Sexually transmitted diseases : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment


What is Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

STD's are usually acquired through sexual contact. The bacteria viruses or parasites that cause these diseases may be passed from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.

What is Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases

Some infections can be transmitted without sex, such as from mothers to their infants during pregnancy or childbirth or through contact with blood or shared needles.

Some STIs do not always cause symptoms. It's possible to get an infection from people who seem perfectly healthy and may not even know they have it.

  1. Female Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina

  1. Male reproductive system

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Testes

  2. Epididymis

  3. Vas deferens

  4. Seminal vesicles

  5. Prostate

  6. Bulbourethral glands

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Penis

  2. Scrotum

Medical terms

  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are infections which can be passed from one individual to every other through sexual contact. They typically unfold for the duration of vaginal, oral, or anal sex. But once in a while they are able to spread through different sexual touches concerning the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. This is due to the fact some STDs, like herpes and HPV, unfold by means of pores and skin-to-skin touch.

  • Some STDs can be passed from a pregnant character to the baby, both at some point of being pregnant or when giving delivery. Other ways that STDs may be spread include all through breastfeeding, through blood transfusions, or by sharing needles.

Types of sexually transmitted infections

The most common types of sexually transmitted infections include:

  • Chlamydia.

  • Genital herpes.

  • Genital warts.

  • Gonorrhea (clap).

  • Hepatitis B.


  • Human papillomavirus (HPV).

  • Pubic lice (crabs).

  • Syphilis.

  • Trichomoniasis (trick).

  • Vaginitis.

Sexually transmitted infections are not unusual. More than 25 million sexually transmitted infections occur every year inside the United States. Around the arena, an envisioned 374 million sexually transmitted infections occur each year. According to the CDC, there were about 2.5 million instances of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis within the U.S. In 2021. About half of these cases occur in human beings a long time 15 to 24.

Symptoms Sexually transmitted diseases

Some STD or STI symptoms can go unnoticed, which is why it can be difficult to know if you have them until complications arise or a partner is diagnosed.

If you are worried about getting an STI, you may experience some of the following signs and symptoms: -A sore that does not heal -A change in your menstrual cycle -Feeling sick often -Having a fever

  • If you have sores or bumps on your genitals, mouth, or rectal area, it is probably because you have an infection. Go to the doctor to get it fixed.

  • Painful or burning urination

  • Discharge from the penis

  • Unusual or odorous vaginal discharge

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding

  • Pain during sex

  • Sometimes people have swollen lymph nodes in the groin area. This can be due to a variety of things, including colds or other illnesses.

  • Lower abdominal pain

  • Fever

  • Rash over the trunk, hands or feet

It may take a few days or weeks after exposure to develop symptoms. However, it may take years for you to experience any problems depending on the organism causing the STI.

When to see a doctor

See a doctor immediately if:

  • You may have been exposed to an STI and are sexually active.

  • You have signs and symptoms of an STI

Make an appointment with a doctor to get help resolving a conflict.

  • When you're either becoming sexually active or turning 21, it's important to do so responsibly.

  • Before you have sex with a new partner, make sure you are both ready.

Causes Sexually transmitted diseases

STDs or STIs can be caused by:

  • Bacteria.STIs (sexually transmitted infections) are caused by bacteria. Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia are all examples of such infections.

  • Parasites.Trichomoniasis is an STD caused by a parasite.

  • Viruses.HPV (human papillomavirus) is a virus that causes genital herpes, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that can cause AIDS.

It is possible to be infected with various infections through sexual activity, but it is not necessary for sexual contact to occur. These infections can be spread through the exchange of bodily fluids, such as saliva and blood.

Risk factors Sexually transmitted diseases

If you are sexually active, you may be at risk for STDs or STIs. Factors that may increase that risk include: -Being sexually active -Having sex with someone who is already infected with an STD or STI

  • Having unprotected sex.Having unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner greatly increases your risk of getting an STI. Not using condoms correctly or inconsistently can also increase the risk.
    Oral sex may not be as risky, but infections can still be transmitted without a latex condom or dental dam — a thin square piece of rubber made with latex or silicone.

  • Having sexual contact with multiple people.If you have sexual contact with many people, your risk of getting a disease increases.

  • Having a history of STIs.Having one STI makes it much easier for another infection to occur.

  • Not being able to choose whether or not to engage in sexual activity.It is difficult to deal with rape or assault, but it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible so that you can receive screening tests and emotional support.

  • Alcohol and recreational drugs can be abused if they are used improperly.Substance abuse can impair your judgment and make you more likely to participate in risky behaviors.

  • Injecting drugs.Sharing needles spreads many infections, including HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

  • Being young.Half of all new STIs occur in people between the ages of 15 and 24.

Transmission from mothers to infants

Some STIs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV, can be passed from a mother to her infant during pregnancy or delivery. If an infant is infected with an STI, it can cause serious problems or even death. All pregnant women should be screened for these infections and treated if they are found.

Complications Sexually transmitted diseases

It is important to screen for STIs during the early stages of an STD or STI, in order to prevent complications.

Possible complications include:

  • Pelvic pain

  • Complications during pregnancy.

  • Eye inflammation

  • Arthritis

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Infertility

  • Heart disease

  • Some types of cancer, such as cancers caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), can occur.

Prevention Sexually transmitted diseases

  1. Healthy sexual relations

There are several ways to avoid or reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  • Abstain.The best way to avoid STIs is to not have sex.

  • Stay with one uninfected partner.To avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is best to stay in a long-term relationship with someone who you have sex with only, and neither of you are infected.

  • Wait and test.Until you have both been tested for STIs, avoid sexual contact with new partners in the vaginal and anal areas. Oral sex is less risky, but use a latex condom or dental dam to prevent skin-to-skin contact between the oral and genital areas.

  • Get vaccinated.Getting vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A, and hepatitis B is also effective in preventing certain types of sexually transmitted infections. Vaccines are available to protect against HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B.
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends getting the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls and boys ages 11 and 12, although it can be given as early as age 9. If not fully vaccinated at ages 11 and 12, the CDC recommends getting the vaccine through age 26.
    The hepatitis B and A vaccines are usually given to newborns and young children, but they are also recommended for people who are not immune to these diseases or for those who are at increased risk of infection, such as men who have sex with men and intravenous drug users. People who use decoupage.

  • Use condoms and dental dams correctly and consistently.Always use a new latex condom or dental dam for each sex act. Never use an oil-based lubricant such as petroleum jelly when using a latex condom or dental dam.
    Condoms made from natural materials are not recommended because they are not as effective at preventing STIs as latex condoms. Also keep in mind that while latex condoms reduce your risk of exposure to most STIs, they provide less protection against STIs that involve open sores such as HPV or herpes.
    Birth control pills and IUDs are not useful for preventing STIs.

  • Do not drink alcohol excessively or use drugs, as these activities can have negative consequences.If you're under the influence, you're more likely to take risky sexual actions.

  • Communicate.Before engaging in any sexual activities, make sure to speak with your partner about what is and isn't safe. Make sure you both agree on what behavior is permissible.

  • Consider male circumcision.Circumcision can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from a woman with HIV by as much as 60%.Male circumcision may help prevent the spread of HPV and genital herpes.

  • PrEP is a prevention strategy that uses pre-exposure prophylaxis.The Food and Drug Administration has approved using two combination drugs to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people who are at very high risk. These drugs are emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) and emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (Descovy).
    Your doctor will only prescribe these drugs to prevent HIV if you don't already have the virus. You will need an HIV test to start taking PrEP and then every three months to remain on it.
    Your doctor will test your kidney function before prescribing Truvada and continue to monitor it every six months. If you have hepatitis B, you should be evaluated by an infectious disease specialist before beginning treatment.
    If you take Truvada as prescribed, it can reduce your risk of getting HIV from sexual activity by about 99% and from using injection drugs by more than 74%. However, it is still important to follow the instructions carefully so that you do not miss any doses. Studies suggest that Descony is also effective in this way. Descovy may be as effective in reducing the risk of getting HIV from sex. However, since it has not been studied in people who have receptive vaginal sex, using additional prevention measures such as condoms may lower your risk even more and prevent other STIs.

Diagnosis Sexually transmitted diseases

If your sexual history and current symptoms suggest that you may have an STD or an STI, your doctor will do a physical or pelvic exam to look for signs of infection. This could include a rash, warts, or discharge.


Testing in a laboratory can identify the cause and identify any infections you may also have.

  • Blood tests.HIV or later stages of syphilis can be confirmed with blood tests.

  • Urine samples.Urine can be used to determine if someone has an STD.

  • Fluid samples.If you have genital sores, your doctor may test fluid and samples from the sores to diagnose the type of infection.


Testing for a disease in someone who does not have symptoms is called screening. Most of the time STI screening is not a routine part of health care. Screening is recommended for people who may be at risk for certain diseases.

  • Everyone.Experts recommend that everyone in their late thirteenth to early sixties get tested for HIV. This test is called a blood or saliva test. If someone is at high risk for HIV, they should get tested every year.

  • Everyone born between 1945 and 1965.Hepatitis C is a common disease in people who were born between 1945 and 1965. Since the disease often goes unnoticed until it's more advanced, everyone in that age group should be screened for hepatitis C.

  • Pregnant women.All pregnant women will generally be screened for HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and syphilis at their first prenatal visit. Screening tests for gonorrhea and hepatitis C are recommended at least once during pregnancy for women who are at high risk of these infections.

  • Women age 21 and older.The Pap test looks for changes in the cells of the cervix, which could include inflammation and precancerous changes. HPV can be a cause of cervical cancer.
    Experts recommend that women have a Pap test every three years starting at age 21. After age 30, experts recommend that women have an HPV test and a Pap test every five years. If you are over 30, you may choose to have a Pap test alone every three years or an HPV test alone every three years.

  • Women who are sexually active below the age of 25 are advised to take precautions.Experts recommend that all women under the age of 25 be tested for chlamydia infection. The chlamydia test can be performed using a sample of urine or vaginal fluid that you can collect yourself.
    Catching chlamydia multiple times is common, so you need to get retested if you have a new partner. untreated or undertreated partners can lead to re-infection, so it's important to have the second test to confirm that your infection has been cured.
    Gonorrhea screening is recommended for sexually active women under the age of 25.

  • Men who have sex with men. Men who have sex with men are at a higher risk of acquiring STIs, which includes syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. Public health groups recommend annual or more frequent STI screenings for these men. HIV screening is especially important. Evaluation for hepatitis B may also be recommended. This is a recommendation.

  • People with HIV.If you have HIV, it dramatically raises your risk of catching other sexually transmitted infections. Experts recommend that people with HIV get tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and herpes right away. They also recommend that people with HIV be screened for hepatitis C.
    Experts recommend that women with HIV get a Pap test as soon as they are diagnosed with HIV or within a year of becoming sexually active if they are under 21 and have HIV. They should have a Pap test every year for three years. After that, they can continue to have regular Pap tests. Pap tests can be performed on women who have HIV every three years to check for abnormalities.

  • People who have a new partner.Before having sex with a new partner, be sure to get tested for STIs. However, routine testing for genital herpes is not recommended unless you have symptoms.
    If you are infected with an STI, it is possible that you will still test negative even if you have recently been infected.

Treatment Sexually transmitted diseases

STDs or STIs caused by bacteria are generally easier to treat than viral infections. However, not all infections can be cured.

If you are pregnant and have an STI, getting treatment right away can help prevent or reduce the risk of your baby being infected.

If you have an STD, your doctor will usually prescribe one of the following treatments:

  • Antibiotics.Antibiotics can treat many sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, in a single dose. You will be treated for these infections at the same time because they often appear together.
    If you are prescribed antibiotics, you must finish the prescription. If you do not think you can take the medication as directed, tell your doctor. A shorter, simpler course of treatment may be available.
    It is important to avoid sex for seven days after completing antibiotic treatment and any sores have healed. Experts also suggest that women be tested again in about three months because there is a high chance of being infected again.

  • Antiviral drugs.If you have herpes or HIV, you will be prescribed an antiviral drug. Taking a daily prescription will help to prevent herpes outbreaks. However, it is still possible for your partner to get herpes.
    HIV infection can be controlled with antiviral drugs for many years. However, you will still be carrying the virus and still be at risk of transmitting it.
    If you begin HIV treatment as soon as possible, the virus can be effectively reduced in the blood. If you take your medications as prescribed, it's possible to reduce the viral load to such a degree that it is barely detectable.

If you've had an STI, ask your doctor when you should be retested to make sure the treatment worked and that you're not getting infected again.

Notifying your partner about your illness and taking preventive measures will help them to stay healthy during your illness.

If tests show that you have an STD, your sex partners—including the people you've been with in the past three months to a year—need to be notified so that they can get tested. If they're infected, they can then be treated.

Most states require that certain sexually transmitted infections be reported to the local or state health department. Public health departments often employ trained disease specialists who can help notify partners and refer people for treatment.

Partner notification can help limit the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially syphilis and HIV. This practice also directs those at risk to counseling and the right treatment, which reduces your risk of getting an infection more than once. Reinfected means that the infection has returned.

Coping and support

If you have an STD or STI, it can be very upsetting. You might be angry if you feel that someone has lied to you or done something wrong. In the worst case, an STD can cause chronic illness and even death.

These suggestions may help you cope:

  • Hold off placing blame.Don't jump to conclusions about your partner's fidelity. It is possible that either you or your partner has been infected by a past partner.

  • Be honest with health care workers.The health professionals working here are not there to judge you; their job is to provide treatment and prevent STIs from spreading. Anything you tell them will remain confidential.

  • Contact your health department.Local health departments may not have the staff or resources to offer every service, but they do have STI programs that provide confidential testing and treatment.

Preparing for your appointment

At the doctor's office, you have to share personal information about your sexual experiences in order to receive the best care. Most people are not comfortable doing this, but it is important for your health.

What you can do

  • Be sure to inform the doctor of any prior appointments that you have.When you make the appointment, ask if there is anything you need to do in advance.

  • Keep a record of any symptoms you're experiencing.Make sure to bring any paperwork or materials related to the reason for your appointment. This includes anything that may have come up since you last spoke.

  • Make a list of all medications,Which vitamins or supplements are you taking?

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Before seeing a doctor, you might want to ask some questions, such as:

  • What are the names for the infection or infections I have?

  • How is the infection transmitted?

  • Will it keep me from having children?

  • Can I give my baby this substance if I get pregnant?

  • Is it possible to catch this again?

  • Do I have HIV from having sex with just one person?

  • Can I give this to someone by having sex with them just once?

  • How long have I had it?

  • Are there any other health conditions I need to be aware of? What can I do to best manage them together?

  • What should I do if I am sexually active while I am being treated?

  • Can my partner receive medical treatment without seeing a doctor?

What to expect from your doctor

It is important to give your doctor a full report of your symptoms and sexual history, so that he or she can determine the best way to care for you. Some of the things your doctor may ask are:

  • What symptoms led you to visit the doctor? How long have you been experiencing these symptoms?

  • Do you have sexual relations with men, women, or both?

  • How many people have you had sex with?

  • How long have you been with your current partner or partners?

  • Have you ever injected yourself with drugs?

  • Have you ever had sex with someone who uses drugs?

  • What are some ways to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections?

  • What do you do to prevent pregnancy?

  • Has a doctor or nurse ever said that you have chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, or syphilis?

  • Have you ever gone to the doctor for a problem with your genitals, such as a discharge, pain during urination or an infection of your sex organs?

  • How many sexual partners have you had in the past year? In the past two months?

  • When did your most recent sexual encounter happen?

What you can do in the meantime

If you think that you may have an STI, it is best to abstain from sexual activity until you've spoken with your doctor. If you are already sexually active and want to follow safe sex practices, make sure to use a condom.

General summary

  1. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are infections or conditions that you can get from any sort of sexual pastime regarding your mouth, anus, vagina or penis. Another common name for STIs is sexually transmitted illnesses, or STDs. There are several types of STIs. The most common symptoms are burning, itching or discharge to your genital place. Some STIs are asymptomatic, that means you can no longer have any signs and symptoms.

  2. Sexually transmitted infections are notably contagious. If you’re sexually active, you could have (and pass on) an STI without even understanding it. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends everyday STI screenings or checking out if you’re sexually energetic.

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