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Oral thrush : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is thrush?

Oral thrush is caused by a yeast infection that develops inside your mouth. It’s also known as oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, or simply thrush.

Oral thrush usually affects infants and toddlers. It causes white or yellow bumps on the inside of the cheeks and tongue. Those bumps usually go away with treatment.

The infection is typically mild and rarely causes any serious problems. But in people with weakened immune systems it can spread to other parts of the body and cause potentially serious complications.

Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida.

It's normal for a small amount of Candida albicans to live in your mouth without causing harm. When your immune system is working properly beneficial bacteria in your body help keep Candida under control.

If your immune system is weak or the balance of microorganisms in your body is disrupted, fungus can grow out of control.

If you take medications that reduce the number of friendly microorganisms in your body, you may develop oral thrush.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also damage or kill healthy cells, which makes you more likely to get oral thrush and other infections.

People with leukemia and HIV are more likely to develop oral thrush. Oral thrush is a common infection that opportunistically affects people with HIV.

Diabetes can increase the risk of developing oral thrush. When uncontrolled diabetes weakens the immune system, this allows C. albicans to grow more easily.

If you have oral thrush, it’s possible for the fungus that causes this condition to be transferred to someone else if you kiss them. Sometimes that person might develop oral thrush.

It’s possible for you to get yeast infections in other parts of your body if you have thrush, a fungal infection that also causes yeast infections.

If you have oral thrush (a fungal infection of the mouth), a vaginal yeast infection (a fungus that can infect the vagina), or a penile yeast infection (a fungus that can infect the penis), you could potentially pass the fungus to your partner through sexual activities such as oral sex, anal sex, or sex involving the mouth and genitals.

If you are pregnant and have a vaginal yeast infection, you may be able to pass the fungus to your baby during delivery.

If you have a breast yeast infection or nipple yeast infection, you can pass the fungus to your baby. Also, if your baby breastfeeds when they have oral thrush, he or she can transmit the fungus to you.

Sometimes when someone passes C. albicans to another person, it does not always cause an oral thrush infection.

It is not always necessary to catch an infection from someone else in order to develop a yeast infection. There are some things that can increase your risk of getting this condition, even if you do not catch it from someone else.

Your doctor may be able to diagnose oral thrush by examining your mouth for the bumps it causes.

 

What is thrush

 

Explanation of medical terms and concept Oral thrush

Oral thrush — also known as oral monilia disease (kan-dih-DIE-uh-sis) — could be a condition during which the flora candida accumulates on the liner of your mouth. fungus is a traditional organism in your mouth, however typically it will overgrow and cause symptoms. Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, typically on your tongue or inner cheeks. Typically oral thrush might unfold to the roof of your mouth, your gums or tonsils, or the rear of your throat. Although oral thrush can have an effect on anyone, it's additional probably to occur in babies and older adults as a result of they need reduced immunity; in other people with suppressed immune systems or sure health conditions; or folks that take certain medications. Oral thrush could be a minor drawback if you're healthy, however if you have a weakened immune system, symptoms could also be additional severe and tough to control. 

Oral thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth It can cause pain on the roof of the mouth and tongue as well as itching or burning This can often be mistaken for other conditions that you might not suspect as being oral thrush Some of those include: • Candidiasis • Lichen planus • Oral cancer If you are experiencing any of these symptoms it would be advisable to consult with a specialist rather than trying to diagnose yourself. Do not try to treat this condition without seeing a doctor because some of the treatments may have adverse effects if you don. 

treatment home remedies Do not use mouthwashes toothpastes or other oral products that contain alcohol These products dry out the mouth and can worsen the condition Keep your teeth clean with a soft-bristled brush and plain warm salt water instead Drink plenty of fluids especially water Avoid caffeine sugar-containing foods and drinks and acidic liquids; they can irritate your mouth and make the condition worse Rest your voice as much as possible by speaking in whispers or by avoiding unnecessary conversation until you are feeling better Take lukewarm baths to soothe the discomfort caused by dryness in the throat caused by infl.

Symptoms Oral thrush

Thrush sometimes develops suddenly. A standard sign is the presence of these creamy white, slightly raised lesions in your mouth — usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. they will even be seen on the roof of your mouth, gums, tonsils or back of your throat.

Swollen and red gums -Bad breath -Itching in the mouth

  • Some children have white or yellow patches on the inside of their cheeks, their tongues, their tonsils, or their gums.

  • slight bleeding if the bumps are scraped

  • soreness or burning in their mouth

  • They may have dry, cracked skin around the corners of their mouth.

Sometimes oral thrush in babies can cause difficulty feeding and irritability or fussiness.

If you think your baby might have an oral thrush, you should see their doctor. If your baby develops oral thrush while breastfeeding them, both of you will need antifungal treatments. This is important to keep you and your baby healthy.

Thrush is most common in babies and older adults who are less able to fight off infections. But it can occur at any age.

Older adults are more likely to develop oral thrush if they have an impaired immune system. For example, adults with a history of certain medical conditions or treatment methods may be more likely to develop thrush.

Oral thrush is not likely to cause serious problems in otherwise healthy adults. But if your immune system is not working well, the infection may spread to other parts of your body.

Some people are more likely than others to develop oral thrush. Certain medical conditions, treatments, and lifestyle factors can all increase your risk of thrush.

Children and adults

Initially, you may not even notice symptoms of oral thrush. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Creamy white lesions on your tongue, inner cheeks, and sometimes on the roof of your mouth, gums and tonsils

  • Slightly raised lesions with a cottage cheese-like appearance

  • Redness, burning or soreness that may be severe enough to cause difficulty eating or swallowing

  • Slight bleeding if the lesions are rubbed or scraped

  • Cracking and redness at the corners of your mouth

  • A cottony feeling in your mouth

  • Loss of taste

  • Redness, irritation and pain under dentures (denture stomatitis)

In severe cases, typically involving cancer or a weakened system from HIV/AIDS, the lesions may unfold downward into your gullet — the long, muscular tube stretching from the rear of your mouth to your abdomen (Candida esophagitis). If this occurs, you will experience problems swallowing and pain or feel as if food is obtaining stuck in your throat.

Infants and breast-feeding mothers

In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants could have trouble feeding or be fussy and irritable. they will pass the infection to their mothers throughout breast-feeding. The infection may then pass back and forth between the mother' breasts and also the baby's mouth.

Women whose breasts are infected with candida may experience these signs and symptoms:

  • Unusually red, sensitive, cracked or itchy nipples

  • Shiny or flaky skin on the darker, circular area around the nipple (areola)

  • Unusual pain during nursing or painful nipples between feedings

  • Stabbing pains deep within the breast

When to see a doctor

If you or your kid develops white lesions within the mouth, see your doctor or dentist. Thrush is unusual in healthy older children, teenagers. Associate in Nursing adults, therefore if thrush develops, see your doctor to see if any analysis is required to examine for an underlying medical condition or alternative cause. 

Causes Oral thrush

Normally, your system works to repel harmful incursive organisms, corresponding to viruses, bacterium Associate in Nursing fungi, whereas maintaining a balance between "good" and "bad" microbes that ordinarily inhabit your body. However typically these protecting mechanisms fail, increasing the amount of fungus plant life and permitting an oral thrush infection to require hold. The foremost common sort of willdida fungus is fungus albicans. Many factors, such as a weakened immune system, can increase your risk of oral thrush. 

Most people have tiny amounts of the fungus plant life within the mouth, duct and skin. they're commonly unbroken under {control} by alternative microorganisms and microorganisms in the body. Once illnesses, stress, or medications disturb this balance, the fungus grows out of control and causes thrush. 

Medications that may create yeast flourish and cause infection include: 

  • Corticosteroids.

  • Antibiotics.

  • Birth control pills.

Candida infection is more likely to develop with:

  • Uncontrolled diabetes.

  • HIV infection.

  • Cancer.

  • Dry mouth.

  • Pregnancy (caused by the hormonal changes that occur with pregnancy).

  • Smoking.

  • Wearing dentures that don’t fit well.

Risk factors Oral thrush

You may have an increased risk of oral thrush infection if any of these issues apply:

  • Weakened immunity. Oral thrush is additional seemingly to occur in infants and older adults because of reduced immunity. Some medical conditions and coverings will suppress your immune system, comparable to cancer and its treatments, organ transplantation and needed medicine that suppress the immune system, and HIV/AIDS. 

  • Diabetes. If you've got untreated polygenic {disease} or the disease isn't well-controlled, your spittle could contain giant amounts of sugar, which inspires the expansion of candida. 

  • Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes oral thrush. You can pass the infection to your baby.

  • Medications. Drugs such as prednisone, inhaled  corticosteroids, or antibiotics that disturb the natural balance of microorganisms in your body will increase your risk of oral thrush. 

  • Other oral conditions. Wearing dentures, especially upper dentures, or having conditions that cause dry mouth can increase the risk of oral thrush.

Some things that may increase your risk of thrush are:

  • have a condition that causes dry mouth

  • have diabetes, anemia, leukemia, or HIV

  • Take antibiotics, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs to treat a condition.

  • Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy are given to patients.

  • smoke cigarettes

  • wear dentures

Oral thrush is usually benign in people with healthy immune systems. In more severe cases it may spread to your esophagus.

If your immune system is weakened, you may be more likely to develop complications from thrush. Without proper treatment, the fungus that causes thrush may invade your bloodstream and spread to other parts of your body. This is known as invasive or systemic candidiasis.

Systemic candidiasis can cause problems in the organs it affects, such as the liver and lungs. It can also lead to a potentially life-threatening condition called septic shock.

To reduce your risk of oral thrush, try the following: -Wash your hands often -Avoid sharing food or drinks with others -Avoid using artificial sweeteners

  • You need to eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly to support your immune system.

  • To maintain good oral hygiene, brush your teeth twice a day, floss daily, and visit the dentist on a regular basis.

  • If your mouth is always dry, see your doctor. They may recommend a treatment plan that you can use at home.

  • Before you go to bed, remove your dentures if they are in place. Make sure they are clean and fit properly each day.

  • If you have an inhaler that contains a corticosteroid, you should rinse your mouth or brush your teeth after using it.

  • If you have diabetes, take steps to manage your blood sugar levels.

If you develop a yeast infection, go see a doctor. Sometimes an infection can spread from one 

part of your body to another.

More research is needed to learn how diet may affect oral thrush. However, based on the information currently available, it seems that a diet high in sugar may be a contributing factor.

Some studies suggest that eating certain probiotic foods or taking probiotic supplements might help limit the growth of yeast. However more research is needed to learn about the role that probiotics might play in treating or preventing oral thrush.

Some people think that limiting or avoiding certain foods may help curb the growth of yeast. For example, they believe that limiting refined carbohydrates and sugars can help treat or prevent oral thrush and other yeast infections.

The "candida diet" is based on these beliefs. However, there is no scientific support for it. You can find more information about it and its limitations here.

Complications

Oral thrush is rarely a haul for healthy kids and adults. For individuals with down immunity, comparable to from willcer treatment or HIV/AIDS, thrush are often additional serious. Untreated oral thrush can cause more-serious general fungus infections. If you have a weakened immune system, thrush could unfold to your passageway or different elements of your body.

Prevention

These measures may help reduce your risk of developing candida infections:

  • Rinse your mouth. If you need to use a corticosteroid inhaler, be sure to rinse your mouth with water or brush your teeth after taking your medication.

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day and floss daily or as often as your dentist recommends.

  • Check your dentures. Remove your dentures at night. ensure dentures work properly and don't cause irritation. Clean your dentures daily. raise your dental practitioner for the simplest thanks to clean your sort of dentures. 

  • See your dentist regularly, especially if you have diabetes or wear dentures. Ask your dentist how often you need to be seen.

  • Watch what you eat. Try limiting the amount of sugar-containing foods you eat. These may encourage the growth of candida.

  • Maintain good blood sugar control if you have diabetes. Well-controlled blood sugar can reduce the amount of sugar in your saliva, discouraging the growth of candida.

  • Treat a vaginal yeast infection as soon as possible.

  • Treat dry mouth. Ask your doctor about ways to avoid or treat your dry mouth.

Diagnosis Oral thrush

If you have a mouth infection, your doctor may take a biopsy of the bump to confirm the diagnosis. They will scrape off a small portion of it and send it to a laboratory for testing for C. albicans.

If your doctor suspects that you have thrush in your esophagus, they may use a throat swab culture or an endoscopy to confirm the diagnosis.

To get a throat culture, your doctor will use a cotton swab to take a tissue sample from the back of your throat. This sample will then be sent to a laboratory for testing.

To have an endoscopy, your doctor uses a thin tube with a light and camera attached. They put this tube through your mouth and down your throat into your esophagus to look at it. They may also take a tissue sample for analysis.

To treat oral thrush, your doctor may prescribe one or more of the following medications:

  • Diflucan is an oral medication used to treat fungal infections.

  • Clotrimazole (Mycelex Troche), an Antifungal medication, is available in lozenges.

  • nystatin (Nystop, Nyata), Mouthwash that is antifungal can be used mouth-by-mouth or applied to a baby's mouth.

  • Itraconazole (Sporanox), an Oral antifungal medication, is used to treat people who have thrush or HIV, who do not respond to other treatments.

  • AmBisome (amphotericin B) is a medication that's used to treat fungal infections.If you have a severe case of oral thrush, you may need treatment.

If you are treated for oral thrush, most cases will go away within a couple of weeks. However, in some cases it can return.

If your healthcare provider detects oral thrush in adults who have no known cause, they will investigate any underlying medical conditions that might be causing the problem.

Infants may have several episodes of oral thrush in their first year of life. Thrush is a yeast infection of the mouth.

If thrush is limited to your mouth

To diagnose oral thrush, your doctor or dentist may:

  • Examine your mouth to look at the lesions

  • Take a small scraping of the lesions to examine under a microscope

  • If needed, do a physical exam and certain blood tests to identify any possible underlying medical condition that may be the cause of oral thrush

If thrush is in your esophagus

To help diagnose thrush in your esophagus, your doctor could suggest any or all of these:

  • Biopsy. The tissue sample is cultured on a special medium to help determine which bacteria or fungi, if any, are causing your symptoms.

  • Endoscopic exam. In this procedure, your doctor examines your esophagus, abdomen and a part of your bowel (duodenum) employing a lighted, versatile tube with a camera on the tip (endoscope). 

  • Physical exam. If needed, a physical communicating and blood tests are also done to spot any doable underlying medical condition that would cause thrush within the esophagus. 

Treatment Oral thrush

The goal of any oral thrush treatment is forestall} the speedy unfolding of the fungus, however the most effective approach might rely on your age, your overall health and also the reason for the infection. Eliminating underlying causes, once possible, will prevent recurrence.

  • Healthy adults and children. Your doctor could advocate antifungal medication. This comes in many forms, as well as lozenges, tablets, or a liquid that you just swish in your mouth then swallow. If these topical medications don't seem to be effective, medication is also only if it works throughout your body. 

  • Infants and nursing mothers. If you're a breast-feeding Associate in Nursing your child has oral thrush, you and your baby might pass the infection back and forth. Your doctor might order a gentle antifungal medication for your baby and an antifungal cream for your breasts. 

  • Adults with weakened immune systems. Most often your doctor will recommend antifungal medication.

Thrush may return even after it's been treated if the underlying cause, such as poorly disinfected dentures or inhaled steroid use, isn't addressed.

Your doctor might also recommend using home remedies or changing your lifestyle to prevent oral thrush from returning.

To recover from a cold, it is important to practice good oral hygiene. Here are a few tips: -Wash your mouth and throat with warm water and soap. - gargle with salt water to clear your throat. -Avoid smoking and eating mucus-containing foods.

  • To avoid scraping the bumps on your teeth caused by thrush, use a soft toothbrush.

  • Make sure to replace your toothbrush after you finish your treatment for oral thrush, and clean your dentures if you wear them in order to lower your risk of reinfection.

  • Do not use mouthwashes or mouth sprays unless your doctor has specifically ordered them.

Some home remedies may help relieve symptoms of thrush in adults.

One of the following might help to rinse your mouth:

  • saltwater

  • a solution of water and baking soda

  • a mixture of water and lemon juice

  • A mixture of water and apple cider vinegar is used to clean surfaces.

You might also want to eat yogurt that includes beneficial bacteria or take a probiotic supplement. Talk to your doctor before giving an infant any supplements. To learn more about these home remedies and others, click here.

The fungus that causes oral thrush can also cause yeast infections on your breasts and nipples.

This fungus can be passed back and forth between mothers and their babies during breastfeeding.

If your baby has oral thrush, they may be able to spread the fungus to other parts of their body, such as their breasts or skin. If you have a breast yeast infection or nipple yeast infection, your baby may also be able to spread the fungus to their mouth or skin.

Since yeast can live on the skin without causing an infection, your baby can develop oral thrush without any symptoms of a breast or nipple yeast infection.

If you get a yeast infection on your breasts or nipples, you may experience:

  • Some women experience pain in their breasts while breastfeeding. This pain usually goes away after a while.

  • If you are experiencing itching or a burning sensation in or around your nipples, it might be a sign that you are pregnant.

  • Some women have white or pale spots on or around their nipples.

  • shiny skin on or around your nipples

  • flaking skin on or around your nipples

If your baby develops oral thrush or you develop a breast or nipple yeast infection, it is important to get treatment for both of you. This will help prevent the cycle of transmission.

Your healthcare provider may advise you to do the following: -Stay physically active -Get plenty of rest -Avoid smoking

  • Apply an antifungal medication to your baby's skin and then apply a cream to your breasts to fight the fungus. Wipe the cream off your breasts before breastfeeding your baby, to prevent it from getting into their mouth.

  • Babies need to be sterilized before teething rings, bottle nipples, and other items they put in their mouths. Make sure to sterilize everything you use when pumping breast milk for your baby.

  • Make sure your nipples are clean and dry between feeds. If you use nursing pads, avoid pads with a plastic liner, which can trap moisture and create favorable conditions for fungal growth.

Your doctor may also recommend changing your lifestyle to help treat or prevent oral thrush and other types of yeast infection. Get more tips on managing the risk of yeast infection while breastfeeding.

Oral thrush is most common in infants and toddlers. Babies can get oral thrush after picking up the fungus from their mothers during pregnancy, during delivery, or breastfeeding.

If your baby has oral thrush, they may develop the same signs and symptoms as people with

Lifestyle and home remedies

These suggestions may help during an outbreak of oral thrush:

  • Practice good oral hygiene. Brush and floss regularly. Replace your toothbrush often until your infection clears up. Don't share toothbrushes.

  • Disinfect dentures. Ask your medical practitioner for the simplest thanks to clean your dentures to avoid reinfection. 

  • Try warm saltwater rinses. Dissolve concerning one/2 teaspoon (2.5 milliliters) of salt in 1 cup (237 milliliters) of heat water. Swish the rinse and so spit it out, however don't swallow. 

  • Use nursing pads. If you're breast-feeding and develop a plant infection, use pads to assist forestall the plant life from spreading to your clothes. search for pads that don't have a plastic barrier, which might encourage the expansion of candida. Wear a clean brassiere each day. raise your doctor concerning the simplest thanks to clean your breast nipples, bottle nipples, pacifiers and any detachable  elements of a breast pump if you utilize one. 

Preparing for your appointment

You're able to start out by seeing your GP or pediatrician. However, if you have an associate degree underlying condition that contributes to the problem, you'll be observed by a specialist for treatment. Here's some info to assist you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

The doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Be able to answer them to order time to travel over any points you wish to pay longer on. Your doctor could ask:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have you recently taken antibiotics for an infection?

  • Do you have asthma? If so, do you use a steroid inhaler?

  • Do you have any long-term health conditions?

  • Do you have any other new symptoms of illness?

What to expect from your doctor

The doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Be able to answer them to order time to travel over any points you wish to pay longer on. Your doctor could ask:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have you recently taken antibiotics for an infection?

  • Do you have asthma? If so, do you use a steroid inhaler?

  • Do you have any long-term health conditions?

  • Do you have any other new symptoms of illness?

General summary

Oral thrush is an infection of the mouth that causes white patches on the tongue inside cheeks and/or in between the gums It is caused by a yeast called Candida Albicans that normally lives in our bodies When your immune system is weakened or when there are small tears in your mouth this yeast can grow out of control and cause thrush Once it starts growing it quickly spreads to other areas of the body outside of the mouth-including the throat esophagus and vagina Oral thrush needs to be treated as soon as possible before it spreads to other parts of the body or becomes more difficult.

How is oral thrush treated in adults?

Treating oral thrush in adults typically involves the use of a particular antifungal agent taken by mouth Since the infection is caused by a yeast organism medications that contain an antifungal drug are usually effective at eliminating it The most commonly used medication is nystatin which helps to eliminate Candida albicans because it interferes with its cell wall growth Nystatin may be taken as a pill or through an oral suspension and is often combined with another medication for better effect.

Will oral thrush just go away?

Thrush causes an overgrowth of yeast called Candida albicans This common fungal infection is found in small amounts on the skin gums and intestines of healthy people When a person's immune system is weakened by certain medications or illness thrush may develop in the mouth or diaper area Thrush can also be passed from mother to baby during childbirth Depending on the cause it may be necessary to treat the underlying condition before successfully treating thrush with antifungal medication such as Nystatin (the most common brand name).

How long does oral thrush last without treatment?

Oral thrush typically clears up without treatment within a few weeks according to the Mayo Clinic This can occur if you're taking medications for your condition and in some cases without any drugs In more severe cases of oral thrush where tissues are severely damaged or there is a very high level of infection it could take several months for symptoms to subside.

What happens if you leave oral thrush untreated?

Oral thrush is caused by a yeast infection that occurs on the inside of the mouth and tongue making eating and drinking painful Severe cases may require you to take medication or get laser treatments to relieve your symptoms While most cases of oral thrush clear up within two weeks with proper treatment some people are at risk for developing a bacterial infection if they don't follow through with their doctor's orders If left untreated this may lead to more serious conditions including.

Is Listerine good for thrush?

Listerine is antiseptic mouthwash which helps to prevent and treat gingivitis and other oral diseases Listerine kills germs that cause bad breath tooth decay and plaque buildup but it also has many other uses Here's what you can use Listerine for besides dental hygiene: 1. Treat cuts – Mix ½ teaspoon of Listerine with an equal amount of water to treat cuts by preventing bacteria from growing on the wound until you get medical help 2. Soothe mosquito bites – Apply a washcloth dipped in diluted Listerine to reduce irritation caused by mosquitoes.

What is the best mouthwash for oral thrush?

Mouthwash is meant to kill germs so it only makes sense that mouthwash can help prevent and cure oral thrush Good mouthwashes contain ingredients such as chlorhexidine which easily penetrate the cell membranes of bacteria and fungi killing them off in the process Formulations containing essential oils and antiseptic properties are effective against fungal infections such as thrush.

Can oral thrush make you feel unwell?

Oral thrush is the common name for a fungal infection known as Candida albicans which has its natural habitat in your mouth Oral thrush can affect both children and adults If you have an oral thrush infection you may experience symptoms that include: - A white coating or plaques on the tongue; - Swollen or irritated gums; - A metallic taste in your mouth; and - Feeling generally unwell.

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Oral thrush : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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