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Dissociative disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What are Dissociative disorders?

Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, reminiscences, surroundings, actions and identity. folks with mental disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause issues with functioning in everyday life.

 Divisible disorders sometimes develop as a reaction to trauma and facilitate keeping tough memories at bay. Symptoms — starting from blackout to alternate identities — rely partially on the kind of dissociative disorder you have. Times of stress will quickly worsen symptoms, creating additional symptoms.

Treatment for dissociative disorders might include medical care (psychotherapy) and medication. Though treating divisible disorders will be difficult, many folks learn new ways to cope and lead healthy, productive lives.


What are Dissociative disorders?


 Medical terms

The word “dissociation” means to be disconnected from others, from the world around you, or from yourself.

  • The term “dissociative disorders” describes a persistent

status that's marked by feelings of being detached from reality, being outside of one’s own body, or experiencing blackout (amnesia).

  • regarding 2% of the U.S. population experiences true divisible disorders (not simply fleeting feelings of dissociation). All age groups, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds are affected. girls are more doubtless than men to be diagnosed.

  • Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, consciousness or identity. When people with dissociative disorders experience something traumatic, they may block out all memories of the event. Dissociative disorders usually develop as a result of trauma during childhood, such as severe physical or sexual abuse. Dissociative disorders are characterized by a dissociation of the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion and/or perception.

  • Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions, and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause problems with functioning in everyday life. Dissociative disorders usually develop as a way to cope with trauma. Trauma can be caused by physical, sexual, emotional, or psychological abuse or by a major life-threatening event such as war, a natural disaster, or a car accident.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

Types of dissociative disorders

There are three primary types of dissociative disorders:

  • Dissociative identity disorder

  • Depersonalization/derealization disorder

  • Dissociative amnesia

Acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are closely related to dissociative disorders, sharing such symptoms as memory loss, depersonalization, or derealization.

Symptoms Dissociative disorders

Once known as split personality disorder, divisible identity disorder typically stems from ruinous experiences, abuse or trauma that occurred once the person was a child. Among individuals with this disorder, concerning 90% are the victim of childhood abuse (physical or sexual) or neglect.

Symptoms of dissociative identity disorder include:

The existence of 2 or additional distinct identities or “personality states.” Every identity contains a specific set of behaviors, attitudes, preferences, memories, and ways in which of thinking that are discernible by others and will even be reported by the affected person. Shifting from one identity to another is involuntary, sudden, and might reverse at a moment’s notice.

Signs and symptoms depend on the type of dissociative disorders you have, but may include:

  • Memory loss (amnesia) of certain time periods, events, people and personal information

  • A sense of being detached from yourself and your emotions

  • A perception of the people and things around you as distorted and unreal

  • A blurred sense of identity

  • Significant stress or problems in your relationships, work or other important areas of your life

  • Inability to cope well with emotional or professional stress

  • Mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors

There are three major dissociative disorders defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association:

  • Dissociative amnesia. The main symptom is a state of mind that is much more severe than traditional forgetfulness which will't be explained by a medical condition. You can't recall info regarding yourself or events and other people in your life, particularly from a traumatic time. Divisible amnesia will be specific to events in an exceedingly sure time, comparable to intense combat, or more rarely, can involve complete loss of memory about yourself. it should typically involve travel or confused wandering off from your life (dissociative fugue). Associate in Nursing episode of amnesia typically happens suddenly and should last minutes, hours, or rarely, months or years.

  • Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly better-known as dissociative disorder disorder, this disorder is characterized by "switching" to alternate identities. you'll feel the presence of 2 or additional individuals talking or living within your head, and you may feel like you're possessed by different identities. Every identity may have a novel name, personal history and characteristics, together with obvious variations in voice, gender, mannerisms and even such physical qualities because they would like eyeglasses. There are also differences in how familiar each identity is with the others. individuals with divisible identity disorder usually even have dissociative memory loss and infrequently have dissociative fugue.

  • Depersonalization-derealization disorder. This involves a current or episodic sense of detachment or being outside yourself — perceiving your actions, feelings, thots and self from a distance as though looking at a motion-picture show (depersonalization). others and things around you'll feel detached and foggy or dreamlike, time could also be caught up or sped up, and therefore the world could seem unreal (derealization). you'll expertise depersonalization, derealization or both. Symptoms, which may be deeply distressing, may last solely many moments or come back and re-evaluate several years.

When to see a doctor

Some people with divisible disorders give in to a crisis with traumatic flashbacks that are overwhelming or related to unsafe behavior. individuals with these symptoms ought to be seen in the associate degree emergency room.

If you or a deer has less imperative symptoms which will indicate a dissociative disorder, decide your doctor.

Causes Dissociative disorders

  • Dissociative disorders often initially develop as an approach to agitate a harmful event or with long stress, abuse, or trauma. This is often notably true if such events manifest themselves early in childhood. At this point of life there are limitations on one’s ability to completely perceive what's happening, brick mechanisms don't seem to be fully developed, and obtaining support and resources depends on the presence of caring and knowledgeable adults.
  • Mentally removing oneself from a traumatic state of affairs — akin to an accident, natural disaster, military combat, being against the law victim, or recurrent physical, mental or sexual assault — can be a brick mechanism that helps one escape pain within the short term. It becomes a retardant if over the future it continues to separate the person from reality, and blanks out recollections of entire periods of time.
  • Divisible disorders sometimes develop as the way to deal with trauma. The disorders most frequently type in youngsters subjected to long physical, sexual or emotional abuse or, less often, a home surroundings that' scary or extremely unpredictable. The strain of war or natural disasters can also bring about dissociative disorders.
  •  personality remains forming during childhood. Therefore a child is more in a position than an adult to step outside of himself or herself and observe trauma as if it's happening to a special person. a baby who learns to dissociate so as to endure a traumatic experience might use this brick mechanism in response to trying things throughout life.

Risk factors Dissociative disorders

People who expertise long physical, sexual or emotional abuse throughout childhood are at greatest risk of developing divisible disorders.

youngsters and adults who experience different traumatic events, akin to war, natural disasters, kidnapping, torture, or extended, traumatic, early-life medical procedures, conjointly could develop these conditions.

People with dissociative disorders are at increased risk of complications and associated disorders, such as:

  • Self-harm or mutilation

  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

  • Sexual dysfunction

  • Eating disorders

  • Physical symptoms such as lightheadedness or non-epileptic seizures

  • Major difficulties in personal relationships and at work

  • Alcoholism and drug use disorders

  • Depression and anxiety disorders

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder

  • Personality disorders

  • Sleep disorders, including nightmares, insomnia and sleepwalking

Prevention Dissociative disorders

Children who are physically, showing emotion or sexually abused are at enlarged risk of developing mental health disorders, adore divisible disorders. If stress or alternative personal problems are moving the manner you treat your kid, get facilitated.

seek advice from a trusty person such as a friend, your doctor or a frontrunner in your religion community.

provoke help locating resources such as parenting support teams and family therapists.

search for churches and community education schemes that supply parenting categories that additionally could assist you learn a healthier parenting style.

If your child has been abused or has experienced another traumatic event, see a doctor immediately. Your doctor will refer you to a mental health specialist who can facilitate your kid's recovery and adopt healthy header skills.

Diagnosis Dissociative disorders

Diagnosis of divisible disorders involves a review of symptoms and the person’s life history. Physical tests are also performed to rule out physical or medical conditions that could possibly} cause symptoms equivalent to state of mind or feelings of unreality. Such conditions might embody head injury, brain tumor, sleep problems, or drug or alcohol use. Once physical causes are dominated out, a mental state specialist can step in to investigate the main points of the individual’s case.

Symptoms are usually assessed and ruled out for medical conditions that could cause the symptoms Testing and diagnosis often involve a referral to a mental health professional to determine your diagnosis

Evaluation may include:

  • Physical exam. Your doctor asks in-depth questions and looks at your symptoms and personal history Certain tests may eliminate physical conditions that can cause symptoms such as memory loss and a feeling of being slowed down unreality

  • Psychiatric exam.Your mental health professional will ask you questions about your thoughts and feelings and will discuss your symptoms with you If your family members or others have information they may be able to help

  • Diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5.Your mental health professional may compare your symptoms to the criteria for diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association

for the diagnosis of dissociative disorders the DSM-5 lists these criteria:

Dissociative amnesia

For dissociative amnesia:

  • You have had one or more episodes in which your memory is impaired This loss of memory is too extensive to be due to ordinary forgetfulness

  • Your episodes of memory loss do not occur only during the course of another mental health disorder such as post-traumatic stress disorder Also your symptoms are not due to alcohol or other drugs and they're not caused by a neurological or other medical condition such as amnesia related to a head injury Head trauma

  • You may also experience dissociative fugue where you purposefully travel or experience confused wandering that involves amnesia — inability to remember your identity or other important personal information

  • Your symptoms cause you significant stress or problems in your relationships with work or other important areas of your life

Dissociative identity disorder

For dissociative identity disorder:

  • You have two or more distinct identities or personalities that you do not want to be possessed by Each identity has its own pattern of perceiving relating to and thinking about yourself and the world

  • You have gaps in your memory for everyday events important personal information and traumatic events that are too long to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness

  • Your symptoms are not a part of broadly accepted cultural or religious practice

  • Your symptoms are not due to alcohol or drugs or a medical condition In children symptoms are not due to imaginary playmates or other fantasy play

  • Your symptoms cause you significant stress or problems in your relationships at school or work

Depersonalization-derealization disorder

For depersonalization-derealization disorder: The person with this disorder feels as though his or her body does not belong to him or her The person often feels detached from reality and may suffer from depression anxiety and other mental illnesses The person may also have a tendency to feel pain more intensely than normal

  • You have persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from yourself as if you are an outside observer of your thoughts sensations actions or body (depersonalization) Or you feel detached or experience a lack of reality for your surroundings as if you are in a dream or the world is unreal The world is distorted

  • You know that the experience is not real

  • Your symptoms do not occur only during the course of another mental disorder such as schizophrenia or panic disorder or during another dissociative disorder Your symptoms are also not explained by the direct effects of alcohol or other drugs or a medical condition such as temporal lobe epilepsy

  • Your symptoms cause you significant stress or problems in your relationships work and other important areas of your life

Treatment Dissociative disorders

Treatment for dissociative disorders varies depending on the type of disorder you have Psychotherapy and medication are often used to treat dissociative disorders

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the primary treatment for dissociative disorders This form of therapy also known as talk therapy counseling or psychosocial therapy involves talking about your disorder and related issues with a mental health professional Look for a therapist with advanced training or experience When working with people who have experienced trauma

Your therapist will work to help you understand the cause of your condition and to develop new ways of coping with stressful circumstances Over time your therapist may help you talk more about the trauma you experienced but generally only when you have developed a relationship with your therapist and have the coping skills that allow you to cope A therapist is someone who can have these kinds of conversations with children

  1. Psychological rehabilitation
  2. Child medical and psychological care
  3. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Medication

Your doctor may prescribe anti-anxiety medications or antidepressants to help control the symptoms of dissociative disorders

Preparing for your appointment

Your doctor may ask you to come in for a physical exam to rule out possible physical causes of your symptoms However if you are being referred immediately to a psychiatrist you may want to bring along a family member or friend

Here is some information to help you prepare for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Any symptoms you're experiencing,Any recent behavior that caused confusion or concern for you or your loved ones

  • Key personal information,You should also note the events of your past including the time frame and anything you can remember from your childhood that caused physical or emotional trauma If you cannot recall some periods of your life note the time frame and anything you can remember about the period leading up to your amnesia

  • Your medical information,Include any physical or mental health conditions you have including other conditions you may have (such as allergies) and any medications you are taking and their dosages

  • Questions to ask your doctor to make the most of your time together

Some questions to ask your doctor may include:

  • What are the likely causes of my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes?

  • How will you determine my diagnosis?

  • Is my condition likely to last only a short time or is it chronic?

  • What treatments do you recommend for this disorder?

  • How much will your symptoms improve with treatment?

  • How will you monitor my progress?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Do you have any printed material?

  • What websites do you recommend?

Ask questions during your appointment You should not hesitate to ask any question that you have during the appointment

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will likely ask you a number of questions Be ready to answer them so that your time with the doctor can be focused on those areas where you want to focus Your doctor may ask:

  • What symptoms do you or your loved ones have?

  • When did you first notice that you were sick?

  • Do you ever forget things?

  • Have you ever found yourself some distance away from your home or work and not known how you got there?

  • Do you ever feel as if you are outside of your body observing yourself?

  • Do you feel like there are many people living inside your head?

  • What other symptoms or behaviors are causing you or your loved ones distress?

  • How often do you feel anxious or depressed?

  • Have your symptoms caused problems in your work or personal relationships?

  • Have you ever thought about harming something or someone?

  • Do you drink alcohol or use recreational drugs?

  • Have you ever been in the military?

  • Have you ever been touched against your will?

  • Were you abused or neglected as a child?

  • Were you abused as a child?

  • Do you have any other medical conditions including mental health disorders?

General summary

  1. Dissociative disorders are mental disturbances that make it difficult to tell the difference between reality and fantasy. They include dissociative amnesia depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative fugue.

  2. and the symptoms Dissociative disorders involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory awareness identity and perception In some cases these symptoms can be severe enough to cause a complete "break" with reality These conditions are also known as dissociative (or conversion) disorders People with dissociative disorders can’t always control their actions or recall what they've done Sometimes underlying issues emerge years after trauma occurs.

  3. Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve experiencing a disconnection and lack of continuity between thoughts, memories, surroundings, actions and identity. People with dissociative disorders escape reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy and cause problems with functioning in everyday life. Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder or split personality disorder) is the most severe type of dissociative disorder. It is a complex psychological condition that is likely caused by many factors.

  4. Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, it is called a dissociative disorder. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) was formerly called multiple personality disorder (MPD), but the name change reflects a better understanding of the condition—that it is characterized by a fragmentation of identity, rather than the existence of distinct alternate personalities. People with DID develop alternate identities that exist independently from one another and control different aspects of the person’s life at different times.

Dissociative disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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