Peritonitis : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is peritonitis?

The American Association of Kidney Patients warns of signs and symptoms of peritonitis. Peritoneal dialysis may be easier than you think if you experience any of these symptoms.
Peritonitis is a condition that occurs when the peritoneum--the membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity--becomes inflamed.

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What is peritonitis?

Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, a tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers and supports most of your abdominal organs. This can be caused by infection from bacteria or fungi.

If you develop peritonitis, it can quickly spread to other organs and cause serious health problems. So if you experience any of the symptoms of peritonitis, such as severe abdominal pain, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. It is important to take care of your skin so that you do not experience potentially fatal complications.

and symptoms Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum a membrane that lines the abdomen The condition can develop due to any damage to the abdominal organs including infection Peritonitis is usually caused by appendicitis diverticulitis or gallstone impactions that result in bile and pancreatic fluid entering the cavity of the abdomen instead of flowing through the intestines Several non-infectious causes also exist such as chronic inflammation and trauma to abdominal organs

  1. Digestive system

Medical terms

Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum — a thin membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen — that can be caused by a bacterial or fungal infection There are two types of peritonitis: acute and chronic

  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Sometimes, peritonitis develops as a complication of liver disease, such as cirrhosis, or of kidney disease.

  • Secondary peritonitis.Peritonitis can result from rupture of your abdomen or as a complication of other medical conditions

Peritonitis requires prompt medical attention to fight infection Peritonitis treatment typically involves antibiotics and in some cases surgery Left untreated peritonitis can lead to severe life-threatening infection

Peritonitis can be caused by peritoneal dialysis therapy If you are receiving peritoneal dialysis and follow good hygiene you can prevent the growth of bacteria and improve your overall health

Symptoms Inflammation Peritonitis

Signs and symptoms of peritonitis include:

  • Abdominal pain or tenderness

  • A full feeling in your abdomen

  • Fever

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Loss of appetite

  • Diarrhea

  • Low urine output

  • Thirst

  • Inability to pass stool or gas

  • Fatigue

  • Confusion

If you're receiving peritoneal dialysis you may also experience:

  • Cloudy dialysis fluid

  • White flecks strands or clumps in the dialysis fluid

When to see a doctor

Peritonitis is a life-threatening illness if it is not treated promptly If you have severe abdominal pain or tenderness bloating or a feeling of fullness associated with:

  • Fever

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Low urine output

  • Thirst

  • Inability to pass stool or gas

If you are receiving peritoneal dialysis contact your health care provider immediately if the dialysis fluid:

  • Is cloudy or has an unusual color

  • Contains white flecks

  • Contains strands or clumps (fibrin)

  • A catheter has an unusual odor particularly if the area around it is red or painful

It’s pretty hard to resolve a conflict

  • Seek immediate medical attentionIf you have so much pain that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position it could be because of an abdominal problem

  • If you have severe abdominal pain following an accident or injury see a doctor

Causes Inflammation Peritonitis

Infection of the peritoneum can happen for a variety of reasons In most cases it is due to an opening (perforation) within the abdominal wall Though it's rare the condition can also develop without any abdominal rupture

Ruptures that lead to peritonitis include:

  • Medical procedures such as peritoneal dialysis for treating kidney failure and other conditions in which the blood does not flow through the body Peritoneal dialysis involves inserting a tube (catheter) into one of your abdominal cavities to remove waste products from your blood Infection is common with peritoneal dialysis because of unclean surroundings poor hygiene and contaminated equipment Peritonitis may also develop as a complication Feeding tubes are used frequently during gastrointestinal surgery and rarely as a complication of a colonoscopy or endoscopy

  • A perforated stomach ulcer or ruptured appendixAny of these conditions can allow bacteria to get into the peritoneum through a hole in your gastrointestinal tract

  • Pancreatitis.If pancreatitis is complicated by infection it may lead to peritonitis

  • Diverticulitis.Difficulty with digestion may cause one of the small pouches to rupture This can lead to peritonitis where waste is spilled into your abdominal cavity

  • Trauma.Injury or trauma may cause peritonitis by allowing bacteria or chemicals from other parts of your body to enter the peritoneal cavity

Peritonitis that develops without a ruptured abdominal wall (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis) is usually caused by liver disease such as cirrhosis Advanced cirrhosis causes a large amount of fluid buildup in your abdominal cavity That fluid buildup is susceptible to bacterial infection

Risk factors Inflammation Peritonitis

Factors that increase your risk of peritonitis include:

  • Peritoneal dialysis.Peritonitis can occur in people undergoing peritoneal dialysis therapy

  • Other medical conditions.When you have the following medical conditions you are at higher risk of developing peritonitis: liver cirrhosis appendicitis Crohn’s disease stomach ulcers diverticulitis and pancreatitis

  • History of peritonitis.Once you've had peritonitis your risk of developing it again may be higher than for someone who has never had it

Complications Peritonitis

Peritonitis can be left untreated and it may then extend beyond the peritoneum where it can cause:

  • An illness that occurs throughout your body (sepsis)Sepsis is a rapidly progressing life-threatening condition that can cause shock organ failure and death

How long does it take to recover from peritonitis?

Peritonitis is a condition where the peritoneum of abdominal lining becomes inflamed It is usually caused by an infection in another part of your body that reaches the abdomen through the bloodstream or lymphatic system Symptoms vary depending on how long you have had peritonitis but may include fever and chills abdominal pain and tenderness and nausea and vomiting.

Can you survive peritonitis?

Peritonitis occurs when bacteria enters the peritoneal space Peritoneum is a thin fibrous membrane that lines the abdomen and covers most of the organs located within it There are three types of peritonitis: (1) spontaneous bacterial which results from an internal rupture or puncture; (2) secondary bacterial which results from another condition such as appendicitis or diverticulitis; and (3) chemical peritonitis which occurs when a toxic or caustic agent damages the lining of the abdomen.

What happens if peritonitis is not treated?

Peritonitis is usually caused by a perforation or rupture of an organ in the abdomen The condition is a medical emergency because bacteria from the intestinal tract will leak out into the abdominal cavity and cause infection If left untreated peritonitis can result in sepsis which can damage internal organs beyond repair Once sepsis sets in it’s impossible to stop it and very few people survive This means that prompt treatment for peritonitis is absolutely vital to increase chances of survival.

Prevention Inflammation Peritonitis

Peritonitis is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis Peritonitis can occur if germs are present around the catheter If you’re on peritoneal dialysis take these precautions to prevent infection:

  • Wash your hands including under your fingernails and between the fingers before touching the catheter

  • Clean the area around a catheter with an antiseptic every day

  • Store your supplies in a sanitary area.

  • Wear a surgical mask during dialysis exchange time It will help protect you from germs which can cause infection or infection-like symptoms like headaches and fever

  • Talk with your dialysis team about proper care for your peritoneal dialysis catheter

If you have had peritonitis before or if you have peritoneal fluid buildup due to a medical condition such as liver cirrhosis your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to prevent peritonitis If you're taking a proton pump inhibitor your doctor may ask you to stop taking it

Diagnosis Inflammation Peritonitis

Your doctor will talk with you about your medical history and perform a physical exam If the fluid in your dialysis machine is cloudy and you have other symptoms your doctor may be able to diagnose peritonitis

In cases of peritonitis in which the infection may be a result of other medical conditions or when it arises from fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity your doctor may recommend these tests to confirm a diagnosis

  • Blood tests.A blood sample is sent to a lab to check for high white blood cell counts A blood culture also may be performed to determine if there are bacteria in your blood

  • Imaging tests.Your doctor may want to use an X-ray to check for holes or other perforations in your gastrointestinal tract Ultrasound also may be used in some cases In some cases your doctor may use a computerized tomography (CT) scan instead of an X-ray

  • Peritoneal fluid analysis. Your doctor may remove fluid from the peritoneum (the area surrounding the abdominal organs) with a very thin needle If you have peritonitis this fluid may show an increased white blood cell count which reveals inflammation of the abdomen Plain watery diarrhea often suggests an infection or inflammation However a culture of the fluid may also reveal the presence of bacteria

If you are receiving peritoneal dialysis and your doctor can't tell exactly what the problem is you may need to have a series of tests to determine if there is an infection A physical exam and blood tests or ultrasound may be necessary

Treatment Inflammation Peritonitis

If you are diagnosed with redness, you will be admitted to a hospital. Typically, you may straightaway begin receiving blood vessel antibiotics or antifungal medications to treat the infection. further validatory treatments are going to be necessary if organ failure from infection develops as a complication of the infection. Such treatments might embody blood vessel fluids, medication to keep up force per unit area, and nutritionary support.

If you've got serous membrane dialysis-associated redness, you'll receive medications that are injected directly into the serous membrane area, a method that some studies have said to be more practical than blood vessel medications.

In several cases, emergency surgery is needed, particularly if redness has been caused by conditions like inflammation, a perforated abdomen lesion, or inflammation. Infected tissue like a burst appendix or symptom are going to be surgically removed. therefore can any part of the serous membrane tissue that has been seriously broken by infection.

During your hospitalization, you'll be closely monitored for signs of infection and septic shock that sometimes need immediate transfer to an associate degree medical care unit.

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can be life-threatening You'll need to stay in the hospital Treatment includes antibiotics and supportive care

You will also need to stay in the hospital for peritonitis caused by an infection from another medical condition (secondary peritonitis) Treatment may include:

  • Antibiotics. You will likely be given a course of medication to fight the infection and prevent it from spreading The dosage and duration of your antibiotic therapy will depend on your condition and the type of peritonitis you have The medication may include an antibiotic that treats a variety of different conditions or it may be restricted to treating one specific kind Until doctors have more information about the specific bacteria causing your infection they cannot determine the best antibiotic to use Then they can narrow their selection of antibiotics based on their knowledge of different bacteria

  • Surgery.Surgery is often needed to remove infected tissue and treat the underlying cause of the infection Keeping the liver from becoming inflamed is important and it helps prevent an infection from spreading if a ruptured appendix or stomach or colon has caused peritonitis

  • Other treatments.Depending on your symptoms and signs you may be given pain medications fluids through a vein (intravenous medications) oxygen and sometimes blood transfusions

If you have undergone peritoneal dialysis

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General summary

  1. causes and treatments Peritonitis is a bacterial infection in the thin tissue that lines your stomach and abdominal cavity Typically caused by a ruptured appendix (where bacteria can spread to other organs) peritonitis is incredibly painful and dangerous If you experience pain or severe discomfort in your abdomen fever or loss of appetite seek medical attention immediately as these are all signs of peritonitis.

  2. Symptoms Peritonitis is an infection of the peritoneum the membrane that lines the inner wall of your abdomen and covers most of your abdominal organs Peritonitis can result from a wide variety of conditions including appendicitis diverticulitis gallbladder disease or stomach ulcers Some peritonitis infections are spontaneous The two main types of preventable infections are hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections Community-acquired peritonitis is common in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes who require long-term care at home.

  3. a kind of Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum which is a membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the internal organs It's typically caused by a bacterial infection originating in another site in the digestive system Peritonitis can be life-threatening if it isn't treated promptly with antibiotics resulting in sepsis or even multiple organ failure Other conditions that lead to peritonitis include internal trauma certain inflammatory bowel diseases and pancreatic disease.

  4. Peritonitis is a medical condition in which the peritoneum the lining of the abdominal cavity becomes inflamed Peritonitis can be classified as either simple or complicated Simple peritonitis involves only infection of the peritoneum; complicated peritonitis sometimes called compound peritonitis refers to inflammation of tissue surrounding an actively infected organ such as the liver or intestines.

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