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Skin Diseases : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


What are skin diseases?

Your skin is the large organ that covers your body. It has many functions, including protecting you from the environment and helping you to feel comfortable.

  • Hold in fluid and prevent dehydration.
  • Decoupage can help you feel sensations such as temperature or pain.
  • Do not let bacteria, viruses, or other causes of infection get into the leaf.
  • Stabilize your body temperature.
  • Sun exposure causes your body to create vitamin D.

Skin diseases include any conditions that make your skin irritated or inflamed. Often skin diseases cause rashes, which are changes to the appearance of your skin.

What are skin diseases?

What are some of the most common skin diseases?

There are a variety of skin diseases, some of which cause mild symptoms while others can be more severe. Some common skin diseases include:

  • AcneIf your skin has blocked oil follicles, this will lead to bacteria and dead skin buildup in your pores.
  • Alopecia areata, losing your hair in small patches.
  • Atopic dermatitis (eczema)Itchy skin can lead to swelling, cracking, or scaling.
  • PsoriasisIf your skin feels hot and scaly, you may have an infection.
  • Raynaud's phenomenon is a condition that causes the fingers and toes to feel cold and numb.If your blood flow to your fingers, toes, or other body parts decreases periodically, this can cause numbness or a change in skin color.
  • RosaceaWhen you flush the skin with water, it usually results in thick skin and acne on the face.
  • Skin cancerA high level of skin cells is not controlled.
  • VitiligoSkin that loses pigment is called a patch.

What are some rare skin diseases?

Some rare skin diseases are based on genetics, meaning that you may inherit them. Some rare skin diseases include:

  • Actinic prurigo (AP)If you get a itchy rash in response to the sun, that means you're getting too much sun exposure.
  • ArgyriaSilver buildup in the body causes changes in skin color.
  • Chromhidrosis, colored sweat.
  • Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare skin condition.Dermatitis herpetiformis is a connective tissue disorder that causes thin, fragile skin that easily bruises and tears.
  • A rare skin disorder that results in an extreme thickening of the skin.babies have thick patches or plates on their skin from birth.
  • Lamellar ichthyosisThe baby's skin will have a waxy layer that falls off in the first few weeks, revealing a red, scaly skin layer.
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica is a condition that affects the skin.If you get a rash on your legs that can develop into ulcers (sores), that is not normal. It is important to see a doctor.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes skin diseases?

Some lifestyle factors can lead to the development of skin disease. Your underlying health conditions may also affect your skin.Some common causes of skin diseases are:

  • Bacteria can be trapped in your pores or hair follicles.
  • These conditions can affect your thyroid and kidney function or your immune system.
  • Contact with environmental factors such as allergens or another person's skin can trigger a reaction.
  • Genetics
  • Fungus or parasites living on your skin.
  • Medications that are used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • Viruses.
  • Diabetes.
  • Sun.

What are the symptoms of skin diseases?

Different skin diseases can cause a variety of symptoms. Symptoms can sometimes be unrelated to the actual skin disease. For example, you may get a blister from wearing a wrong size shoe. But if your skin changes show up with no known cause, they may be linked to an underlying condition.

Generally, skin diseases may cause:

  • Abnormal skin patches that are darker than the surrounding skin.
  • Dry skin.
  • Open sores, lesions or ulcers.
  • Peeling skin.
  • Rashes, possibly with itchiness or pain.
  • Red, white or pus-filled bumps.
  • Skin that is scaly or rough.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is a skin disease diagnosed?

If your healthcare provider can’t determine what is wrong with your skin by looking at it, they may use tests such as X-rays or lab tests.

  • BiopsyTo examine a leaf under a microscope, you will need to remove a small piece of skin.
  • CultureYou can take a skin sample to test for bacteria, fungus, or viruses.
  • Skin patch testTrying small amounts of different substances to see if they cause an allergic reaction.
  • Looking at your skin under black light will allow you to see the pigment more clearly.
  • DiascopyYou can use a microscope to see if the skin on a test subject changes color when pressure is applied.
  • DermoscopyA dermatoscope is a hand-held device that is used to diagnose skin lesions.
  • Tzanck testTo check for herpes simplex or herpes zoster, you would examine the fluid that comes out of a blister.

Management and Treatment

How are skin diseases treated?

Some skin diseases can be treated with various treatments. If you are see a dermatologist (a doctor who specializes in skin care) or another healthcare provider, they may recommend one or more of the following:

  • Antibiotics.
  • Antihistamines.
  • Laser skin resurfacing.
  • Medicated creams, ointments or gels.
  • Moisturizers.
  • Oral medications (taken by mouth).
  • Steroid pills, creams or injections.
  • Surgical procedures.

You can reduce the symptoms of skin conditions by making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and exercising.

  • If your healthcare provider says you should avoid certain foods, do not eat them.
  • Manage stress.
  • Take care of your skin, hygiene-wise.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol use and smoking.


What are some factors that increase my risk of developing a skin disease?

If you have certain health conditions, your skin may be more likely to change or to experience symptoms.Some of these conditions are:

  • Diabetes:People with diabetes may have trouble healing cuts and wounds on their feet.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD):Some IBD medications can cause skin problems, such as vitiligo or eczema.
  • Lupus:Chronic skin conditions can lead to inflammation and skin problems, such as rashes, sores, or patches that are scaly.

Pregnancy can cause skin changes, such as melasma, a common skin disease that mostly affects pregnant women.If you're stressed, you may find that your alopecia areata, acne, Raynaud's phenomenon, or rosacea gets worse.

How can I prevent skin diseases?

Some skin diseases cannot be prevented. Diseases like autoimmune disorders are caused by your genes, and there is no way to change that.

You can take steps to avoid getting or spreading contagious or infectious skin diseases. Prevention includes things like washing your hands often, keeping your face clean, and avoiding close contact with sick people. If you do get a contagious skin disease, you may be able to reduce its symptoms by taking some simple steps.

  • Do not share utensils, personal items, or cosmetics.
  • Before you use public equipment, make sure to disinfect it. This includes things like gym equipment, which should be cleaned and disinfected before being used.
  • Stay hydrated and eat a nutritious diet.
  • Avoid contact with irritants or harsh chemicals.
  • Sleep seven to eight hours per night.
  • Wear sunscreen to avoid sunburn and other skin damage.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water.

Outlook / Prognosis

Can skin diseases usually return after being treated?

Chronic skin conditions tend to last for a long time. Treatment can reduce symptoms, but the condition may require ongoing medication or other treatments to keep symptoms at bay.

Some skin conditions may go away without treatment. You may also experience periods of remission (months or years during which you have no symptoms).

Living With

What else should I ask my doctor?

You might also want to speak with your healthcare provider about this topic:

  • What is the most likely cause of this skin condition?
  • What can I do to reduce symptoms?
  • Do I need to take medication?
  • Are there any negative effects of treatment?
  • If I do not have treatment, will the condition worsen?

Skin Diseases : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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