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membranous nephropathy (MN) : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What is membranous nephropathy (MN)?

Membranous uropathy happens once the little blood vessels within the urinary organ (glomeruli), that filter wastes from the blood, become broken and thickened. As a result, supermolecules leak from the damaged blood vessels into the excretory product (proteinuria). For many, loss of those proteins eventually causes signs and symptoms called nephrotic syndrome.

In delicate cases, membranous nephropathy could heal on its own, with none treatment. As protein leak increases, thus will the chance of semi permanent kidney damage. In many, the disease ultimately ends up in kidney failure. There' no absolute cure for membranous nephropathy, however victorious treatment can lead to remission of symptoms and a decent semipermanent outlook.


What is membranous nephropathy (MN)?


medical terms


pathophysiology Membranous nephropathy is a disease of small and medium-sized arteries It is thought that the deposits of fibrin and immune complexes are responsible for this obstruction This leads to renal damage and eventual renal failure Nephrotic syndrome patients have protein in their urine elevated blood pressure decrease in kidney function and swelling from fluid retention The diagnosis is made by a medical history biopsy urine test and blood test Treatment includes corticosteroid drugs and plasma exchanges to remove immune complexes from the bloodstream If left untreated membranous nephropathy will lead to end stage.

  • Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a kidney disorder caused by the immune system attacking the basement membrane of the kidney’s glomeruli, or tiny filter units. This attack results in an increased permeability of the membrane, and thus increased protein levels in the urine. In some cases, this can lead to kidney failure. MN can occur as a primary disease or as a secondary complication of other medical conditions, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and infections.

  • Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a condition that affects the kidneys. It is caused by the formation of antibodies that damage the glomerular basement membrane, leading to an increase in protein excretion in the urine. Symptoms of MN include edema, hypertension, and proteinuria. In severe cases, kidney failure may occur.

  • Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a disorder wherever the body’s system attacks the filtering membranes within the urinary organ. These membranes clean waste products from the blood.

Every kidney has thousands of small filtering units referred to as glomeruli. These filtering units are created of blood vessels therefore small, they solely have 3 layers:


  • Endothelial cells: These cells are part of a single layer of cells on the inside of the blood vessel.

  • Podocytes: These cells are in a single layer of cells on the outside of the blood vessel.

  • Glomerular basement membrane (GBM): The GBM is a thin membrane in between the two layers of cells

The glomerular basement membrane is so skinny that it acts as a filter.

MN will develop terribly suddenly or slowly get worse over a protracted time. Some individuals don't recognize they need the condition for several years. It's additionally referred to as membranous glomerulonephritis.

  1. Urinary system

The urinary system is a vital part of the body, responsible for removing waste products from the body. The kidneys filter the blood and produce urine. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and rectum.

Urine is made up of water and solids. The solids are made up of small molecules called proteins, fats, and urea.  Urine is discharged through the urinary tract and exits the body through the penis or the vagina.

  1. Kidneys

  2. Ureter

  3. Bladder

  4. Urethra


Symptoms membranous nephropathy (MN)

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a form of kidney disease in which the organ's filtering units or nephrons become tangled and frayed-like a worn out piece of cloth The most common treatment for MN is dialysis because the kidneys are unable to remove certain wastes from the body such as creatinine and urea The condition is progressive and eventually leads to complete loss of kidney function that requires long-term dialysis or transplantation.

Membranous nephropathy could develop gradually, thus you might not suspect that something is wrong. As you lose supermolecules from your blood, swelling in your legs and ankles and weight gain from excess fluid will occur. many of us have variant swelling from the terribly starting of the disease, however others may not have any severe symptoms till they need advanced renal disorder

The most symptoms of MN are from the loss of protein into the excretory product attributable to the broken podocyte cells. Together, the symptoms of MN are referred to as nephrotic.

syndrome. Signs of nephrotic syndrome include:

  • Edema (swelling caused by fluid retention, most commonly in the legs and feet).

  • High cholesterol.

  • Lower-than-average levels of proteins in the blood.

  • Proteinuria (foamy-looking urine caused by high levels of protein).

  • Weight gain: people usually gain water weight because of the swelling.

  • Fatigue (tiredness).

  • Increased blood pressure, especially if the kidneys start to fail with the MN.

Some people with MN do not notice any symptoms. In these individuals, doctors may find signs of MN during a regular office visit or when testing for another issue.

When to see a doctor

You will not grasp that you simply have MN supported any symptoms since many various issues will cause them. Contact your tending supplier if you notice unexplained swelling in your face, arms or legs.


Make an appointment with your doctor if you have:

  • Blood in your urine

  • Swelling in your legs and ankles that doesn't go away

  • Increased blood pressure

  • Sudden pain between your upper belly and middle back

  • Sudden shortness of breath, which could be related to a blood clot complication

Causes membranous nephropathy (MN)

Membranous nephropathy causes 75%-95% of cases Infection with hepatitis B C or HAV (hepatitis A virus) accounts for 20% to 25% of the remaining cases Non-infectious causes are very rare Most people with membranous nephropathy make a good recovery without any treatment after their renal symptoms have improved but some may go on to develop chronic kidney disease.

Often, membranous nephropathy results from some kind of response activity. Your body's system mistakes healthy tissue as foreign associated attacks with substances referred to as autoantibodies. These autoantibodies target supermolecules set within the kidney' filtering systems (glomeruli). This can be called primary membranous nephropathy.

Most cases of MN are currently acknowledged to be caused by a protein to a protein on the podocyte called the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). In the general public with MN, the body’s immune (defense) system makes an antibody (a protein that unremarkably helps fight infections). rather than targeting an infection, these antibodies attack the podocytes. The podocytes stop retaining the proteins in the bloodstream and permit them to leak into the urine. This is often} referred to as primary MN. Less

commonly, MN can be thanks to different causes (secondary MN), such as:

  • Autoimmune disorders (where the body attacks its own cells), including lupus.

  • Cancer.

  • Certain medicines.

  • Hepatitis B virus.

  • Parasitic diseases such as malaria.

Membranous nephropathy may also occur along with other kidney diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy and rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis.


Risk factors membranous nephropathy (MN)

The prognosis for MN varies depending on the person. In some cases, the unwellness goes away on its own without treatment. For others the disorder will continue for several years without getting worse.

Some folks with MN find themselves with urinary organ failure. These people might have a kidney transplant or chemical analysis (long-term treatment wherever a machine filters the blood for the kidneys).

MN can return to treatment. Your nephrologist could monitor your kidney performance frequently to appear for signs that the disorder has returned. This watching can enable your doctor to treat you as soon as doable if MN recurs. Your nephrologist could conjointly keep you on medication to suppress your system for extended periods of your time to scale back the possibilities of an occurrence occurring. This observation can vary by nephrologist and also the patient.


Factors that may increase your risk of membranous renal disorder include:


  • Having a medical condition that can damage your kidneys. Certain diseases and conditions increase your risk of developing membranous nephropathy, such as lupus and other autoimmune diseases.

  • Use of certain medications. Examples of medications that can cause membranous nephropathy include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gold salts.

  • Exposure to certain infections. Examples of infections that increase the risk of membranous nephropathy include hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis.

  • Genetic background. Certain genetic factors make it more likely that you'll develop membranous nephropathy.

Complications membranous nephropathy (MN)

Health issues and complications from membranous kidney disease can include:

 High sterol (higher than average levels of fat within the blood).

Severe swelling (called nephrotic syndrome).

excretory organ failure.

further complications which will happen because of MN can include:

Deep vein occlusion(DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE): blood in the legs or the lungs.

vein thrombosis: blood in the renal vein in the kidney.

embolism and renal vein thrombosis are often severe complications that need emergency medical treatment. Symptoms of every condition can include:

 pulmonary embolism: Sharp chest pain that's worse once you take a breath.

Deep vein thrombosis: Pain or swelling in one leg.

vein thrombosis: Pain on the side of your trunk and/or blood within the urine.


Complications associated with membranous nephropathy include:


  • Infections. You're more susceptible to infections when proteinuria causes you to lose immune system proteins (antibodies) that protect you from infection.

  • Nephrotic syndrome. High protein levels in the urine, low protein levels in the blood, high blood cholesterol, and swelling (edema) of the eyelids, feet and abdomen occur with this syndrome.

  • Acute kidney failure. In cases of severe damage to the kidneys' filtering units (glomeruli), waste products may build up quickly in your blood. You may need emergency dialysis to remove extra fluids and waste from your blood.

  • Chronic kidney disease. Your kidneys may gradually lose function over time to the point where you need dialysis or a kidney transplant.

  • High cholesterol. Levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are often high in people with membranous nephropathy, which greatly increases the risk of heart disease.

  • Blood clots. With proteinuria, you may lose proteins that help prevent clotting from your blood into your urine. This makes you more prone to having blood clots develop in deep veins or blood clots that travel to your lungs.

  • High blood pressure. Waste buildup in your blood (uremia) and salt retention can raise blood pressure.

Membranous nephropathy histology

Membranous nephropathy is a type of glomerulonephritis which means that the kidney has become inflamed In membranous nephropathy the membrane around the capillaries comes into contact with the blood-filtering structures in the kidneys When this occurs immune cells attack and destroy these membranes (glomeruli) This results in scarring and leakage of protein from within the tubules into your urine As a result you may see pink or red specks or flakes in your urine.

Membranous nephropathy stages

Membranous nephropathy is a rare disease that can affect the kidneys It occurs when a few small protein "tubes" within the kidney become damaged or blocked causing toxins to build up in the urine and damage other parts of the kidney This condition has two stages: In stage 1 called chronic disease with high amounts of protein in the urine a person may have no symptoms at first This stage can last for years before moving on to stage 2 (decreased kidney function) In stage 2 called chronic kidney failure with low amounts of protein in the urine people often begin having problems like.

How long can you live with membranous nephropathy?

The prognosis depends on the type or types of nephropathy and their severity Membranous glomerulonephritis is possibly the most severe form of kidney disease leading to chronic kidney failure About 15% of people with membranous nephropathy will develop end-stage renal disease within 25 years This number increases to about 50% after 40 years according to a study published in "Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology." Kidney transplantation is one treatment option for membranous nephropathy.

Who does membranous nephropathy affect?

Membranous glomerulopathy (also known as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis or MGN) is a rare but severe type of kidney disease The condition can affect people of all ages with two-thirds of the cases occurring in adults between the ages of 30 and 50.

Membranous nephropathy treatment

Membranous nephropathy is a type of glomerulonephritis which refers to inflammation in the tiny filtering units of your kidneys called glomeruli Tiny proteins known as antigens are typically harmless and are found throughout our bodies However when these antigens come into contact with antibodies that our immune system produces they can trigger an attack on them In membranous nephropathy the antigens build up in the mesangium of the glomerulus and recruit antibodies to bind to them leading to inflammation There is currently no cure for membranous ne.

Diagnosis membranous nephropathy (MN)

If you have any symptoms of nephrosis (protein in your excretion with swelling or reduced excretory organ function), you must be cited by a nephrologist. A nephrologist could be a doctor who focuses on diseases and conditions of the kidneys. Your nephrologist can use many take a look at to substantiate an MN diagnosis. These tests will embrace Membranous kidney disease might not cause any signs or symptoms. Sometimes, it's diagnosed once a routine urine test — performed for one more health reason — shows that you simply have high levels of macromolecules in your urine (proteinuria).

If you do have signs or symptoms of protein in the excretion, your doctor will raise questions about your medical record and perform a whole physical exam. Your force per unit area is going to be checked.

Blood, urine and imaging tests can tell your doctor however well your kidneys are operating and diagnose membranous nephropathy. they'll additionally facilitate rule out different doable causes of your symptoms


Tests that may be done include:


  • A urine test (urinalysis). You may be asked to provide a urine sample so your doctor can measure how much protein is in your urine.

  • Blood tests. A blood sample allows your doctor to examine for prime cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood glucose and different factors that may have an effect on the urinary organs. A creatinine biopsy offers info regarding your kidney function. Different blood tests may be done to check for reaction diseases or infectious agent infections that can cause kidney damage, akin to serum hepatitis or C.

  • Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) test. The GFR test estimates your level of kidney function and can help your doctor determine your stage of kidney disease.

  • Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test. This blood test looks for antinuclear antibodies, substances that attack your body's own tissues. High levels of antinuclear antibodies are a sign of an autoimmune disease.

  • Kidney ultrasound or computed tomography (CT). Imaging scans allow your doctor to see the structure of your kidneys and urinary tract.

  • Kidney biopsy.A doctor removes a small piece of your urinary organ to be examined underneath a microscope. A kidney diagnostic test is sometimes required to verify the diagnosis. It will tell your doctor the kind of nephrosis you have, the quantity of kidney harm and what treatments may fit best.

  • Anti-PLA2R antibody test. This new blood test looks for certain immune substances related to membranous nephropathy. It may help confirm or rule out the disease when a biopsy cannot be done. High levels of these antibodies are a sign of active disease. They've been linked to an increased risk of worsening kidney function.

Treatment membranous nephropathy (MN)

Treatment for MN depends on the type and cause. If you've got primary MN and therefore the levels of supermolecule in your excreta aren't severe, your excretory organ operate is stable and you have not had a complication of MN (such as a blood clot), your nephrologist could opt to use the subsequent treatments while not medications to suppress your system for 6 to twelve months since some cases may resolve on their own.

Treatment of membranous nephritis focuses on addressing the reason behind your disease and relieving your symptoms. there's no sure cure.

 However, up to three out of ten folks with membranous nephrosis have their symptoms utterly disappear (remission) once 5 years with no treatment. concerning twenty five to forty % have a partial remission.

In cases wherever membranous nephropathy is caused by a drug or another disease — cherish cancer — stopping the medication or dominant the opposite disease sometimes improves the condition.


These treatments may include:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: medicine that manage high blood pressure, lower body waste supermolecule levels and facilitate reduced inflammation in the kidneys.

Diuretics: Medications that take away excess fluids from the body and lower blood pressure.

Low-salt diet: Reducing salt intake to scale back edema.

Cholesterol-lowering medications (statins): help reduce the elevated sterol levels.

However, if any of the previously mentioned factors are present or the proteinuria does not decline during the observation period, your nephrologist will likely use immunosuppressive therapy.

  • Immunosuppressive therapy: Drugs to stop the immune system from producing the antibody that attacks the kidneys, including:

    • Corticosteroids.

    • Rituximab.

    • Cyclosporine.

    • Cyclophosphamide.

In some people with secondary MN, treating the underlying condition may stop kidney damage from progressing.

  1. Kidney transplantation

Low risk of advanced kidney disease

If you have membranous nephropathy you are considered at low risk of developing advanced kidney disease within the next five years if:

  • Your urine protein level remains less than 4 grams a day for six months

  • Your blood creatinine level remains in the normal range for six months

If you have a low risk of advanced kidney disease treatment for membranous nephropathy usually begins by taking the following steps:

  • Take blood pressure medication.Doctors typically prescribe a blood pressure medication to keep your blood pressure under control

  • Decrease swelling (edema).Water pills (diuretics) help remove salt and water from your blood

  • Control cholesterol.Medications called statins are used to keep your cholesterol in check

  • Lower your risk for blood clots.People with membranous nephropathy are more likely to have deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism Doctors may prescribe blood-thinners or anticoagulants to prevent these dangerous events

  • Cut back on salt.Salt can increase urine protein levels It also makes your body retain fluid Check the salt content in foods drinks and condiments

Doctors generally prefer to avoid using strong drugs (which can cause significant side effects) early in the course of the disease when there's a chance that the disease will improve on its own

High risk of kidney disease

Your doctor may recommend more-intensive treatment if your urine contains a lot of protein The more protein you have in your urine (proteinuria) the greater the risk to your kidneys and overall well-being

Doctors have assessed risk based on the amount of protein in the urine over time

  • Moderate risk.The urine protein level stays between 4 and 8 grams a day and the blood creatinine level is at normal or near normal for six months of observation About half the people with these signs develop serious kidney disease over five years

  • High risk.

An antibody test can be used to determine your risk for developing the disease This test also helps doctors determine how well you will respond to treatment

If you have a moderate to high risk of advanced kidney disease your doctor may talk to you about these treatments:

  • Steroids plus a chemotherapy drug. If your urine protein level keeps rising your doctor may prescribe a corticosteroid drug with a chemotherapy drug to suppress your immune system This can lower your urine protein levels and stop the progress toward kidney failure However immune suppressing drugs don't help

  • Cyclosporine.If you don't want to take a chemotherapy drug or cannot tolerate it cyclosporine (a calcineurin inhibitor drug) is an option

  • Rituximab (Rituxan). Rituximab has helped some people who have not improved with immunosuppressive therapy Studies suggest it works at least as well as steroid therapy The medication kills B cells in the immune system — the cells that produce substances called antibodies that damage the glomeruli However it is not a cure for glomerulonephritis or its symptoms It's expensive and not covered by insurance

Sometimes the disease comes back after treatment ends This has happened to people taking any kind of immunosuppressant Sometimes when the first round of treatment doesn't work or you have a relapse you may benefit from a second round of treatment Talk to your doctor about the best treatment plan for you

  1. Child medical and psychological care

Lifestyle and home remedies

Talk to your doctor about how to reduce your chances of developing kidney disease Your doctor may suggest that you eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly

  • Have regular checkups

  • Follow your prescribed treatment for diabetes or high blood pressure

  • Stop smoking, if you are a smoker

  • Do not use over-the-counter pain medications If you need to take pain medication talk to your doctor first

  • If you want to lose weight eat less salt and less protein

  • Limit your intake of alcohol

Preparing for your appointment

If you have symptoms or signs of kidney disease you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in kidney problems (nephrologist) If laboratory tests reveal damage to your kidneys you may be referred to a nephrologist

What you can do

Ask if there are any steps you need to take before your appointment such as limiting your diet Ask a friend or family member to accompany you to the appointment Then make a list of:

  • Your symptoms,including any that seem unrelated to your kidneys or urinary function

  • All your medications and doses,You should take vitamins or other supplements

  • Your key medical history, including any other medical conditions

  • Questions to ask your doctor.

For nephropathy some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have a problem with my kidneys?

  • How badly do my kidneys seem to be affected?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What are the possible causes of my condition?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend? What are my other treatment options?

  • What are the possible side effects of treatment?

  • Could my condition go away on its own?

  • I have other medical problems. How can I manage them together with this condition?

  • What can I do at home to help with my symptoms?

  • What can I expect in the long term?

  • If I need a kidney transplant will that cure me or can the disease come back?

  • The leaves will turn black and the decoupage will dry clear

Ask questions as they occur to you during your appointment You may have other questions that you would like to ask

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you questions such as: Do you have any allergies? Do you take any medications? What kinds of foods do you eat? Do you drink alcohol? Do you smoke cigarettes? Do you use birth control pills or other hormonal methods of contraception? Do you have any medical conditions that might affect your health such as diabetes, high blood pressure or asthma? What are your hobbies and interests? Are there any sports that you play regularly?

  • Have you noticed any symptoms?

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms and how long have they lasted?

  • Does anyone in your family have kidney disease?

  • Do you have high blood pressure?

  • Do you have diabetes?

  • What do you think will help or worsen your symptoms?

General summary

  1. : Causes & Symptoms A membrane is a thin pliable and flexible layer of tissue that covers or lines body structures The membranes of the kidney are called renal (kidney) membranes They are made up of elastic fibers surrounding the glomeruli and tubules in the kidneys These glomeruli and tubules perform important functions like filtering toxic materials from blood and re-absorbing essential nutrients into your bloodstream Renal filter failure leads to accumulation or retention of these toxins in the urine leading to Membranous Nephropathy Kidney Exams can help diagnose this condition easily You can get an appointment with a doctor.

  2. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a serious kidney disorder that affects the glomerulus, or filtering units, of the kidney. It is caused by a buildup of a protein called the megalin receptor, which disrupts the normal functioning of the kidneys. In most cases, MN is idiopathic, meaning that the cause of the disorder is unknown. It can also be caused by an autoimmune reaction to certain medications and infections, or in some cases, it can be inherited.

  3. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a disease of the kidneys which causes thickening of the basement membrane that lines the renal tubules. It is usually caused by an autoimmune disorder or a drug-induced reaction. MN can cause proteinuria, edema, and other symptoms of kidney failure. In some cases, it can lead to end-stage renal failure.

 membranous nephropathy (MN)  : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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