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Pneumonia : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What is  Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. This infection leads to inflammation in the air sacs of the lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.

Pneumonia is both contagious and spread through the inhalation of airborne droplets. This means it can be passed from person to person through the act of sneezing or coughing.

Pneumonia can be contracted from coming in contact with surfaces or objects that are contaminated with pneumonia-causing bacteria or viruses.

 

What is  Pneumonia?



medical terms 

Pneumonia may be a respiratory organ infection that may vary from gentle to therefore severe that you simply have to move to the hospital.

It happens once an infection causes the air sacs in your lungs (your doctor will decide them alveoli) to fill with fluid or pus. That may create it onerous for you to respire enough O to achieve your bloodstream.

Anyone can get this lung infection. However, infants younger than age two and folks over age sixty five are at higher risk. That’s as a result of their immune systems won't be sturdy enough to fight it.

  • you'll be able to get respiratory disease in one or each lung. you'll be able to even have it and not grasp it. Doctors decide this is walking pneumonia. Causes embrace bacterium, viruses, and fungi.  If your pneumonia results from bacteria or a virus, you can unfold it to somebody else.

  • Pneumonia is a serious lung infection. It is most often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. People of any age can get pneumonia, but it is more common in children under five years old, adults over 65 years old, and people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes. Pneumonia can be deadly.

  • Pneumonia is a lung infection. It is usually caused by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. Pneumonia can range from mild to life-threatening. Symptoms include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, sweating and fever.


You can get fungal pneumonia from the environment. It does not spread from person to person

Pneumonia can be classified in a few different ways: where or how it was acquired.

  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). This type of pneumonia is acquired during hospitalization. It may be more serious than other types, as the bacteria involved may be more resistant to antibiotics.

  • When a person becomes infected with pneumonia, it is usually acquired from close contact with others in the community, such as at school or work.Pneumonia can be acquired outside of a medical or institutional setting.

  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).Pneumonia is a condition that occurs when people who are using a ventilator get sick.

  • Aspiration pneumonia. If you inhale bacteria from food, drink, or saliva, you can develop aspiration pneumonia. It’s more likely to happen if you have a swallowing problem or are too drugged or drunk.

  1. Respiratory system

    Respiration gadget, the gadget in dwelling organisms that takes up oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide on the way to satisfy electricity necessities. In the residing organism, strength is liberated, together with carbon dioxide, through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon. The time period respiration denotes the change of the respiratory gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the organism and the medium in which it lives and among the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them.


    1. Nasal cavity

    2. Pharynx

    3. Larynx

    4. Trachea

    5. Bronchioles and smaller air passages

    6. Lungs

    7. Muscles of breathing

Walking pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is a mild form of pneumonia. People with walking pneumonia may not experience any symptoms. Their illness may feel more like a mild respiratory infection than pneumonia. However, walking pneumonia may require a longer recovery period.

The symptoms of walking pneumonia can include things like: a high fever, chills, and a sore throat.

  • mild fever

  • dry cough lasting longer than a week

  • chills

  • shortness of breath

  • chest pain

  • reduced appetite

Pneumonia can be caused by viruses or bacteria. However, in walking pneumonia the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae is most commonly to blame.

Pneumonia stages

Pneumonia may be classified based on the area of the lungs it has affected:

Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia can affect areas throughout both of your lungs. It is often localized around or near your bronchi. These are the tubes that lead from your windpipe to your lungs.

Lobar pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia is a lung infection that affects one or more lobes of your lungs. Each lobe is a section of the lung.

Lobar pneumonia can be further divided into four stages based on how it has progressed:

  • Congestion.Lung tissue appears heavy and congested. The fluid inside the air sacs contains infectious organisms.

  • Red hepatization.The blood cells and immune cells have entered the fluid in the lungs. This makes the lungs look red and solid, like a piece of meat.

  • Gray hepatization.The red blood cells are breaking down, which causes their color to change from red to gray. The breakdown of red blood cells also affects the body's immune system.

  • Resolution.The immune system is fighting the infection. A productive cough helps get rid of fluid from the lungs.

Pneumonia symptoms can range from mild to life-threatening. They can include: · Chest infections · A high fever · Shortness of breath · coughing up mucus · Muscle aches

  • coughing that may produce phlegm (mucus)

  • fever

  • sweating or chills

  • A shortness of breath can happen during normal activities or even when you are resting.

  • If you experience chest pain that gets worse when you breathe or cough, it may be a sign of a serious health problem.

  • feelings of tiredness or fatigue

  • loss of appetite

  • nausea or vomiting

  • headaches

There are many different symptoms that can vary depending on your age and general health.

  • Sometimes infants may have no symptoms, but in some cases they may vomit, have decreased energy, or have trouble drinking or eating.

  • Some children under 5 years old have fast breathing or wheezing.

  • Milder symptoms may occur in older adults. They may also experience confusion or a lower-than-normal body temperature.

Pneumonia happens when germs get into your lungs and cause an infection. The immune system's reaction to clear the infection causes inflammation in the lung's air sacs (alveoli). This inflammation can eventually lead to fluid accumulation in the air sacs (alveoli), which can cause pneumonia. The symptoms.

Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Bacterial pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is most often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other causes include:

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  • This is a type of bacteria.

  • Legionella pneumophila

Viral pneumonia

Respiratory viruses are often the cause of pneumonia. Some examples of viral infections that can lead to pneumonia include:

  • influenza (flu)

  • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

  • rhinoviruses (common cold)

  • HPIV is a virus that can be harmful to humans.

  • human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection

  • measles

  • chickenpox (varicella-zoster virus)

  • adenovirus infection

  • coronavirus infection

  • SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) is a virus that causes COVID-19 (a virus that causes pneumonia).

Viral pneumonia is usually milder than bacterial pneumonia. It may improve in 1 to 3 weeks without treatment.

People with viral pneumonia are at risk of developing bacterial pneumonia.

Fungal pneumonia

Pneumonia can be caused by fungi from the soil or droppings of birds. It is most often a problem for people with weakened immune systems. Some fungi that can cause pneumonia include:

  • Pneumocystis jirovecii

  • Cryptococcus species

  • Histoplasmosis species

What kind of pneumonia does Covid cause?

Covid causes a variety of pneumonia types the most common being initial bacterial pneumonia Initial bacterial pneumonia is caused when the Covid bacteria that affect humans enter the lungs and replicate causing inflammation in tissues and organs Symptoms include a dry cough that may or may not produce mucus chest pain and fever Other symptoms are related to increased pressure within the chest cavity and decreased lung function Covid pneumonia can be differentiated from other types of pneumonias by its spread within the lungs not just into one specific lobe as well as its relatively quick progression from symptom onset to death In 20 percent of cases initial bacterial pneumonia.

How long does it take for lungs to heal after pneumonia?

After the pneumonia is treated it's important to give your lungs time to heal The healing process takes about 10 days but everyone heals differently However there are ways that you can help your lungs feel better and get healthier Before you leave the hospital or clinic: If your health care provider has given you any written instructions for aftercare at home it's best to follow these carefully as they will give you the best chance of a good recovery from pneumonia Before leaving the hospital or clinic after treatment for pneumonia make sure that someone takes home written instructions on how to care for yourself if you become ill again with.

What is the survival rate of pneumonia?

When you or someone you love is hospitalized with pneumonia it can be difficult to know whether the illness will lead to a full recovery While there are many factors that contribute to an individual's likelihood of survival according to data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) most people who succumb to pneumonia do so during their first hospitalization.

Risk factors Pneumonia

Pneumonia can happen to anyone, but some people are at a higher risk for getting it. These groups include:

  • Babies from birth to 2 years old.

  • people ages 65 and older

  • People with weakened immune systems may get sick if they eat this food.

    • pregnancy

    • HIV

    • Some medications, such as steroids or cancer drugs, may be used.

  • People with certain chronic medical conditions might need to avoid certain foods.

    • asthma

    • cystic fibrosis

    • diabetes

    • COPD

    • heart failure

    • sickle cell disease

    • liver disease

    • kidney disease

  • People who have recently been hospitalized or are currently in the hospital are at a higher risk for respiratory infections.

  • People who have a disorder that can affect their ability to swallow or cough, such as brain cancer, should avoid eating or drinking anything that has been in contact with their mouth or nose.

    • stroke

    • head injury

    • dementia

    • Parkinson’s disease

  • People who are regularly exposed to air pollutants and toxic fumes at work are likely to have respiratory problems.

  • People who live in a crowded environment, such as a prison or nursing home, are more likely to have health problems.

  • Smoking makes it harder for the body to eliminate mucus from the airways.

  • People who use drugs or drink heavily tend to have a weakened immune system, which increases the likelihood that they will inhale saliva or vomit due to sedation.

Your doctor will take your medical history before doing anything else. They will ask you about when your symptoms started and your general health.

After the decoupage process is complete, you will be given a physical exam. This will include listening to your lungs for any abnormal noises, such as crackling.

Depending on your symptoms and your risk of complications, your doctor may also order one or more of these tests:

Diagnosis Pneumonia

Your physician will begin by asking approximately your clinical records and doing a bodily exam, including listening to your lungs with a stethoscope to test for bizarre effervescent or crackling sounds that advocate pneumonia.

If pneumonia is suspected, your doctor may additionally advise the subsequent checks:

  • Blood tests. Blood assessments are used to affirm an infection and to try to identify the form of organism causing the contamination. However, particular identification is not feasible.

  • Chest X-ray. This enables your physician to diagnose pneumonia and decide the extent and region of the infection. However, it cannot tell your medical doctor what sort of germ is causing pneumonia.

  • Pulse oximetry. This measures the oxygen level in your blood. Pneumonia can save your lungs from transferring enough oxygen into your bloodstream.

  • Sputum check. A pattern of fluid from your lungs (sputum) is taken after a deep cough and analyzed to help pinpoint the cause of the infection.

Your medical doctor may order extra tests if you're older than age sixty five, are within the clinic, or have extreme symptoms or health situations. These might also consist of:

  • CT scan. If your pneumonia isn't always clearing as quickly as anticipated, your doctor may propose a chest CT experiment to reap a more detailed photograph of your lungs.

  • Pleural fluid culture. A fluid sample is taken with the aid of placing a needle between your ribs from the pleural place and analyzed to help decide the type of infection. 

Treatment Pneumonia

Treatment for pneumonia includes curing the infection and preventing headaches. People who have community-received pneumonia commonly can be handled at home with medication. Although maximum symptoms ease in a few days or even weeks, the feeling of tiredness can persist for a month or more.

 

Specific treatments rely on the sort and severity of your pneumonia, your age and your typical health. The options include:

  • Antibiotics. These drugs are used to deal with bacterial pneumonia. It may additionally take time to become aware of the type of microorganism causing your pneumonia and to pick the pleasant antibiotic to treat it. If your symptoms don't improve, your medical doctor may endorse a different antibiotic.

  • Cough medicine. This medicine may be used to calm your cough so that you can relax. Because coughing facilitates loosening and passing fluid from your lungs, it is a good idea not to put off your cough completely. In addition, you need to know that very few studies have checked out whether or not over-the-counter cough drugs reduce coughing resulting from pneumonia. If you need to strive for a cough suppressant, use the lowest dose that allows you relaxation.

  • Fever reducers/pain relievers. You can also take these as wished for fever and pain. These encompass pills inclusive of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).

  1. Lung transplant

Prescription medications

Your doctor may prescribe a medication to help treat your pneumonia. The specific treatment you receive will depend on the cause of your pneumonia.

Take your entire course of antibiotics if you are diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia. Even if you start to feel better, do not stop taking antibiotics. This will help prevent the infection from progressing and it may be easier to treat in the future.

Antiviral medications don't work on viruses. Sometimes your doctor may prescribe an antiviral, but in many cases viral pneumonia clears up on its own with at-home care.

Antifungal medications are used to treat fungal infections that can cause pneumonia. You may have to take this medication for a few weeks to clear the infection.

OTC medications

Your doctor may also prescribe over-the-counter (OTC) medications to relieve your pain and fever as needed. These may include:

  • aspirin

  • ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

  • acetaminophen (Tylenol)

Your doctor may also recommend cough medicine to help you calm your cough. Remember, coughing helps remove fluid from your lungs so you don't want to eliminate it entirely.

Home remedies

Some things you can do to help relieve symptoms of pneumonia at home include: - Try to get enough rest. - Drink plenty of fluids. - Avoid smoking. - Take over-the-counter cough and cold remedies as directed.

Coughing is one of the most common symptoms of pneumonia. relieving a cough can include drinking salty water or sipping on peppermint tea.

Cooling compresses may relieve a fever. Drinking warm water or having a bowl of soup can help with chills. There are more home remedies you can try if you experience a fever.

Getting a lot of rest and drinking lots of fluids will help your recovery. If you experience a recurrence, you can try to get more rest and drink more fluids to prevent it from happening again.

Follow your treatment plan carefully, even if using home remedies. Taking prescribed medications as directed is important.

Hospitalization

If you have very severe symptoms or if you have other health problems, you may need to be hospitalized. At the hospital, doctors can track your heart rate and breathing. Treatment at the hospital may include:

  • antibiotics injected into a vein

  • Respiratory therapy involves delivering medications directly to the lungs or teaching you how to perform breathing exercises that will improve your oxygen levels.

  • If you need oxygen therapy, you will receive it through a nasal tube or respirator. This will help to maintain the level of oxygen in your bloodstream.

Pneumonia can cause complications, especially in people with weakened immune systems or chronic conditions such as diabetes.

Complications can include:

  • Chronic conditions can worsen over time. If you have certain health conditions, pneumonia can make them worse. These conditions include congestive heart failure and emphysema. For some people, pneumonia increases their risk of having a heart attack.

  • Bacteremia. Pneumonia can spread to your blood, which can lead to dangerously low blood pressure and septic shock. In some cases, this can also lead to organ failure.

  • Lung abscesses.Pus is located in the cavities in the lungs. Antibiotics can treat it. Sometimes surgery may be necessary to remove the pus.

  • Impaired breathing. It may be hard to breathe when you are underwater.If you are having trouble breathing, you may need a breathing apparatus.

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome.This is a very serious medical emergency.

  • Pleural effusion.If you don't get treatment for your pneumonia, you may develop fluid around your lungs in the pleura. This fluid may become infected, and in order to prevent it from becoming too serious, it will need to be drained.

  • Kidney, heart, and liver damage. If these organs don't receive enough oxygen or if the body's immune system reacts too strongly to the infection, they may be damaged.

  • Death.Pneumonia can be fatal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 44,000 people died from pneumonia in 2019.

Pneumonia can be prevented in many cases by taking the right precautions.

Vaccination

The first line of defense against pneumonia is getting vaccinated. There are several vaccines that can protect you from pneumonia.

Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23

These two pneumonia vaccines help protect you from pneumonia and meningitis caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Your doctor can recommend the vaccine that is best for you.

Prevnar 13 This vaccine is effective against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria. The CDC recommends it for people who are at high risk for pneumococcal disease, including:

  • children under age 2

  • People between the ages of 2 and 64 who have chronic conditions that increase their risk of pneumonia should be vaccinated.

  • Adults aged 65 and older may be prescribed olive oil on the recommendation of their doctor.

Pneumovax 23 Polysorbate 80 is effective against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. The CDC recommends it for:

  • adults ages 65 and older

  • Smoking can be harmful for adults aged 19 to 64.

  • People between the ages of 2 and 64 who have chronic conditions that increase their risk of pneumonia should get vaccinated.

Flu vaccine

Pneumonia can often be a complication of the flu, so make sure to also get an annual flu shot. The CDC recommends that everyone age 6 months and older get vaccinated, especially those who may be at risk for flu complications.

Hib vaccine

This vaccine protects you from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). This type of bacteria can cause pneumonia and meningitis. The CDC recommends this vaccine for people who are at risk for these diseases.

  • all children under 5 years old

  • People who are not vaccinated or have certain health conditions are not allowed in the park.

  • People who have undergone a bone marrow transplant are in a better condition than people who haven't had one.

Pneumonia vaccines won't prevent all cases of the condition.

If you're vaccinated, you are likely to have a milder illness and a lower risk of complications.

Other prevention tips

There are other things you can do to prevent pneumonia, such as getting vaccinated.

  • If you smoke, try to quit. Smoking makes you more likely to get respiratory infections, especially pneumonia.

  • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.

  • Cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze or cough. Tissues should be disposed of promptly after use.

  • To strengthen your immune system, keep a healthy lifestyle by getting enough sleep, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly.

You can reduce your risk of pneumonia by getting vaccinated and following other prevention steps. Here are even more ways to protect yourself:

Pneumonia is caused by a variety of infectious agents. If it is recognized and treated appropriately, many cases can be cleared without complications.

If you stop taking your antibiotics early, the infection may not clear completely. This means that your pneumonia could come back.

Stopping antibiotics early can create antibiotic resistance. This makes it more difficult to treat resistant infections.

Pneumonia caused by a virus usually resolves within 1 to 3 weeks with at-home treatment.In some cases, you may need medication to fight viruses.

Antifungal medications help treat fungal pneumonia. It may take a longer period of treatment to achieve results.

Maternal pneumonia occurs during pregnancy. This is because the natural suppression of the immune system happens during pregnancy. Pregnant people are more likely to develop conditions like pneumonia.

Pneumonia symptoms do not differ by trimester. However, you may notice some symptoms more often later in your pregnancy due to other discomforting conditions you are experiencing.

If you're pregnant, contact your doctor as soon as you start experiencing symptoms of pneumonia. Pneumonia can lead to a number of complications, such as premature birth and low birth weight in the baby.

Pneumonia is a common childhood illness. Approximately one out of 71 children in the world get pneumonia each year according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

Pneumonia can occur for different reasons in different age groups. For example, pneumonia caused by respiratory viruses like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae is more common in young children.

Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is often observed in children between the ages of 5 and 13. This type of pneumonia is a milder form of the illness.

If you notice any changes in your child, see a pediatrician.

  • is having trouble breathing

  • lacks energy

  • has changes in appetite

Pneumonia can quickly become dangerous for young children, so here are some tips to keep them safe.

Many people recover from pneumonia after receiving treatment. Recovery time will depend on the type of pneumonia you have, how severe it is, and your general health.

Some people feel better in a week after treatment. Others may take longer to recover and may have lingering fatigue. If your symptoms are severe, your recovery may take several weeks.

There are a few things you can do to help speed your recovery and minimize complications:

  • Follow the treatment plan your doctor has developed and take all medications as directed.

  • Get enough rest to help your body fight the infection.

  • Drink plenty of fluids.

  • Make sure to schedule a follow-up appointment with your doctor. They may want to perform another chest X-ray to be sure the infection has cleared.

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The body's reaction to this infection causes fluid and pus to accumulate in the air sacs of the lung. This results in symptoms such as trouble breathing, a cough with or without mucus, fever, and chills.

To diagnose pneumonia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask about your medical history. They may also recommend tests such as a chest X-ray.

The treatment for an infection will depend on the cause. Antibiotics, antiviral medication, or antifungal medication may be used.

If pneumonia is severe, it may clear up in a few weeks. If your symptoms get worse, go see a doctor right away. Hospitalization may be necessary to prevent more serious complications.

What you can do

  • Keep a document of any signs and symptoms, which include your temperature.

  • Write down key medical statistics, inclusive of latest hospitalizations and any clinical situations you have got.

  • Write down key non-public records, together with publicity to any chemical compounds or pollution, or any current journey.

  • Make a list of all medicinal drugs, nutrients and dietary supplements that you're taking, especially an antibiotic left over from a preceding infection, as this could cause drug-resistant pneumonia.

  • Bring a member of the family or friend alongside, if possible, to help you recollect questions to ask and what your physician stated.

  • Write down questions to ask the health practitioner.

Some basic questions to ask the doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What treatment do you recommend?

  • Will I need to be hospitalized?

  • I have other health conditions. How will my pneumonia affect them?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from the doctor

Be ready to answer questions your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first start having symptoms?

  • Have you had pneumonia before? If so, in which lung?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional? How severe are they?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve or worsen your symptoms?

  • Have you traveled or been exposed to chemicals or toxic substances?

  • Have you been exposed to sick people at home, school or work?

  • Do you smoke? Or have you ever smoked?

  • How much alcohol do you consume in a week?

  • Have you had flu or pneumonia vaccines?

What you can do in the meantime

To avoid making your condition worse:

  • Don't smoke or be around smoke

  • Drink plenty of fluids and get plenty of rest

General summary

  1. Symptoms Among the signs of pneumonia are pain when inhaling a cough and fever For some people however symptoms can be very subtle These include feeling tired losing weight without trying and difficulty concentrating Even if you have one or two of these signs it's important to see your doctor and get vaccinated against pneumonia before flu season returns in October "Doctors may not consider pneumonia an urgent issue," says Dr Hugh Booth Jr. former president of the American Lung Association "But our lungs are really vital organs and we need to treat them as such." Hypertension is one symptom that should never be ignored because.

  2. Pneumonia is a serious lung infection. It occurs when a virus, bacteria, or fungus gets into your lungs and starts to multiply. Pneumonia can affect people of all ages, but it is more serious for infants, young children, and older adults. Symptoms of pneumonia include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, sweating and fever.

  3. Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation in the air sacs of one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening.

Pneumonia : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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