality|abnormality|abnormal condition} is an associate degree uncommon sort of pregnancy loss wherever a baby doesn't develop. If you have got a hydatidiform mole, it wasn’t caused by something you probably did or didn’t do.

  • A physiological state starts with the gamete fertilizing associate degree egg. The fertile egg travels to the uterus (uterus) wherever it implants. A hydatidiform mole happens once the cells that ordinarily kind a placenta grow into a clump of abnormal cells instead.

  • It affects three hundred ladies a year in Australia. A hydatidiform mole may be either complete or partial.

  • In a complete hydatidiform mole, the craniate doesn't develop in any respect. It always happens once an associate degree egg that doesn't contain any genetic data is fertilized by a gamete.

  • In a partial hydatidiform mole, a craniate will develop however it'll be abnormal and can't survive. A partial hydatidiform mole develops once a traditional egg is fertile by a pair of gametes.

vs other pregnancy Molar pregnancies are not the same as a typical pregnancy because they do not involve an embryo Molar pregnancy also called gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) occurs when abnormal cells divide abnormally and create growths in the uterus that resemble cancerous tumors These growths can cause pain bleeding and possibly serious complications for both mom and baby Molar pregnancies are less common than regular pregnancies; however most molar pregnancies resolve on their own without any treatment If a woman does need treatment she'll likely be prescribed chemotherapy to eliminate the tumor tissue in her uterus

and its complications To understand this condition it is important to know the components of a normal pregnancy Ovulation occurs in cycles and leads to the formation of an egg that is fertilized by sperm As the egg travels down the fallopian tube it divides into two cells then four cells and then eight – now called a blastocyst The blastocyst will continue to divide until implantation takes place around day 7 after conception when the ball of cells attaches itself to the wall of the uterus By day 12 these dividing cells have fully developed and are referred to as “embryos” or “fet

Who is likely to have a molar pregnancy?

Molar pregnancies are very rare, but anyone can have one. You are more likely to have a molar pregnancy if you:

  • Are younger than age 20

  • Are over age 40

  • Have a history of molar pregnancies

  • Have had two or more miscarriages

  • Some live in certain geographic locations including the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and Mexico.

Women of European heritage have a higher risk of becoming pregnant with molar pregnancies, compared to women from other ethnicities.

Who is at risk for molar pregnancy?

The condition is usually diagnosed in the early stages of pregnancy when it is most treatable For patients who are pregnant their only option is to terminate the pregnancy and then begin cancer treatment Fortunately since the tumor will no longer be growing while they are pregnant they can often undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy while still carrying a child if caught early enough.

The unfertilized egg cell remains in the uterus where it begins to divide repeatedly Over time the mass of cells becomes a cluster of blastocysts (cell masses with fluid-filled cavities) that can weigh up to four pounds or more.* In cases where there are too many developing blastocysts they detach from the uterine wall and travel through the fallopian tube into the abdominal cavity [2] Here they may form tumors called hydatidiform moles.** Abdominal ultrasound typically reveals a mass measuring two to three centimeters at seven weeks gestation and about one centimeter wide by.

Is molar pregnancy an emergency?

Molar pregnancy is not a medical emergency However your health care provider should be notified immediately because molar pregnancies are often associated with conditions that can spread cancer to other parts of the body if left untreated or undetected Consideration should be given to the following: (a) An ultrasound evaluation in which fluid from the uterus and ovaries is collected for analysis; (b) Serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) progesterone and estradiol levels; and (c) A karyotype study on cells obtained by biopsy or aspiration.

How long does it take to recover from a molar pregnancy?

A molar pregnancy is one of the rarest types of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) that occurs 1 in every 5,000 pregnancies Women who develop a molar pregnancy often suffer from severe morning sickness uterine enlargement and abdominal pain as early as 12 weeks into their pregnancy which may lead to a miscarriage The condition usually becomes more evident around the 16th week when there is no fetal heartbeat found on ultrasound testing If a mother goes through with delivery there are many risks for her baby including respiratory distress syndrome and intrauterine death Molar pregnancies can be treated immediately by removing the uterus.

Can you pass a molar pregnancy naturally?

Molar pregnancies are abnormal non-cancerous tissue growths that develop from conception These tumors are made up of cells from the embryonic sac or trophoblastic tissue rather than an actual embryo In some cases these tumors may not be discovered until after a woman has had several prenatal tests and ultrasounds Over 90 percent of molar pregnancies occur in women who have never been pregnant before.

How common are molar pregnancies?

Molar pregnancies are rare, happening in about 1 out of every 1000 pregnancies.

What are the different types of molar pregnancies?

Complete and partial molar pregnancies fall into two categories.

In a complete molar pregnancy, the tissue that makes up the placenta is abnormal. There is no embryo formed, and this is due to an abnormality in the pregnant woman's uterus. HCG, which is produced by healthy placentas during normal pregnancies, is still present. HCG levels can be detected with a pregnancy test.

A partial molar pregnancy occurs when an abnormal placenta and embryo develop together. In these cases, the developing tumor quickly overwhelms the embryo.

Causes Molar Pregnancy

Molar pregnancies are caused when genetic errors occur during fertilization of an egg by a sperm.

A healthy pregnancy results in a placenta forming to provide nutrients to the developing baby. With a molar pregnancy, instead of a placenta a tumor forms inside the uterus. A baby is not usually involved in a molar pregnancy.

Molar pregnancies can sometimes develop after a miscarriage, a successful pregnancy, or an ectopic pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus.

Symptoms Molar Pregnancy

Some symptoms of molar pregnancy include:

  • If you are pregnant and experience vaginal bleeding within the first three months, it is probably nothing to worry about.

  • Severe nausea and vomiting.

  • Preeclampsia is a condition that causes extremely high blood pressure.

  • High HCG levels

  • A rapid increase in abdominal size is a sign that something is wrong with your pregnancy.

  • No heartbeat or fetal movement

  • The vagina is producing grape-like cysts.

Diagnosis Molar Pregnancy

Your doctor will diagnose a molar pregnancy by using an ultrasound to look inside your uterus. An ultrasound uses sound waves to create pictures of your uterus. Your doctor may also recommend blood tests to check your levels of HCG.

Treatment Molar Pregnancy

Most molar pregnancies end on their own. In these cases grape-like cysts pass out of the uterus and through the vagina without any help.

Some women require treatment to remove a molar pregnancy. Treatment usually involves dilation and curettage (the use of a tool to remove tissue) with suction to remove all abnormal tissue from the uterus.

Sometimes a hysterectomy or surgical removal of the entire uterus is necessary to treat a molar pregnancy.

What are the complications of a molar pregnancy?

Some parts of a molar pregnancy may remain in the uterus after a spontaneous end to the pregnancy or after treatment. In these cases, persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (a type of cancer) may develop.

If a mole is removed in the early stages of pregnancy and the condition isn't cured, the cells from the mole will have grown into surrounding muscle tissue. This is called gestational trophoblastic disease and it is an invasive form of the condition. Moles are usually removed without any problems, but in about one in five women, they form again after the mole has been removed.

Choriocarcinoma is a type of cancer that can form within the uterus. If it has spread to other parts of the body, doctors may do a chest X-ray to determine if it has metastasized. If choriocarcinoma has metastasized, Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy are required in order to treat cancer.

Other potential complications of a molar pregnancy include: -A high risk for premature birth -An increased risk for major birth defects, including serious brain and heart abnormalities -A higher risk for developing diabetes, preeclampsia, or other high blood pressure disorders

  • Infection of the blood (sepsis)

  • Infection of the uterus

  • Preeclampsia (very high blood pressure)

  • Shock (very low blood pressure)

Prevention Molar Pregnancy

There is no way to prevent a molar pregnancy. If you have had a previous molar pregnancy, you can reduce your risk of complications by avoiding another pregnancy for one year after your initial molar pregnancy. Your doctor will monitor your HCG levels once a month to help determine whether you are still pregnant. Make sure there is no evidence of the molar pregnancy left in your uterus.


Most women who receive treatment for a molar pregnancy have no further problems.

A molar pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

Living With

If you are pregnant and experience heavy bleeding, nausea and vomiting, or grape-like cysts from your vagina, contact your doctor immediately. Evaluation and treatment are necessary to prevent complications.

What you can do

Before your appointment:

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including when they first started and how they've changed over time.

  • Make a note of the date of your last menstrual period, if you remember it.

  • Write down key personal information, including any other medical conditions for which you're being treated.

  • Make a list of all medications, as well as any vitamins or supplements you're taking.

  • Ask a friend or family member to accompany you, if possible, to your appointment. Having someone else there may help you remember something that you forgot or missed and may provide much-needed emotional support.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions in advance will help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For molar pregnancy, some basic questions to ask include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What kind of tests do I need?

  • What needs to be done now?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend?

  • Do I need to follow any restrictions?

  • What emergency signs and symptoms should I watch for at home?

  • What are my chances for a successful future pregnancy?

  • How long should I wait before trying to become pregnant again?

  • Does my condition increase my risk of developing cancer in the future?

  • Do you have any brochures or printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend for more information?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment if you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will likely perform a physical exam and run some tests, including a blood test and ultrasound exam. He or she may also ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When was your last menstrual period?

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • Are you having any pain?

  • Compared with your heaviest days of menstrual flow, is your bleeding more, less or about the same? Have you passed any grape-like cysts from your vagina?

  • Are you experiencing any lightheadedness or dizziness?

  • Have you had a past molar pregnancy?

  • What chronic conditions, if any, do you have?

  • Do you wish to become pregnant in the future?

General summary

  1. Molar pregnancies occur when non-viable egg cells grow in the uterus and form structures that resemble tumors These growths are often called “tumors” because they behave like tumors which can invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body Unlike real cancerous tumors molar pregnancies do not damage organs throughout the body However a molar pregnancy does impair normal functioning of the reproductive system by causing hormonal imbalances Left untreated before it is removed a molar pregnancy can cause serious harm to both mother and child through blood loss and organ failures that result from hormonal disturbances.

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