Stage 4 prostate cancer : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

What is Stage 4 prostate cancer?

Stage 4 prostate cancer is the most advanced stage of the disease. This means that cancer has spread to other parts of the body. You can learn more about available treatments and the prognosis at this stage of the disease.


A stage IV glandular carcinoma is alleged to exist if the ultimate analysis shows that the cancer has spread to distant locations within the body, typically including bones. Stage IV malady is also any classified because the following looking on the extent of the cancer (tumor):


What is Stage 4 prostate cancer?
Stage 4 prostate cancer

The tumor has developed to girdle bodily fluid nodes or is obstructing the ureters (the tubes from the kidneys to the bladder), or both.

Cancer unfolds (metastasis) to bodily fluid nodes outside the girdle space, bone involvement, or unfold to alternative distant elements of the body.

Patients diagnosed with stage IV glandular carcinoma will be loosely divided into 2 teams. Patients with cancer regionally confined to the pelvis, however involving adjacent organs or bodily fluid nodes have localized stage IV or D1 glandular carcinoma. Patients with malady that has spread to distant organs, most typically the spine, ribs, pelvis and alternative bones have pathologic process stage IV or D2 glandular carcinoma.


Prostate cancer diagnosed during this stage is usually troublesome to cure, though patients could live for many years with effective treatment. Recent advances in treatment have resulted in new treatment choices that scale back symptoms and improve survival. All sundry with glandular carcinoma is totally different, and therefore the specific characteristics of your condition can verify however it's managed. The subsequent general summary of the treatment of stage IV glandular carcinoma is meant to assist educate you concerning treatment choices and to facilitate a shared decision-making method together with your treating medical man.

  1. Male reproductive system

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Testes

  2. Epididymis

  3. Vas deferens

  4. Seminal vesicles

  5. Prostate

  6. Bulbourethral glands

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Penis

  2. Scrotum

Medical terms

  • Stage four prostatic adenocarcinoma is cancer that begins within the prostate and spreads to near humor nodes or to different areas of the body.

  • Stage four prostatic adenocarcinoma is Associate in Nursing uncommon diagnosing. Most often, prostatic adenocarcinoma is diagnosed at Associate in Nursing earlier stage, once the cancer is confined to the prostate.

  • Treatments could slow or shrink a complicated prostatic adenocarcinoma, except for most men, stage four prostatic adenocarcinoma is not curable. Still, treatments will extend your life and cut back the signs and symptoms of cancer.

  • Although prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men it rarely causes any symptoms until it reaches Stage 4. The cancer cells that have spread beyond the prostate gland can begin to affect other parts of the body such as bones liver or lungs Some men may receive a diagnosis of Stage 4 with little or no symptoms This means the prognosis for treatment and recovery is better than for those who reach this stage after years of symptomatic disease

treatment options Prostate cancer treatment may involve hormone therapy and/or radiation according to the Mayo Clinic Other treatments include surgery which generally is not done until other therapies have failed or advanced prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland; immunotherapy such as a vaccine that helps the body recognize and attack cancer cells; and cryosurgery a treatment that freezes individual tumors with extreme cold.

Types of staging

There are 2 sorts of staging for prostatic adenocarcinoma.


Clinical staging: this is often supported by the results of pre-surgery procedures like a prostate-specific substance (PSA) take a look at, a digital body part communicating (DRE), a Gleason score (a grade supported however cancer cells behave on a small level) and imaging tests. A doctor uses these results to see the stage of the cancer and choose whether or not to suggest any diagnostic exams, like a resonance imaging (MRI) scan.

Pathological staging: this kind of staging is predicated on info uncovered once prostate surgery. The prostate tissue is examined to induce an additional elaborate, and typically additional correct, stage of the malady.

Symptoms Stage 4 prostate cancer

Signs and symptoms of stage 4 prostate cancer may include:

  • Painful urination

  • Decreased force in the stream of urine

  • Blood in the semen

  • Bone pain

  • Swelling in the legs

  • Fatigue

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

Causes Stage 4 prostate cancer

Doctors are not sure what causes stage four glandular carcinoma.

Stage four glandular carcinoma happens once glandular carcinoma cells become independent from the prostate and unfold to the humor nodes or to alternative areas of the body.

Prostate cancer cells that unfold on the far side the prostate most frequently travel the:

  • Lymph nodes

  • Bones

  • Liver

Risk factors Stage 4 prostate cancer

Factors that may increase your risk of stage 4 prostate cancer include:

  • A family history of prostate cancer. Men with bound transmitted cistron mutations that increase the chance of adenocarcinoma have Associate in Nursing multiplied risk of more-aggressive prostate cancers. 

  • African-American race. Black men have an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

Can Stage 4 prostate cancer go into remission?

Stage 4 prostate cancer is an advanced form of the disease that exists in distant parts of the body such as the bones and lymph nodes In order to diagnose this deadly form of prostate cancer doctors will typically perform a bone scan or a CT scan.

Can Stage 4 Prostate Be Cured?

Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of death in men diagnosed with cancer in the United States While prostate cancer can be cured if detected early enough, many victims do not survive this disease because they are usually found only at stage III or IV. What causes prostate cancer? Doctors maintain that there is no way to fully prevent it but a healthy diet and regular check-ups with the doctor can help detect prostate cancer as soon as possible.

Can advanced stage prostate cancer be cured?

Stage IV prostate cancer cannot be cured However advances in medicine and treatments have made it possible for many men to live several years with the disease While some options are better than others there is no guaranteed “treatment” that will work for everyone It is important to note that treatment has serious side effects including erectile dysfunction (ED) urinary incontinence weakening of muscles and bones hot flashes due to loss of testosterone and lack of energy caused by treatment or its side effects A recent study showed a Stage 4 man lives on average 18 months after diagnosis without any medical treatment With radiation or hormone therapy.

How do you beat metastatic prostate cancer?

Once the cancer spreads to other parts of the body it becomes much harder to treat Doctors have several options for treating prostate cancer but they are very limited in their effectiveness as the cancer often has already spread by the time a patient seeks treatment.

What is the highest PSA level a man can have?

A PSA or prostate-specific antigen test is a blood test used to screen for prostate cancer A normal PSA level for an adult male is less than 4.0 ng/ml The higher the number on your test result the more likely it is that you have prostate cancer If your doctor finds a high PSA score during your exam and you're over 50 years old he probably will recommend a biopsy to see if there are any signs of cancer in your prostate For younger men with elevated PSA scores and no known risk factors for prostate abnormalities (such as family history of the disease) surgery.

What is an alarming PSA level?

When the PSA level reaches 4.0 ng/mL the chance of prostate cancer is almost certain with a 30 percent likelihood that it has already spread. Anytime the PSA measurement result is higher than 10 ng/ml you should consult a physician as soon as possible for further evaluation.

Stage 4 prostate cancer treatments

In advanced prostate cancer the cancer cells have spread throughout the body and have begun to grow in distant organs It's at this stage that survival rates drop off significantly Treatment for metastatic prostate cancer depends on the specific type of the disease and how much it has progressed There are several treatment options available including surgery radiation therapy and hormonal therapy Although there is no cure for metastatic prostate cancer people who undergo treatment generally live longer than those who don't receive any form of treatment.

Diagnosis Stage 4 prostate cancer

If your doctor suspects you may have prostate cancer, tests and procedures may include:

  • Imaging tests. Imaging tests might facilitate your doctor's perception of the scale and extent of your adenocarcinoma. Tests might embody ultrasound, MRI, CT, antielectron emission picturing (PET) and bone scans.
    Which tests you endure depends on your state of affairs, like whether or not you are experiencing signs and symptoms. 

  • Biopsy. To confirm the designation of adenocarcinoma, your doctor could suggest a diagnostic assay procedure to get rid of a sample of suspicious cells for laboratory testing. In a lab, doctors will examine the cells and verify if they are cancerous. 

Treatment Stage 4 prostate cancer

Treatments for stage 4 prostate cancer may slow the cancer and extend your life. But stage 4 prostate cancer often can't be cured.

Hormone therapy

Hormone medical care is treatment to prevent your body from manufacturing the male endocrine androgen or to dam the results of androgen on the cancer. glandular carcinoma cells believe androgen to assist them grow. separating the provision of hormones could cause the cancer to shrink or to slow its growth.

In men with stage four glandular carcinoma, endocrine medical care is most frequently used alone, however it is often combined with therapy and it's going to be used once radiotherapy or, rarely, surgery. Endocrine medical care could also be continued for as long because the treatment continues to figure.

Hormone medical care choices include:

  • Medications that stop your body from producing testosterone. Medications called luteinizing endocrine-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists and antagonists forestall the testicles from receiving messages to form androgen. medication usually employed in this sort of endocrine medical aid embody leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron Depot, others), goserelin (Zoladex), triptorelin (Trelstar), histrelin (Vantas) and degarelix (Firmagon). 

  • Surgery to remove the testicles (orchiectomy). Removing your testicles reduces testosterone levels in your body. The effectiveness of orchiectomy in lowering testosterone levels is similar to that of hormone therapy medications, but orchiectomy may lower testosterone levels more quickly.

  • Medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells.
    Medications called antiandrogens stop androgenic hormones from reaching your cancer cells. Examples embody bicalutamide (Casodex), flutamide and nilutamide (Nilandron). These medicine is also given together with associate LH-RH agonist or given before taking associate LH-RH agonist.Apalutamide (Erleada) associated enzalutamide (Xtandi) work otherwise from alternative anti-androgen medicine and will be an possibility if alternative internal secretion medical care treatments aren't any longer effective.
    Grammar Check 

  • Other medications. Other medications that employ otherwise from different endocrine therapies to regulate androgen within the body are also choices. Examples embody abiraterone (Yonsa, Zytiga), the antifungal medication ketoconazole, the feminine endocrine steroid hormone, and steroid medicine.
    Side effects of endocrine medical aid could embody impotency, hot flashes, loss of bone mass, reduced drive, breast enlargement and weight gain.
    Most advanced prostate cancers can eventually adapt to endocrine medical aid and start growing despite treatment (castration-resistant prostate cancer). Once that happens, your doctor could suggest switching to a distinct combination of endocrine medical aid medicine to envision if your cancer responds. 

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy, like X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. irradiation for stage four glandular cancer uses an outsized machine that moves around your body, guiding energy beams to the world round the cancer (external beam radiation therapy).

In men with terribly giant prostate tumors or cancer that has unfold to close humor nodes (locally advanced prostate cancer), medical aid|radiotherapy|radiation|actinotherapy|irradiation|therapy} could also be combined with internal secretion therapy. Or it should be used when surgery to kill any cancer cells that may stay.

In men with cancer that has spread to alternative areas of the body, irradiation is employed to alleviate pain or alternative symptoms.


Surgery is not usually wanted to treat stage four adenocarcinoma, however it would be counseled in sure things. In men with stage four adenocarcinoma, surgery is usually restricted to men World Health Organization square measure experiencing signs and symptoms that will be eased by surgery, like problem passing excreta.

Surgery might include:

  • Radical prostatectomy. Your doctor might advocate surgery to get rid of your prostate and any cancer that has matured regionally on the far side of the prostate. Surgery is also an associate choice if your adenocarcinoma is regionally advanced and hasn't deployed to alternative areas of the body. 

  • Lymph node removal. Your doctor could advocate removal of many lymph glands close to your prostate (pelvic bodily fluid node dissection) to check for cancer cells.
    Surgery will cause infection, bleeding, incontinence, impotence and harm to the body part. 

Treatments for cancer that spreads to other areas of the body

If your cancer has spread beyond your prostate to other areas of your body, your doctor may recommend:

  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can slow the growth of cancer cells, relieve signs and symptoms of cancer, and prolong the lives of men with advanced prostate cancer.

  • Training your immune system to recognize cancer cells. Immunotherapy uses your system to kill cancer cells. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge), a variety of therapy, has been developed to genetically engineer your immune cells to fight prostatic adenocarcinoma. 

  • Bone-building medications. Medications used to treat thinning bones (osteoporosis) may be helpful in preventing broken bones in men with prostate cancer that has spread to the bones.

  • Infusions of a radioactive drug. Men with prostatic adenocarcinoma that has developed into the bones could think about treatment that infuses a radioactive substance into a vein. Strontium-89 (Metastron), samarium-153 (Quadramet) and radium-223 (Xofigo) are medications that focus on aggressive cancer cells within the bones, and will facilitate relief of bone pain. 

  • Radiation therapy. External beam radiation therapy may help control bone pain in men with prostate cancer that has spread to the bones.

  • Targeted drug therapy. Targeted medication attacks specific weaknesses within the cancer cells. Your doctor might need samples of your cancer tested in an exceedingly science lab to ascertain if targeted medical care could be useful for you. 

  • Pain medications and treatments. Medications and treatments are available if you experience cancer pain. Which pain treatments are right for you will depend on your particular situation and your preferences.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical aid that focuses on providing relief from pain and alternative symptoms of a heavy sickness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your alternative doctors to produce an additional layer of support that enhances your in progress care. Palliative care may be used whereas undergoing alternative aggressive treatments, like surgery, therapy or radiation.

When palliative care is employed alongside all of the opposite acceptable treatments, individuals with cancer could feel higher and live longer.

Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and alternative specially trained professionals. Palliative care groups aim to enhance the standard of life for individuals with cancer and their families. this kind of care is obtainable aboard curative or alternative treatments you will be receiving.

Alternative medicine

No practice of medicine treatments are proved to cure stage four prostatic adenocarcinoma. however complementary and practice of medicine could assist you address symptoms of your cancer.

Prostate cancer usually spreads to the bones, which might cause bone pain. Your doctor offers treatments and medications to regulate the pain. however you'll additionally notice that complementary therapies will relieve your pain once utilized in addition to treatments suggested by your doctor.

Complementary and practice of medicine treatments which will cut back cancer pain include:

  • Acupuncture

  • Acupressure

  • Hypnosis

  • Massage

  • Relaxation techniques

If your pain isn't adequately controlled, talk with your doctor about your options.

Coping and support

Learning you've got stage four adenocarcinoma is surprising and devastating. With time, every man figures out his own thanks to address the emotions he experiences, and you'll realize what works for you, too. Until then, you'll realize it useful to:

  • Learn enough about cancer to make decisions about your care. Ask your doctor about your prostate cancer, including your treatment options and, if you like, your prognosis. As you learn more about advanced prostate cancer, you may become more confident in making treatment decisions.

  • Keep friends and family close. Keeping your shut relationships robust can assist you handle your stage four glandular carcinoma. Friends and family will give the sensible support you will need, like serving to beware of your home or your pets if you are within the hospital. and that they will function as emotional support after you feel powerless by cancer. 

  • Find someone to talk with. Find an honest observer UN agency is willing to pay attention to you state your hopes and fears. this might be a disciple or loved one. the priority and understanding of a counselor, medical caseworker, priesthood member or cancer support cluster conjointly could also be useful.
    Ask your doctor regarding support teams in your space. Or check your phone book, library or a cancer organization, like the National Cancer Institute or the Yank Cancer Society. 

  • Look for a connection to something beyond yourself. Having a strong faith or a sense of something greater than oneself helps many people cope with cancer.

Preparing for your appointment

Make a briefing together with your medical aid doctor or GP if you've got any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you. If your doctor determines that you just have advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, you will likely be spoken to by a doctor the World Health Organization focuses on treating cancer (oncologist).

Because appointments are {often|will be|is|may be} transient and since there is often plenty of ground to hide, it is a sensible plan to be well-prepared. Here's some info to assist you prepare, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.

  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it may be troublesome to recollect all the knowledge provided throughout an arrangement. somebody United Nations agency accompanies you'll bear in mind one thing that you just lost or forgot. 

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time along with your doctor is proscribed, therefore getting ready a listing of queries will assist you create the foremost of it slowly along. List your queries from necessary|most vital|most significant} to least important just in case time runs out. For glandular cancer, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What is the best course of action?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow time later to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary 

  1. Stage 4 prostate cancer is the final stage of metastatic cancer Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body after a tumor starts in one place Stage 4 prostate cancer may at first be confined to organs and tissues near where it began but can later spread to distant areas of the body such as bones lymph nodes or organs like the liver and lungs A person who has these kinds of symptoms should see a doctor as soon as possible While there is no cure for either prostate or most other forms of cancer once they have metastasized treatment can improve quality of life for some people with stage.

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