Urinary tract infection : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary system. It can involve the urethra, the kidneys, or the bladder.

What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
urinary tract infection

Your urine is usually free of bacteria. Urine is a result of the filtering process done by the kidneys—when waste products and excess water are removed from your blood. Normally, urine moves through your urinary system without any contamination. Bacteria can get into the urinary system from outside of the body, which can cause problems like infection and inflammation. This is a urinary tract infection (UTI).

  1. Urinary system

  1. Kidneys

  2. Ureter

  3. Bladder

  4. Urethra

Medical terms

  • A urinary tract infection is an infection in any part of your urinary system. The most common location for an UTI is in the bladder and the urethra.
  • Women are more likely than men to develop a UTI. This infection can occur only in the bladder and can be quite painful and inconvenient. However, if a UTI moves up the urinary tract to the kidneys, it can result in more serious consequences.
  • Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But there are things you can do to reduce your chances of developing a UTI

Types of urinary tract infection

Each type of UTI will result in different signs and symptoms depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.

Part of urinary tract affected

Signs and symptoms

Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis)

  • Back pain or side (flank) pain

  • High fever

  • Shaking and chills

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

Bladder (cystitis)

  • Pelvic pressure

  • Lower abdomen discomfort

  • Frequent, painful urination

  • Blood in urine

Urethra (urethritis)

  • Burning with urination

  • Discharge

When to see a doctor

If you have any signs or symptoms of a UTI, please see your doctor.

What is the urinary tract?

Urine is one of the body's liquid wastes. The urinary tract includes the following parts: 1. The kidneys, which make and store urine. 2. The urethra, which carries urine out of the body.

  • KidneysThe small organs located on the back of your body are the filters of your body.Your blood contains waste and water, which is removed and becomes urine.

  • UretersThe ureters are thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to your bladder.

  • BladderThe bladder stores your urine before it leaves the body.

  • UrethraThe urinary tract tube carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body.

How often do people get urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

Urinary tract infections are very common. They happen to 1 out of 5 women during their lifetime, and they can also happen to men, older adults and children. A small number of children (between 1 and 2%) develop urinary tract infections each year. Millions of visits to doctors occur each year as a result. To treat urinary tract infections, use antibiotics.

Who is more likely to get a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

In women, urinary tract infections are more common because the urethra is shorter and closer to the anus. Older adults are also at risk for developing cystitis, a type of urinary tract infection. There is an increased risk of getting urinary tract infections when using this product, due to the fact that the bladder may not be emptied completely. A number of medical conditions can be related to this, such as an enlarged prostate or a bladder prolapse.

If you get frequent urinary tract infections, your healthcare provider may do tests to see if there are other health problems that may be contributing. People with frequent UTIs are sometimes given low-dose antibiotics to help treat the infection. It is important to take this cautious approach to treating frequent UTIs in order to prevent the infection from coming back. This means that you should wait a certain amount of time in order to avoid getting other infections. This practice is used very rarely.

What is the difference between a urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder infection (cystitis)?

A urinary tract infection is a type of infection that can affect many parts of your urinary system. A UTI is the term for an infection that occurs throughout the urinary tract. Cystitis is also called a bladder infection and is a specific type of infection in which bacteria gets into the bladder. Bladder inflammation is caused by the bladder.

UTIs can sometimes become bladder infections. The best way to prevent the infection from spreading is to treat it quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can also spread to your kidneys, which is a more serious type of infection. A UTI is more likely to be accompanied by a fever than an infection.

Causes Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infections are caused by small, bacteria-containing organisms that enter the urinary system and cause inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urinary system, bacteria can also travel up the urinary tract and infect your kidneys.

Most bladder infections are caused by E. coli bacteria. coli bacteria, which is normally found in the intestines.

UTIs normally arise whilst microorganisms input the urinary tract via the urethra and start to unfold inside the bladder. The urinary machine is designed to maintain out bacteria. But the defenses occasionally fail. When that happens, micro organism may take hold and grow right into a complete-blown infection inside the urinary tract.

The most common UTIs occur mainly in girls and affect the bladder and urethra.

  • Infection of the bladder. This kind of UTI is usually because of Escherichia coli (E. Coli). E. Coli is a form of bacteria typically observed inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. But every so often different bacteria are the cause.

  • Having sex also may also cause bladder contamination, but you do not have to be sexually energetic to broaden one. All ladies are susceptible to bladder infections because of their anatomy. In girls, the urethra is close to the anus. And the urethral commencing is close to the bladder. This makes it easier for bacteria around the anus to enter the urethra and to travel to the bladder.

  • Infection of the urethra. This kind of UTI can appear when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. An infection of the urethra can also be due to sexually transmitted infections. They encompass herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma. This can occur because women's urethras are close to the vagina.

Symptoms Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) causes the lining of the urinary tract to become red and irritated (inflammation), which may produce some of the following symptoms: * A feeling of being overcome by a strong, unwanted urge to urinate * Urinating more often than usual * A burning sensation when urinating

  • There is pain in the side (flank) area near the abdomen or pelvic region.

  • Pressure in the lower pelvis.

  • Urgency means that you have to go frequently and Incontinence means that you leak urine.

  • Urinating is painful and urine may contain blood.

  • The need to urinate at night.

  • Urine that looks cloudy and has a strong or foul smell is considered abnormal.

Other symptoms that may be associated with a urinary tract infection include: -Unusual discharge from the penis or vagina -A fever -Pain when passing urine -Difficulty urinating

  • Pain during sex.

  • Penis pain.

  • If you are experiencing flank pain or lower back pain, it is probably because of an injury.

  • Fatigue.

  • A fever (a temperature above 100 degrees Fahrenheit) and chills are signs that something is wrong.

  • Vomiting.

  • Mental changes or confusion.

UTIs do not usually cause symptoms. When they do, they will include:

  • A sturdy urge to urinate that doesn't go away

  • A burning feeling while urinating

  • Urinating regularly, and passing small quantities of urine

  • Urine that looks cloudy

  • Urine that looks crimson, brilliant pink or cola-coloured — symptoms of blood within the urine

  • Strong-smelling urine

  • Pelvic ache, in girls — especially inside the middle of the pelvis and across the place of the pubic bone

Risk factors Urinary tract infection

UTIs are not unusual in ladies. Many girls revel in multiple UTIs at some point of their lifetimes.

Risk factors for UTIs that are unique to girls encompass:

  • Female anatomy. Women have a shorter urethra than men do. As a result, there is much less distance for bacteria to travel to reach the bladder.

  • Sexual activity. Being sexually active tends to lead to greater UTIs. Having a brand new sexual accomplice additionally will increase threat.

  • Certain forms of delivery manipulate. Using diaphragms for start control may additionally increase the chance of UTIs. Using spermicidal agents can also cause growth danger.

  • Menopause. After menopause, a decline in circulating estrogen causes modifications within the urinary tract. The modifications can increase the threat of UTIs.

  • Urinary tract problems. Babies born with problems with their urinary tracts can also have hassle urinating. Urine can return up inside the urethra, which could cause UTIs.

  • Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can entice urine in the bladder. As a result, the risk of UTIs is better.

  • A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and different illnesses can impair the immune machine — the body's defense towards germs. This can increase the risk of UTIs.

  • Catheter use. People who cannot urinate on their very own often must use a tube, called a catheter, to urinate. Using a catheter increases the danger of UTIs. Catheters can be used by folks who are in the medical institution. They may also be used by humans who've neurological troubles that make it difficult to govern urination or who are paralyzed.

  • A current urinary system. Urinary surgical procedure or an exam of your urinary tract that entails clinical units can both grow the threat of developing a UTI.

Complications Urinary tract infection

When treated directly and well, lower urinary tract infections not often cause headaches. But left untreated, UTIs can motivate extreme fitness issues.

Complications of a UTI might also encompass:

  • Repeated infections, which means that you have got  or greater UTIs within six months or 3 or greater within a yr. Women are mainly liable to having repeated infections.

  • Permanent kidney damage from a kidney infection due to an untreated UTI.

  • Delivering a low birth weight or untimely infant whilst a UTI happens during being pregnant.

  • A narrowed urethra in men from having repeated infections of the urethra.

  • Sepsis, a probably life-threatening worry of an infection. This is a threat specifically if the contamination travels up the urinary tract to the kidneys.

How long does UTI last?

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection in humans The condition usually results from an obstruction or irritation of the urethra with bacteria entering the urethra and traveling to the bladder Over time a UTI can spread up towards the kidneys and into other parts of the body.

How do you get rid of a UTI fast?

Urinary tract infections or UTIs are one of the most common types of bacterial infections Unfortunately they can be difficult to diagnose and treat without a doctor's help However there are ways you can treat them on your own using natural remedies such as cranberry juice and probiotics For best results use these remedies in concert with each other to prevent and get rid of UTIs fast.

Prevention Urinary tract infection

Taking these simple steps can help prevent a urinary tract infection (UTI):

  • Practicing good hygiene To prevent UTIs, you should practice good personal hygiene. This is especially important for women because their urethras are shorter than men's, which makes it easier for E. coli bacteria to move from the rectum back into the body. To avoid this, it's recommended that you After going to the bathroom, always wipe from front to back. This is important for women as well as during their menstrual cycle - avoiding infections is key. Changing pads and tampons frequently will help prevent UTIs.

  • Drinking plenty of fluidsDrinking lots of water can help remove extra bacteria from your urinary tract. Drinking six to eight glasses per day is a good rule of thumb.

  • Changing your urination habits Urinating can help get rid of bacteria from the body. Your urine is a waste product and each time you empty your bladder, you're removing that waste from your body. Frequent urination can reduce your risk of developing an infection, especially if you have a history of infections. Drinking lots of fluids will help prevent UTIs. Make sure to drink plenty of water, but avoid beverages and foods that could irritate your bladder. These include alcohol, citrus juices, caffeinated drinks, and spicy foods. You should also try to urinate as soon as possible before and after sex. This could help flush the bladder Before having sex, you should try to remove any bacteria that may have been introduced during intercourse.You can also wash the genital area with warm water. Do not douche. This is not recommended by healthcare providers.

  • Changing your birth controlSome women have an increased risk of developing a UTI if they use a diaphragm for birth control. Talk to your healthcare provider about other possible forms of birth control.

  • Using a water-based lubricant during sexIf you experience vaginal dryness and want to have sex, use a lubricant that is water-based. If you have frequent UTIs, you may also need to avoid spermicide.

  • Changing your clothingWearing loose-fitting clothing can help keep you dry. This will prevent bacteria from growing in your urinary tract. You can also wear cotton underwear to prevent moisture from accumulating around your penis.

A healthcare provider may suggest using an estrogen-containing vaginal cream to reduce the risk of developing a UTI. This could change the pH of your vagina, which might help to prevent recurrent UTIs. If you have had recurrent UTIs and gone through menopause, talk to your provider about this option.

There are over-the-counter supplements that can help treat UTIs. Sometimes healthcare providers recommend these to people who have a lot of UTIs. talk to your provider before taking any supplements, and ask if they might be a good choice for you.

Diagnosis Urinary tract infection

Your doctor will perform the following tests in order to diagnose a urinary tract infection:

  • Urinalysis This test will examine your urine for white blood cells, red blood cells, and bacteria. The number of these cells found in your urine can indicate an infection.

  • Urine culture A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This information helps determine the best treatment for you.

If your infection doesn't improve or if you keep getting infections, your doctor may do one or more of the following tests to look for disease or injury in your urinary tract:

  • Ultrasound This test creates an image of the internal organs by sending sound waves through your body. It is painless and does not typically require any preparation.

  • Cystoscopy This test uses a special instrument to look inside the bladder from the urethra.

  • CT scan CT scans are a type of X-ray that produces cross-sectional images of the body. This test is much more detailed than typical X-rays.

Treatment Urinary tract infection

To treat a urinary tract infection, my healthcare provider will give me antibiotics. These medicines kill bacteria and help to fight the infection. The type of antibiotic your healthcare provider prescribes will depend on the bacteria that is causing my infection.A cold is an infection that makes you feel sick. Some of the most common antibiotics are:

  • Nitrofurantoin.

  • Sulfa drugs are a type of medication.

  • Amoxicillin.

  • Cephalosporins.

  • Bactrim® is a medication that contains Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole.

  • Doxycycline.

  • Quinolones (such as ciprofloxacin [Cipro®]) are medications.

It is very important that you follow the healthcare provider's instructions for taking the medicine. Do not stop taking the antibiotic if your symptoms improve and you feel better. If the infection is not treated completely with the full course of antibiotics, it can come back. Come back again later.

If you have a history of urinary tract infections, you may be prescribed antibiotics to take when symptoms first arise. Other patients may be given antibiotics every day to prevent infection. You should talk to your doctor about the best way to take these medications. If you have a history of having frequent UTIs, talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment option for you.

What are some common complications of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Urinary tract infections can be easily treated with antibiotics. If the infection is not treated or if the antibiotic is stopped early, a more serious infection like a kidney infection may occur.

Can I become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat a UTI?

Your body can get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection (UTI). This happens in people who have frequent UTIs. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection becomes harder to fight. This is called an "adaptive response." If you have a frequent UTI, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments, such as antibiotics. These treatments might not work well against an antibiotic-resistant infection.

  • WaitingYour provider may tell you to watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink a lot of fluids (especially water) in an effort to cleanse your system.

  • Intravenous treatment If the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you through a vein (intravenously). After you're home, you will be prescribed antibiotics to fight the infection. It may take a few days for the infection to be completely eliminated.

Can cranberry juice help prevent a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Some people think that cranberry juice can help treat or prevent a UTI. Researchers are still investigating the topic, but they haven't found a definite answer yet. If you have or have had a UTI, drink lots of fluids to stay hydrated. Adding a glass of cranberry juice to your diet is an optional addition by healthcare providers. It is not known for certain whether drinking unsweetened cranberry juice will help prevent a UTI, but it is typically not harmful either.


Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) respond very well to treatment. Before starting treatment, you may experience some discomfort, but after your healthcare provider identifies the type of bacteria and prescribes the right antibiotics, your symptoms should improve quickly. It’s important to take all of the prescribed medication as instructed so that the infection is completely resolved. You should continue to take your medication as prescribed by your healthcare provider. If you have frequent UTIs or if your symptoms are not improving, your provider may test for an antibiotic-resistant infection. These infections are more difficult to treat and can be serious. Some illnesses require intravenous antibiotics or alternative treatments.

Living With

If you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection, be sure to call your healthcare provider. You may need a different treatment if your symptoms are getting worse. Watch for these symptoms in particular: -A high fever -Pain when urinating -Blood in the urine

  • Fever.

  • Back pain.

  • Vomiting.

If you have any of these symptoms or your symptoms continue, call your healthcare provider. A UTI can spread throughout your urinary tract and into other parts of your body. Treatment is very effective and will quickly relieve your symptoms.

Preparing for your appointment

Your family doctor, nurse practitioner, or other health care provider can usually treat urinary tract infections. If you have recurring episodes or a chronic kidney infection, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in urinary disorders (urologist) or kidney disorders (nephrologist). An evaluation is a process of judging the quality or worth of something.

What you can do

To prepare for your appointment:

  • Let me know if there is anything you need to do in advance. such as collecting a urine specimen.

  • Take note of your symptoms.It's okay if you don't know for sure whether the UTI is related to the other symptoms.

  • Make a list of all the medications,Supplementing your diet with vitamins or other supplements.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

When you have a UTI, it is important to ask your doctor some basic questions. These questions may include: What are the symptoms I am experiencing? What do I need to do to treat the UTI?

  • What could be the cause of my symptoms?

  • Are there any other possible causes?

  • Do I need any medical tests to confirm the diagnosis?

  • What might have caused my UTI?

  • What do you think is the best treatment for this problem?

  • If the first treatment doesn't work, what else can I do?

  • What are the possible risks associated with this condition?

  • What are the chances that this problem will reoccur?

  • What can I do to decrease the likelihood of a recurrence?

  • Should I see a specialist?

Do not be afraid to ask questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will likely ask you some questions, including:

  • When did you first notice your symptoms?

  • Have you had any urinary tract infections in the past?

  • How severe is your discomfort?

  • How often do you urinate?

  • Are your symptoms relieved by urinating?

  • Do you have pain in your lower back?

  • Have you had a fever?

  • Are you having vaginal discharge or bleeding?

  • Are you sexually active?

  • Do you use contraception? What kind?

  • Could you be pregnant?

  • Does anything else seem wrong with you?

  • Have you ever used a catheter?

General summary

  1. Urinary tract infections also known as bladder infections are a common type of infection In fact most women experience at least one UTI within their lifetime The infection can affect both men and women of all ages In this article we will look at the symptoms and causes for urinary tract infections in more detail

  2. A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria from the rectum or colon contaminate the urethra and then travel to the bladder These infections are most commonly caused by Escherichia coli or E coli which is found in the lower intestine and spread through fecal matter and sexual activity Symptoms of a UTI include burning during urination fever nausea vomiting and blood in urine — though some people never experience symptoms.

Next Post Previous Post