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Rectal cancer: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Rectal Cancer?

Rectal cancer develops when cancer cells form in the rectum (the last six inches of the large intestine). The rectum is a chamber located between the colon and the anus.

The main cause of rectal cancer is believed to be an infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) This is a common type of virus that affects both men and women There are many different strains or types of HPV six of which are known to infect the genital region The remaining strains can affect various healthy tissues including skin and mucus membranes such as those found in the mouth nose throat and anus HPV is transmitted through sexual contact or direct skin-to-skin contact during oral sex It can also be transmitted from mother to child at birth or while breastfeeding; but it is important to note that.


What is Rectal Cancer


Explanation of medical terms and concept Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer is cancer that begins within the body part. The rectum is the last many inches of the massive intestine. It starts at the top of the ultimate section of your colon and ends once it reaches the short, slim passage resulting in the anus.

Cancer within the rectum (rectal cancer) and cancer inside the colon (colon cancer) are often cited along as "colorectal cancer."


whereas body part and colon cancers are similar in several ways, their treatments are quite different. This can be chiefly as a result of the rectum sitting in a very tight space, barely separated from different organs and structures. The tight area will create surgery to get rid of the body part cancer complex.

Within the past, semi permanent survival was uncommon for folks with rectal cancer, even once intensive treatment. Due to treatment advances over the previous couple of decades, rectal cancer survival rates have greatly improved.

Who does rectal cancer affect?

Rectal cancer affects both men and women, but men are slightly more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. In most cases, people who develop rectal cancer are over 50 years old. However it's possible for teenagers and young adults to develop the disease as well.

How common is rectal cancer?

Some people will develop rectal cancer at some point in their lives. Out of those people, about 5% will happen under the age of 50.

What are some early signs of rectal cancer?

Rectal cancer has grown deep into the wall of the rectum but has not spread to other parts of the body. People with rectal cancer may not experience any symptoms or warning signs at this early stage. That’s why routine colonoscopies are so important.

What is the difference between rectal cancer and other cancers that affect the large intestine?

There are different types of cancers and diseases that can affect the rectum. These include: -Rectal cancer -Anal cancer -Bowel cancer -Cancer of the anus

  • Colorectal (colon) cancer:This is a general term for cancers of the colon (the large intestine). Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in the United States.

  • HNPCC is a type of cancer that is hereditary.:This condition causes a mutation in an important gene. This mutation is common in people with colorectal cancer.

  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP):FAP is a rare, inherited condition that causes multiple precancerous polyps to form in the large intestine.People with FAP usually develop polyps in their late teens or early 20s. The polyps become more troublesome as they get older, increasing the risk for colorectal cancer.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your health practitioner if you have any continual signs and symptoms that worry you.

Symptoms Rectal cancer

What are the signs that you may have rectal cancer?

Sometimes rectal cancer doesn't cause any symptoms. However, some people may notice warning signs before they develop cancer. Symptoms of rectal cancer may include:

  • Rectal bleeding.

  • Blood in your stool (poop).

  • Diarrhea.

  • Constipation.

  • A sudden change in your bowel habits.

  • Narrow stool.

  • Tiredness.

  • Weakness.

  • Abdominal pain.

  • Unexplained weight loss.

Cause rectal cancer

Rectal most cancers start off evolving while healthy cells within the rectum expand adjustments (mutations) in their DNA. A mobile's DNA incorporates the instructions that inform a mobile what to do.

The changes tell the cells to grow uncontrollably and to maintain dwelling after healthy cells would die. The gathering cells can shape a tumor. With time, the cancer cells can develop to invade and wreck wholesome tissue close by. And cancerous cells can smash away and journey (metastasize) to different components of the frame.

For most rectal cancers, it's no longer clear what causes the mutations that cause the cancer to form.

There is not a specific cause for rectal cancer. However, there are certain factors that increase your chance of developing the disease, including:

  • Age: The risk of rectal cancer increases as one ages. The average age at which rectal cancer is diagnosed is 63 for both men and women.

  • Gender: Men are more likely than women to develop rectal cancer.

  • Race: Black people are more likely to develop rectal cancer. The reasons for this are not fully understood yet.

  • Family history: If you have a family member who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, your chances of developing the disease are almost double.

  • Certain diseases and conditions: Rectal cancer can be caused by several health conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  • Smoking: Smoking is linked with an increased risk of dying from rectal cancer.

  • Eating processed meat: People who eat a lot of red meat and processed meat are at a higher risk of developing rectal cancer.

  • Obesity: People who are overweight are more likely to get rectal cancer than people who are a healthy weight.

It is recommended that everyone have routine colorectal screenings starting at age 45. People who are at a higher risk of rectal cancer should have more frequent screenings. You can learn more about general cancer screening guidelines by talking to your healthcare provider.

What are the different stages of rectal cancer?

Rectal cancer is classified into five different stages based on how large the tumor is and whether or not it has spread.

  • Stage 0: Cancer cells have been found on the surface of the rectal lining.

  • Stage 1: The tumor has grown below the surface and possibly into the rectal wall.

  • Stage 2: The tumor has grown into the rectal wall and might spread to surrounding tissues.

  • Stage 3: The tumor has spread to the lymph nodes near the rectum and some tissues outside of the rectal wall.

  • Stage 4: The tumor has spread to other parts of the body. This means that the tumor is growing and has started to affect other areas of the body.

How does rectal cancer spread?

If you have Stage 4 metastatic rectal cancer, it means that the cancer has spread beyond the rectum into other parts of your body. While it's possible for these cancer cells to travel anywhere in your body, they're more likely to end up in your liver, lungs, or brain.

Diagnosis Rectal cancer

How is rectal cancer diagnosed?

Most cases of rectal cancer are found during routine screenings. If your provider suspects a problem, it may be based on your symptoms.

What tests will be used to diagnose rectal cancer?

If your healthcare provider believes you may have rectal cancer, they may order some tests to verify this diagnosis. These tests could include:

  • Colonoscopy:This test uses a long, thin tube with a small camera to view the inside of your colon and rectum.

  • Biopsy: Your healthcare provider takes a small sample of tissue to see if it is suspicious. The sample is sent to a lab for analysis.

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test takes X-rays of your body and then stitches them together to create a detailed view of your bones, organs, and tissues.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI uses radio waves and magnets to capture images of the inside of your body.

  • PET scanPET scans are a type of medical imaging that use positron emission tomography to visualize structures inside the body.Before having a PET scan, your healthcare provider will ask you to drink a special dye that contains radioactive tracers. (Sometimes the dye will be injected or inhaled.) The tracers will show up on the scan as areas of disease.

Treatment Rectal cancer

Rectal most cancers treatment frequently involves an aggregate of remedies. When viable, surgery is used to reduce cancer cells. Other remedies, including chemotherapy and radiation, may be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that continue to be and decrease the threat that most cancers will go back.

If surgeons are worried that the cancer can't be removed completely without hurting nearby organs and structures, your health practitioner may also recommend an aggregate of chemotherapy and radiation remedy as your preliminary treatment. These mixed remedies may additionally decrease the most cancers and make it less difficult to do away with at some stage in an operation.

How is rectal cancer treated?

Treatment for rectal cancer depends on a number of factors, including the size and stage of the tumor as well as your overall health and preferences.Some possible solutions include:

Surgery

Surgery may be one of the most common treatments for rectal cancer. There are several different surgical options that are based on your specific needs:

  • Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS): Your surgeon will remove small cancers from your rectum using a special scope. This procedure is recommended if your tumor is located in just one part of your body and is unlikely to spread.

  • Low anterior resection: Rectal cancers can require the removal of part or all of the rectum. The anus is left intact so that waste can leave the body normally.

  • Abdominoperineal resection (APR):  If cancer is located near the anus, it may not be possible to remove it without damaging the muscles that control your bowel movements. In this case, your surgeon may remove part of the colon and the rectum. A colostomy (a procedure in which waste leaves your body through a hole in your abdominal wall) may then be performed. Your surgeon will create an opening in your abdomen.The end of your colon is attached to the opening and sewn into place. When waste leaves your body, it will collect in a bag connected to the stoma.

Chemotherapy

Treatment for cancer may include chemotherapy before surgery to shrink the tumor or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery. This type of therapy uses strong energy beams to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing and dividing.This drug can be used in combination with chemotherapy.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy uses drugs to help your immune system fight cancer.

Targeted drug therapy

If you have advanced rectal cancer, your oncologist may recommend using targeted drugs in combination with chemotherapy. These treatments specifically target abnormal cells in the cancer, causing them to die.

What are some of the complications of treating rectal cancer?

Complications can vary depending on which type of rectal cancer treatment you receive. Additionally, every person's experience may be different. Just because someone else had certain complications doesn't mean that you will have them too. Tiredness, weight changes, nausea/vomiting, and diarrhea can all be common side effects of various treatments for rectal cancer. The most common side effects of most rectal cancer treatments are diarrhea.

Prevention

Can rectal cancer be prevented?

There is not a way to prevent all rectal cancer, but you can take steps to reduce your risk. For example:

  • Maintain a healthy weight.

  • Exercise regularly.

  • Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.

  • It's best to avoid drinking alcohol.

  • Don’t smoke.

Outlook / Prognosis

Can you survive rectal cancer?

Yes, if detected and treated early, rectal cancer can be successfully cured.

How often does rectal cancer survival rate go up?

The five-year survival rate for rectal cancer is about 63%. This means that people who have rectal cancer are about as likely to be alive in five years as people who don't have rectal cancer. The five-year survival rate for localized rectal cancer (a type of rectal cancer that hasn't spread to other areas) is about 74%. Rectal cancer is caused by the presence of an abnormal (or cancerous) growth in the rectum. In 2011, a study found that people who have rectal cancer are about 91% as likely to be alive five years after being diagnosed as people who don’t have rectal cancer.

The survival rates for people who have had rectal cancer in the past are estimates. They cannot predict what will happen or how long you will live. To learn more about rectal cancer survival rates, talk with your healthcare provider.

Living With

When should I visit my doctor?

If you are undergoing rectal cancer treatment, please call your healthcare provider right away if you develop any of the following symptoms:

  • A fever of 100.4° or higher.

  • Severe headaches.

  • Chills.

  • Blood in your pee.

  • Chest pain.

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea).

  • Confusion.

You know your body best, so trust your instincts. If something doesn't feel right, go see your healthcare provider. They can help to ease your symptoms and make you feel better.

Preparing for your appointment

If your health practitioner suspects that you can have rectal most cancers, you'll in all likelihood be mentioned one or extra professionals who deal with rectal most cancers, which includes:

  • A doctor who treats digestive diseases (gastroenterologist)

  • A doctor who treats cancer (oncologist)

  • A surgeon specializing in procedures involving the colon and rectum (colorectal surgeon)

  • A doctor who uses radiation to treat cancer (radiation oncologist)

Here are some things you can do before you meet with these doctors:

  • Find out if there's anything you need to do before your appointment, such as avoid certain foods or medications.

  • Make a list of all your medications, including vitamins or supplements.

  • Consider taking a family member or friend along to take notes on what your doctors say, so that you can concentrate on listening.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For rectal cancer, here are some questions you may want to ask:

  • In what part of the rectum is my cancer located?

  • What is the stage of my rectal cancer?

  • Has my rectal cancer spread to other parts of my body?

  • Will I need more tests?

  • What are the treatment options?

  • How much does each treatment increase my chances of a cure?

  • What are the potential side effects of each treatment?

  • How will each treatment affect my daily life?

  • Is there one treatment that you feel is best for me?

  • What would you recommend to a family member or friend in my same situation?

  • How much time can I take to make my decision about treatment?

  • Should I seek a second opinion?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

General summary

This disease is both rare and treatable Only about 3% of rectal cancers occur in people younger than 50 years old. Most men who develop this type of cancer are older than 75 while most women diagnosed with rectal cancer are older than 65.

What is the life expectancy of rectal cancer?

The cancer is not a death sentence and there are ways to reduce the risk of anal cancer One way is to avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes anal cancer Another way to protect yourself against this type of tumor is through routine screening and early detection.

How do they remove rectal cancer?

A colon cancer patient may undergo surgery to remove the rectum depending on their tumor stage The first step is performing a biopsy in order to determine if it is adenocarcinoma or another type of stomach cancer If the doctor finds that the cancer has not spread it can be removed via total mesorectal excision (TME) During TIME the surgeon removes all sutures and staples used during surgery Patients may experience constipation following this procedure requiring laxatives and enemas.

Is surgery necessary for rectal cancer?

Rectal cancer begins in the rectum which is part of your large intestine It spreads through nearby tissue and lymph nodes If it has not spread to distant sites surgery can be used to remove the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue This type of surgery is called a circumferential resection with anastomosis (CRA) The surgeon makes a large incision around your anus and removes the rectal cancer along with some healthy tissue from inside the pelvis above and below the anus He then reconnects these ends by suturing them together so waste can pass freely through the opening at your anus much.

How many hours is rectal cancer surgery?

Rectal cancer surgery also called proctectomy removes the rectum The surgery can be performed through several different methods The type of surgery used depends on the stage of cancer and the condition of your general health There are three main types of rectal cancer surgeries: abdominoperineal resection (APR) total mesorectal excision (TME) and local excision with negative surgical margins Rectal bleeding is a common complication after any type of rectal cancer surgery.

How painful is rectal surgery?

Many people are reluctant to have a routine colonoscopy because of the invasive procedure and the resulting pain However new studies suggest that there may be more to worry about than just the discomfort associated with having a scope inserted into your rectum An article published in JAMA Surgery indicates that a common type of colon surgery can result in severe short-term pain requiring hospitalization during recovery The study examined 115 patients who were considering elective total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis Of those 115 26 chose outpatient surgery; 89 had an overnight stay at the hospital following their procedure The researchers found that 12 percent.

Does the size of the rectal tumor matter?

A big rectal tumor is almost always a malignant one because they commonly progress to cancer with time Larger tumors require more aggressive treatments than small ones as well The size of the tumor itself is not really in doubt; what matters most is its stage and location In other words finding out if it has spread into the muscles around the colon or beyond is the key to making an accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

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