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Sarcoidosis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Sarcoidosis?

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple body organs. In people with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) may form in certain organs. These granulomas can change the normal function of the organ. The damage caused by the disease will be studied in detail to determine its structure and possible function.

 

What is Sarcoidosis




Explanation of medical terms and concepts Sarcoidosis


Who Gets Sarcoidosis?

Sarcoidosis is more common in people aged 20 to 40, and women are more likely to be diagnosed with the condition than men. It is 10 to 17 times more common in African-Americans, people of Scandinavian German Irish or Puerto Rican heritage, respectively, than in Caucasians. Sarcoidosis is a rare condition that affects up to four out of ten thousand people in the United States.


How does the condition progress?

Although nobody will predict however pathology can progress in a private patient, some clues on unwellness course may be gained from patient symptoms, findings from physical and laboratory studies, and patient race. for instance, a fulminant onset of general symptoms--such as weight loss, fatigue, fever, or simply associate overall feeling of sick health--usually implies that the course of pathology are comparatively short and gentle in severity. Symptoms of shortness of breath and a few forms of skin involvement mean that pathology is additional durable and severe.


In Caucasians, the unwellness typically seems sudden, that typically indicates an additional gentle variety of the unwellness that's of short period. African-Americans and Puerto Ricans, on the opposite hand, tend to develop the additional long and severe variety of the unwellness.


In the US, the lungs are typically the foremost common website of initial symptoms for those that experience a gradual onset of their long unwellness. respiratory organ symptoms are common in African-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Scandinavians. Persistent dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath at the foremost common initial lung-related complaints.

What might happen as the disease progresses?

In many people with sarcoidosis the disease appears for a short time and then goes away. Twenty percent to 30% of people have some permanent lung damage. For a small number of people sarcoidosis is a chronic condition. In some people the disease may last for a long time. Sarcoidosis can have serious consequences, including death. The most common causes of death are complications with the lungs, heart, or brain


.Sarcoidosis could be a sickness characterized by the expansion of small collections of inflammatory cells (granulomas) in any part of your body — most typically the lungs and body fluid nodes. however it may have an effect on the eyes, skin, heart and alternative organs.

The reason behind pathology is unknown, however consultants suppose it results from the body's system responding to associate unknown substances. Some analysis suggests that infectious agents, chemicals, dirt and a possible abnormal reaction to the body's own proteins (self-proteins) might be accountable for the formation of granulomas in those who are genetically susceptible.

There is no cure for pathology, however the general public do o.k. with no treatment or solely modest treatment. In some cases, pathology goes away on its own. However, pathology could last for years and will cause organ injury


Symptoms Sarcoidosis

Signs and symptoms of pathology vary looking at that organs area unit affected. Pathology typically develops bit by bit and produces symptoms that last for years. At different times, symptoms seem sudden and so disappear even as quickly. Many folks with pathology haven't any symptoms, therefore the malady is also discovered only if a chest X-ray is finished for an additional reason.

General symptoms

Sarcoidosis can begin with these signs and symptoms:

  • Fatigue

  • Swollen lymph nodes

  • Weight loss

  • Pain and swelling in joints, such as the ankles

Lung symptoms

Sarcoidosis most often affects the lungs and may cause lung problems, such as:

  • Persistent dry cough

  • Shortness of breath

  • Wheezing

  • Chest pain

Skin symptoms

Sarcoidosis may cause skin problems, which may include:

  • A rash of red or reddish-purple bumps, typically settled on the shins or ankles, which can be heat and tender to the bit

  • Disfiguring sores (lesions) on the nose, cheeks and ears

  • Areas of skin that are darker or lighter in color

  • Growths under the skin (nodules), particularly around scars or tattoos

Eye symptoms

Sarcoidosis will have an effect on the eyes while not inflicting any symptoms, thus it is important to have your eyes checked frequently. once eye signs and symptoms do occur, they'll include:

  • Blurred vision

  • Eye pain

  • Burning, itching or dry eyes

  • Severe redness

  • Sensitivity to light

Heart symptoms

Cardiac sarcoidosis: A heart under attack

Click here for an infographic to learn more

Signs and symptoms related to cardiac sarcoidosis may include:

  • Chest pain

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)

  • Fainting (syncope)

  • Fatigue

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)

  • Rapid or fluttering heart beat (palpitations)

  • Swelling caused by excess fluid (edema)
    Sarcoidosis can even have an effect on atomic number 20 metabolism, the system, the liver and spleen, muscles, bones and joints, the kidneys, humor nodes, or the other organ.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis.

— Jim, patient, sarcoidosis

Jim, patient: We got 2 stunning grandkids there shortly after retirement. they're 2 very special little ladies which makes life nice. I ne'er had a signal till that initial day of the particular attack. I used to be 100% blocked. 

Diana, spouse: They put 2 or 3 stents in — the doctors would — and then within months, Jim would have the same kind of symptoms again.

Jim: I was in the hospital again and this time, it was open-heart surgery.

Diana: Oh, my gosh, when he opened Jim up, he said I've seen something today that I've never seen on anybody.

Jim: It was discovered at that time that I had sarcoidosis.

Diana: You're going to have to go to the Mayo Clinic.

Leslie Cooper, M.D., Mayo Clinic Cardiology: He had rapid re-narrowing to the arteries to his heart after they had placed stents. In his case, they were related to an autoimmune disease, sarcoidosis.

Diana: The treatment, the doctors, the teamwork was unbelievable.

Leslie Cooper, M.D.: We took an established drug in another area and applied it for the first time in cardiac sarcoidosis.

Diana: It was experimental, but it put that sarcoid into remission and that gave Jim his life back. It turned out to be a really good risk.

Jim: I didn't realize that the Mayo Clinic was so accessible. When I go there I have no doubt that I'm going to meet competent people in their work and their field. That, I think, gives you the confidence to trust that you are going to be okay. My experience at Mayo I think has helped me be here for my grandkids. I'm just so thankful to be here.

Causes Sarcoidosis

.Doctors do not know the precise reason for pathology. Some folks seem to possess a genetic predisposition to develop the sickness, which can be triggered by microorganism, viruses, mud or chemicals.

This triggers AN reaction of your system, and immune cells begin to gather in a very pattern of inflammation known as granulomas. As granulomas build up in AN organ, the perform of that organ are often affected 

Risk factors Sarcoidosis

While anyone can develop sarcoidosis, factors that may increase your risk include:

  • Age and sex. Sarcoidosis can occur at any age, but often occurs between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Women are slightly more likely to develop the disease.

  • Race. People of African descent and those of Northern European descent have a higher incidence of sarcoidosis. African-Americans are more likely to have involvement of other organs along with the lungs.

  • Family history. If someone in your family has had sarcoidosis, you're more likely to develop the disease.

Complications

Sometimes sarcoidosis causes long-term problems.

  • Lungs. Untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to permanent scarring in your lungs (pulmonary fibrosis), making it difficult to breathe and sometimes causing pulmonary hypertension.

  • Eyes. Inflammation can affect almost any part of your eye and may cause damage to the retina, which can eventually cause blindness. Rarely, sarcoidosis also can cause cataracts and glaucoma.

  • Kidneys. Sarcoidosis can affect how your body handles calcium, which can lead to kidney stones and reduce kidney function. Rarely, this can lead to kidney failure.

  • Heart. Cardiac sarcoidosis results in granulomas in your heart that can disrupt heart rhythm, blood flow and normal heart function. In rare instances, this may lead to death.

  • Nervous system. A small number of people with sarcoidosis develop problems related to the central nervous system when granulomas form in the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation in the facial nerves, for example, can cause facial paralysis.

Diagnosis Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis usually|will be|is|may be} tough to diagnose as a result of the malady often produces few signs and symptoms in its early stages. Once symptoms do occur, they'll mimic those of alternative disorders.

Your doctor can seemingly begin with physically communicating and discussing your symptoms. He or she's going to conjointly listen fastidiously to your heart and lungs, check your humor nodes for swelling, and examine any skin lesions.

Diagnostic tests will exclude alternative disorders and confirm what body systems could also be stricken by pathology. Your doctor might suggest tests such as:

  • Blood and urine tests to assess your overall health and how well your kidneys and liver are functioning

  • Chest X-ray to check your lungs and heart

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest to check your lungs

  • Lung (pulmonary) function tests to measure lung volume and how much oxygen your lungs deliver to your blood

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to detect heart problems and monitor the heart's status

  • Eye exam to check for vision problems that may be caused by sarcoidosis

  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if sarcoidosis seems to be affecting your heart or central nervous system

Other tests may be added, if needed.

Biopsies

Your doctor could order alittle sample of tissue (biopsy) be taken from a neighborhood of your body believed to be suffering from pathology to see for the granulomas ordinarily seen with the condition. As an example, biopsies may be taken from your skin if you've got skin lesions and from the lungs and bodily fluid nodes if required.

Treatment Sarcoidosis

There's no cure for pathology, however in several cases, it goes away on its own. you will not even like treatment if you've got no symptoms or solely gentle symptoms of the condition. The severity and extent of your condition can verify whether or not and what kind of treatment is required.

Medications

If your symptoms are severe or organ function is threatened, you will likely be treated with medications. These may include:

  • Corticosteroids. These powerful anti-inflammatory drugs are usually the first line treatment for sarcoidosis. In some cases, corticosteroids can be applied directly to an affected area — via a cream to a skin lesion or drops to the eyes.

  • Medications that suppress the immune system. Medications such as methotrexate (Trexall) and azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran) reduce inflammation by suppressing the immune system.

  • Hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) may be helpful for skin lesions and elevated blood-calcium levels.

  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors. These medications square measure usually want to treat the inflammation related to autoimmune disorder. they will even be useful in treating pathology that hasn't felt alternative treatments. 

Other medications may be used to treat specific symptoms or complications.

Other treatments

Depending on your symptoms or complications, different treatments could also be suggested. For instance, you will have physiotherapy to cut back fatigue and improve muscle strength, pulmonic rehabilitation to decrease metabolic process symptoms, or AN ingrained sinoatrial node or electronic device for heart arrhythmias.

Ongoing monitoring

How usually you see your doctor will vary supporting your symptoms and treatment. Seeing your doctor frequently is very important if you do not like treatment.

Your doctor can monitor your symptoms, verify the effectiveness of treatments and check for complications. watching might embody regular tests supporting your condition. For instance, you'll have regular chest X-rays, work and piss tests, EKGs, and exams of the lungs, eyes, skin and the other organs concerned. Follow-up care could also be long.

Surgery

Organ transplant may be considered if sarcoidosis has severely damaged your lungs, heart or liver.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In addition to treatment, these self-care tips can help:

  • Take your medication as prescribed. Even if you start to feel better, don't stop taking your medication without talking with your doctor. Keep all follow-up appointments and ongoing monitoring. Let your doctor know if you have new symptoms.

  • Make healthy lifestyle choices. These can include eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, managing stress and getting adequate sleep.

  • Participate in regular physical activity. Engaging in regular physical exercise can improve mood, strengthen muscles and help reduce fatigue that can interfere with your daily activities.

Coping and support

Although pathology could flee by itself, some people's lives are forever altered by the sickness. If you are having a bother header, take into account talking with a counselor. taking part during a pathology support cluster can also be useful.

Preparing for your appointment

Because pathology typically involves the lungs, you'll be cited by a respiratory organ specialist (pulmonologist) to manage your care. Taking a friend or friend on will assist you bear in mind one thing that you just lost or forgot.

What you can do

Here's some info to assist you make preparations for your appointment and grasp what to expect from your doctor.

Before your appointment, create an inventory of:

  • Your symptoms, including when they started and how they may have changed or worsened over time

  • All medications, vitamins, herbs or supplements you're taking, and their dosages

  • Key medical information, including other diagnosed conditions

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Questions to ask your doctor may include:

  • What's the most likely cause of symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?

  • How might this condition affect me?

  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?

  • Are there medications that might help?

  • How long will I need to take medication?

  • What are some of the side effects of the medication you're recommending?

  • I have other health conditions. How can we best manage these conditions together?

  • What can I do to help myself?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed materials that I can have?

  • What websites do you recommend for more information?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Be ready to answer questions your doctor may ask:

  • What types of symptoms are you experiencing? When did they start?

  • Do you know if anyone in your family has ever had sarcoidosis?

  • What types of medical conditions have you had in the past or do you have now?

  • What medications or supplements do you take?

  • Have you ever been exposed to environmental toxins, such as in a manufacturing or farming job?

Your doctor will ask additional questions based on your responses, symptoms and needs. Preparing and anticipating questions will help you make the most of your time with the doctor.

General summary

 Are You at Risk? If you or someone in your family seems to have odd symptoms such as persistent fever and night sweats swollen lymph nodes tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest; it may be worth seeing a doctor Any of the following signs might mean that you or someone close to you is suffering from sarcoidosis: Fevers lasting more than several weeks in duration with periods of remission and relapse Problems breathing Chest pain accompanied cough Shortness of breath Unexplained weight loss Night sweats Tiredness Hand and skin rashes Prolonged back pain Hoarseness

Sarcoidosis is characterized by the growth of tiny lumps called granulomas in many different tissues and organs including the lungs skin eyes liver and lymph nodes The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not understood but appears to involve an immune mechanism that causes inflammation and scarring of cells

Can you be cured of sarcoidosis?

Sarcoidosis is a chronic disorder of unknown origin The disorder causes inflammation and the formation of lumps called granulomas in various organs such as the lungs heart and lymph nodes While there is no cure for sarcoidosis treatments are available that can help control symptoms Most people with sarcoidosis will experience long periods of remission followed by flare-ups when symptoms return

What is the life expectancy of a person with sarcoidosis?

The prognosis for patients with sarcoidosis depends on several factors The disease progresses more slowly in patients who have few or no symptoms and it does not affect the lungs as frequently in women as it does in men Other determining factors include age general health status smoking history and whether or not certain illnesses are present along with the sarcoidosis There is a potential that complications from untreated sarcoidosis could lead to death later on

Is sarcoidosis a serious illness?

Sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by the appearance of small lumps (granulomas) in the skin lungs and lymph nodes The granulomas are collections of cells and various types of inflammatory substances These granuloma clusters can appear almost anywhere in the body even in the eyes or brain Sarcoidosis does not spread from one organ to another as some diseases do; rather it appears simultaneously in many different organs at once causing problems wherever it is located When sarcoidosis affects multiple parts of your body however its effects will generally be more severe than if it affects

What foods should be avoided with sarcoidosis?

According to the National Institutes of Health there is no diet or special food regimen that has been proven helpful in treating sarcoidosis However people with this disease should avoid eating high-fat foods and foods known to trigger allergic reactions They include chocolate nuts seafood eggs and soy products If a person with sarcoidosis has an allergy to peanuts it's best not to eat peanut butter; instead he should eat a brand of peanut butter that does not contain any traces of vegetable oil as this can cause him to have allergic symptoms such as hives or swelling

Are Eggs Good for sarcoidosis?

Eggs are loaded with protein vitamins and minerals They can be prepared in a variety of ways -- scrambled poached hard boiled or soft-boiled They can also play an interesting role in weight loss diets since they make you feel full while providing minimal calories Most people know eggs were not allowed during the first six weeks of the elimination diet for sarcoidosis -- even if they had previously been eating them regularly without issue

What vitamins should I take for sarcoidosis?

It's important to find out what vitamin supplements your doctor recommends for sarcoidosis Remember that it's important to talk with your doctor before you start any supplement regimen even if he doesn't recommend one It's possible that the combination of vitamins and minerals you take could interact with your medications or bronchodilators to cause an adverse reaction Your sarcoidosis treatment plan should always remain under the supervision of your physician

Is Turmeric Good for sarcoidosis?

Are you thinking about using turmeric for sarcoidosis? Turmeric is one of the world's most popular spices It gives curry its distinctive yellow color which makes it a great addition to many healthy recipes Some people believe that curcumin a compound found in turmeric can help manage symptoms associated with this condition

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Sarcoidosis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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