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Transient global amnésia(TGA) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is transient global amnesia (TGA)?

Transient global amnesia is a sudden episode of memory loss that can't be explained by a more common neurological condition such as epilepsy or stroke.

During an episode of transient global amnesia, your recall of recent events disappears so you can't remember where you are or how you got there. In addition, you may not remember anything about what's happening in the present. Consequently, you may keep asking the same questions. It's hard to remember things if you haven't practiced a lot. Even if you've already studied this material, you might not remember the answers right now. You might also have difficulty recalling what happened a day, a month, or even a year ago.

Transient global amnesia most often affects people in middle or older age. During an episode, you may remember who you are and who you know well. The condition usually improves gradually over a few hours. In recovery, you may slowly begin to remember things again. Transient global amnesia isn't a serious condition, but it can still be scary.


What is transient global amnesia (TGA)?



  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus


  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

medical terms

  • Transient international memory loss (TGA) may be a rare medical condition during which an individual experiences a sudden episode of state of mind. Throughout a TGA episode, an individual cannot type new reminiscences (a condition known as anterograde amnesia) and has problems recalling recent reminiscences (a condition known as retrograde amnesia). Transient means that “passing,” and TGA episodes typically last not quite many hours. In rare cases, TGA lasts up to twenty four hours.

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a form of memory loss which is typically seen in adults over the age of fifty. It is an abrupt, temporary, and self-limited disorder of short-term memory characterized by a complete loss of the ability to recall recent events and an inability to learn new information. This condition is often accompanied by disorientation, an altered sense of time and place, and confusion. Symptoms can last from a few hours to several days, with a full recovery of memory in almost all cases.

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary disorder that has been described since the mid-1900s. It is characterized by a sudden, transient, and limited memory loss that can last for several hours or days. TGA generally affects a person’s short-term memory, making it difficult to recall recent events, but long-term memory remains intact. The cause of TGA remains unknown, and there is no known treatment or prevention.

  • People with TGA bear in mind the UN agency they're and might bear in mind their friends and relations. they'll still perform advanced daily tasks, like change of state or driving. They conjointly retain their language and social interaction skills. However, throughout a TGA episode, they'll not understand wherever they're or the day or time.

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder that causes memory loss that usually lasts only a few hours although rare cases have continued for more than 24 hours TGA was first described in the medical literature in 1896 by the physician Auguste Déjerine Although transient global amnesia can occur at any age it most commonly affects people between 50 and 70 years old Women are affected about twice as often as men

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a condition that's characterized by sudden temporary episodes of memory loss The episodes may last from several minutes to several hours and the patient is typically conscious during this time In TGA patients frequently experience visual disturbances such as seeing bright lights or stars These visual disturbances are known as transient phenomena which means they come and go within an episode It isn't uncommon for patients with TGA to also lose consciousness briefly during their episodes They usually recover quickly after regaining consciousness but may have trouble remembering recent conversations during their episode This can be startling to them when.

  • This condition usually occurs in people between the ages of 50 and 70.

  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) occurs in approximately 3 to 10 people out of every 100,000.

Symptoms Transient global amnésia(TGA)

Transient global amnesia is identified by its main symptom which is the inability to remember recent events. Once that symptom is confirmed, ruling out other possible causes of amnesia is important.

To diagnose transient global amnesia, these signs and symptoms must be present:

  • This passage tells us that memory loss has been verified by a witness.

  • The ability to maintain personal identity even after memory loss.

  • The ability to think normally, such as recognizing and naming familiar objects and following simple directions.

  • If there are no signs of damage to a particular area of the brain, this means that the area is healthy.

Some symptoms that may help diagnose transient global amnesia include:

  • The duration of a no-contact policy should not last more than 24 hours. In most cases, it is shorter.

  • Gradual return of memory

  • No recent head injury

  • There was no evidence of seizures during the time when the person lost their memory.

  • No history of active epilepsy

Transient global amnesia often includes repeated questions about one's whereabouts or how one got to where they are. For example, someone with this condition might ask themselves, "What am I doing here?" or "How did we get here?"

When to see a doctor

If someone experiences a sudden change in their reality and doesn't know what happened, they should go to the hospital. If the person is too confused to call for help, you can call for them yourself.

There is no easy way to tell the difference between transient global amnesia and life-threatening illnesses that can cause sudden memory loss.

Causes Transient global amnesia(TGA)

There is currently no known cause for transient global amnesia. It may be linked to a history of migraines, though the underlying causes are still unknown. Another possibility is that the veins in the head have been filled too much with fluid, which can lead to transient global amnesia. A blood clot (venous congestion) is causing the blood to flow in an abnormal way.

The likelihood of transient global amnesia after these events is very low. However, some commonly reported events that may trigger it include: 1) Having a head injury; 2) Suffering from a seizure; 3) Having a heart attack; or 4) Being in a car accident.

  • Sudden immersion in cold or hot water

  • Strenuous physical activity

  • Sexual intercourse

  • Medical procedures such as angiography or endoscopy involve using a machine to see inside the body.

  • Mild head trauma

  • When experiencing bad news or being overworked, there is an increase in emotional distress.

Risk factors Transient global amnésia(TGA)

It is not the presence of high blood pressure or high cholesterol that increases the risk for transient global amnesia. This is because transient global amnesia does not represent diseases of aging that affect the blood vessels. Your sex has no effect on this risk. Your risk either depends on _____.

The clearest risk factors are:

  • Age.People over 50 have a higher risk of experiencing transient global amnesia than do younger people.

  • History of migraines.People with migraines are more likely to experience transient global amnesia.

Complications Transient global amnésia

Transient global amnesia has no direct dangers. It's not a risk factor for stroke or epilepsy. It's possible to experience a second episode of transient global amnesia, but it's very rare to have more than two.

Even if you temporarily lose your memory, it can cause emotional distress. If you need reassurance, talk to your doctor about the results of your neurological exam and diagnostic tests.

Prevention Transient global amnésia

There's no real way to prevent this condition, which is caused by an unknown cause and occurs rarely.

Is transient global amnesia life threatening?

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a rare potentially life-threatening but completely treatable medical condition that causes an individual to experience a sudden onset of short-term memory loss Although the cause of TGA is unknown it does involve the temporary interruption of oxygen supply to the brain This temporary disruption results in the loss of short-term memory functions and other cognitive abilities including the inability to recall recent events or learn new information Although usually lasting only a few hours untreated or improperly treated TGA can lead to significant injury caused by falls or car accidents due to confusion and disorientation Most cases last for.

Is transient global amnesia a mini stroke?

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary condition that causes the sufferer to lose their short-term memory The most common symptoms of TGA are dizziness and confusion though some people also experience nausea vomiting or convulsions Some patients have reported experiencing sensory disturbances such as hearing loss or visual impairment The "mini stroke" aspect of TGA comes from the fact that it can look like the effects of a stroke when in reality the damage done is only transient Patients with TGA usually recover quickly and without any long-lasting problems.

IsTransient global amnésia linked to dementia?

Dementia is a complex brain disease that slowly destroys the ability of a person to carry out the simplest tasks Symptoms usually begin with memory loss but as the disease progresses affected individuals lose the ability to think coherently and manage daily activities like eating bathing and dressing.

Can stress cause transient global amnesia?

Transient global amnesia or TGA can be triggered by stress Although the cause of TGA is unknown researchers believe that this condition may occur when blood flow gets disrupted to parts of the brain responsible for memory This causes temporary memory loss People with transient global amnesia usually regain their memories within a few hours or days.

Can you drive after transient global amnesia?

Transient global amnesia can affect anyone without warning The episodes can last a few minutes or several hours and are characterized by the temporary loss of memory Though it is not well understood transient global amnesia seems to be caused by the sudden loss of blood flow to a part of the brain that deals with short-term memory but researchers have yet to identify which part of the brain this is.

Can alcohol cause transient global amnesia?

Alcohol is believed to have a role in transient global amnesia but scientists aren't sure how the two are linked Transient global amnesia usually isn't caused by anything serious and it's not clear whether alcohol use makes the condition more likely or not There are probably many causes of transient global amnesia including multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tumors or hemorrhages that cause bleeding into the brain stroke and epilepsy Transient global amnesia can also be part of other medical conditions such as Uhthoff's phenomenon in MS patients who experience heat sensitivity while taking their medication In this case the person may.

Diagnosis Transient global amnesia(TGA)

To diagnose transient global amnesia, doctors must rule out more serious conditions such as a stroke or head injury that could cause the same type of memory loss.

Physical exam

A neurological exam is used to check the health of the nervous system. The doctor may ask questions to assess thinking skills, memory, and coordination.

Brain and imaging tests

Next, your doctor will check for abnormalities in the brain's electrical activity and blood flow. He or she might order one or more tests like this:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).This technique uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional images of the brain. These images can be combined to produce 3D images that can be viewed from many different angles.

  • Computerized tomography (CT).Your doctor uses special X-ray equipment to obtain images from many different angles in order to create cross-sectional images of the brain and skull. A CT scan can reveal abnormalities, such as narrowed blood vessels or past strokes, in brain structure.

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). An EEG records the brain's electrical activity. People with epilepsy often have different patterns of brain waves even when they're not having a seizure. This test is usually ordered if you've had more than one episode of transient global amnesia or if something else is wrong with your brain. Your doctor thinks you might be having seizures.

Treatment Transient global amnesia(TGA)

Transient global amnesia will resolve on its own. There are no known lasting effects from this condition.

  1. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves
  2. Psychological rehabilitation 

Preparing for your appointment

If you suddenly lose all memory for events leading up to the present, you need to go to the hospital. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

If someone you know develops these symptoms, take them to the hospital. Because they don't remember recent events, you'll need to provide important information to the doctor.

What you can do

  • Follow the person through their full medical evaluation.If you suddenly lose your memory, it might be a sign of a serious health problem. Pay close attention to what the doctor tells you and help make decisions about what to do next.

  • Talk to your doctor or mental health professional about any events that led up to your memory loss.It is important to include any conflict or anxiety that might have occurred at work or at home, as well as any strenuous physical activity or sudden immersion in hot or cold water. Anything that makes the person alarm or strain can be considered important details.

  • Note any accompanying signs or symptoms, such as numbness, weakness or trembling.

  • Relay key medical information,Include all other conditions and medications that the person has been diagnosed with. Also include any conditions he or she is currently experiencing.

  • Write down questions to ask the doctor.When you go to the doctor, be prepared to ask some questions on the person's behalf. It's likely that they will be feeling a lot of distress, especially if they have transient global amnesia. Some basic questions to ask the doctor might include:

    • What could be causing the symptoms?

    • What are some other reasons for these symptoms?

    • What kinds of tests do you recommend?

    • Is any treatment needed now?

    • What should I be doing at home to check for signs or symptoms?

    • What indications should prompt you to call 911 or emergency medical help?

    • How long will the symptoms improve after you take the medication?

    • Do you expect a full recovery?

    • What can I do to prevent this problem from happening again?

    • What are the potential long-term complications from this condition?

Do not hesitate to ask questions during your appointment. You may also want to ask questions that occur to you during the appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

The doctor will ask both you and the person experiencing amnesia a number of questions about symptoms and the time leading up to the memory loss.

The doctor may ask your loved one:

  • What is the last thing you remember?

  • Do you know who you are?

  • Who was with you when you read this passage?

  • Can you think of any other symptoms besides memory loss?

  • Are you dizzy?

  • Are you having trouble with balance or coordination?

  • Do you feel like you have weakness or numbness on either side of your body?

  • Are you having any vision problems?

  • Do your symptoms include headache?

The doctor may test your loved one's knowledge of general information — such as the name of the current president — and see how well they can remember a random list of words.

The doctor may ask you:

  • When did the person's memory loss start?

  • How did the memory loss start?

  • What does this mean?

  • What led up to the memory loss?

  • Has the person experienced an accident that may have injured their head?

  • Is the person feeling stressed or sad recently?

  • Has the person had a seizure since they started experiencing symptoms?

  • Do you have any other medical conditions?

  • Did the person have a history of getting migraines?

  • Is the person feeling sick or having any recent medical procedures?

  • Which medications is he taking, including prescription and over-the-counter medications? What herbs and supplements does he take?

General summary

  1. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is an episode of sudden amnesia lasting around 24 hours. It was first described by Russell in 1965 and is now seen as a type of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The onset is usually abrupt and the episode can be accompanied by confusion, disorientation and also an inability to recall recent events. TGA is now considered to be a distinct neurological disorder with a characteristic clinical presentation.

  2. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder that causes temporary memory loss and usually affects older adults. The exact cause of TGA is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by physical or emotional stress. TGA usually lasts no more than 24 hours and those affected may experience confusion, disorientation, and difficulty forming new memories during this time period. It is important to note that the memories lost in TGA are typically not permanently impaired, and most people with TGA make a full recovery without any long-term consequences.

  3. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a medical condition that is characterized by a sudden and brief period of memory loss. It is also referred to as “temporary global amnesia” and can last from a few hours to a few days. The cause of TGA is unknown and there is currently no known treatment or cure. Symptoms include the inability to form new memories and confusion.

Transient global amnésia(TGA) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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