Shock : First aid - Conditions - Prevention

What is Shock: First aid ?

Shock is a medical emergency that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as severe injury, infection, or allergic reaction.

The symptoms of shock include pale skin, rapid heartbeat, and decreased urine output. In order to treat shock, immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the body's vital organs.

Shock is a life-threatening medical condition that occurs when there is not enough blood flow throughout the body. It can be caused by various factors such as severe injury, blood loss, infection, or allergic reaction. The body's vital organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrients, which can lead to organ failure and even death if not treated promptly. Recognizing the symptoms of shock and providing first aid is crucial in managing this condition and saving lives.

Signs and symptoms of shock

The signs and symptoms of shock can vary depending on the circumstances, but may include:

  • Cool, clammy skin

  • Pale or ashen skin

  • If your lips or fingernails have a bluish tint, you might be experiencing a cold. If your skin is darker than usual and has a grayish tinge, you might have the flu.

  • Rapid pulse

  • Rapid breathing

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Enlarged pupils

  • Weakness or fatigue

  • Dizziness or fainting

  • Changes in mental status or behavior can be indicative of anxiety or agitation.

Causes shock

  • Low blood volume.

  • Inadequate pumping action in your heart.

  • Excessive widening (dilation) of your blood vessels.

  • Certain medications that reduce heart function.

  • Damage to your nervous system.

Types of shock

There are numerous distinct styles of shock. These include hypovolemic surprise, cardiogenic shock, obstructive surprise and distributive surprise.

Hypovolemic shock

Hypovolemic surprise happens because of low blood volume. Low blood quantity means the quantity of blood coming into your coronary heart with each heartbeat is decreased than normal. So, the quantity of blood pumped out to your body is lower than normal. Hypovolemic surprise can be caused by:

  • Excessive outside bleeding due to cuts or different accidents.

  • Severe inner bleeding because of an ulcer, a ruptured blood vessel or a ruptured pregnancy out of doors of your uterus (ectopic pregnancy).

  • Loss of different bodily fluids because of primary burns, inflammation of your pancreas (pancreatitis), a hole for your intestinal wall, intense vomiting or diarrhea, positive kidney issues, immoderate use of diuretics (medicinal drugs that rid your frame of salt and water) or untreated diabetes.

  • Severe dehydration.

Cardiogenic shock

Cardiogenic shock takes place while damage to your coronary heart leaves it unable to pump as much blood as your frame wishes. The most common reasons of cardiogenic shock consist of:

  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction).

  • Malfunction of a heart valve.

  • Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia).

  • Heart muscle rupture or contamination (myocarditis).

  • Heart valve tear or contamination (endocarditis).

Obstructive shock

Obstructive surprise takes place because of a blockage for your heart, arteries or veins which prevents blood from flowing properly. It also can arise due to a buildup of fluid for your chest cavity. Causes of obstructive shock include:

  • Blood clot in your lungs (pulmonary embolism).

  • Air trapped among your lung and chest wall (tension pneumothorax).

  • Blood or fluid buildup in the space among your coronary heart muscle and outer heart sac (cardiac tamponade).

Distributive shock

Distributive surprise takes place due to immoderate widening (dilation) of your blood vessels. When this happens, your blood strain lowers and your organs don’t acquire enough blood to go with the flow and oxygen. There are several sorts of distributive shock. These encompass:

  • Anaphylactic shock: Occurs because of an excessive hypersensitive reaction (anaphylaxis).

  • Septic surprise: Occurs because of a severe bacterial infection to your bloodstream.

  • Neurogenic shock: Occurs due to damage to your nervous device, due to a spinal twine injury.

Seek emergency medical care

If you think someone is in shock, call 911.Then do the following: 1. Immediately take steps to help the person stay safe, such as keeping them still and putting a cloth over their mouth to stop them from breathing in dust particles. 2. Call your local emergency number and describe the situation.

  • If you are going to transport someone, lay them down on their back with their legs and feet elevated slightly unless you think this may cause more pain or injury.

  • Do not move the person until you are sure it is safe to do so. Keep them still if possible.

  • If the person does not show any signs of life, such as not breathing or coughing, begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) immediately.

  • Remove tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket if necessary to prevent chilling.

  • Do not let the person eat or drink anything until the emergency is over.

  • If you think someone is having an allergic reaction, and you have access to an Epinephrine auto injector, use it as instructed.

  • If someone is bleeding, apply pressure to the area with a towel or sheet.

  • If someone vomits or starts bleeding from their mouth and it is not clear if they have a spinal injury, turn them onto their side to prevent choking.

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