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Pediatric white blood cell disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

What are  Pediatric white blood cell disorders?

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes, are the cells of the immune system that shield the body against infectious illness, allergens, and alternative foreign invaders.

The amount of white blood cells within the blood(link is external and opens in a very new window) will usually tell the health care supplier if a disease is present. The traditional number of white blood cells is typically between 4,000–11,000 cells per microliter of blood. Having a lot of WBCs in the blood than normal is termed leukocytosis, and having fewer WBCS than normal is called leukopenia.


What are  Pediatric white blood cell disorders?


Medical terms

  • Pediatric white blood cell disorders refer to a wide range of conditions, all of which result in abnormal production or function of one or more types of white blood cells. While the symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, all can have a significant impact on a child’s health. In order to better understand these disorders, it is important to first understand the normal role of white blood cells and how they are produced.  White blood cells are an important part of the immune system, responsible for protecting the body against infection.

  • Pediatric white blood cell disorders are a group of rare disorders that prevent the white blood cells from developing properly. They can also stop the white blood cells from working correctly. White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. They help fight infections.

  • There are several kinds of white blood cell disorders that can primarily affect children. Some of the common disorders include leukemia, lymphoma and histiocytosis. Each of these disorders can cause different symptoms and will require different methods of treatment. In some cases, white blood cell disorders can be cured while in others the goal may be to manage symptoms and help the patient live as normal and comfortable a life as possible.

  • A white blood cell disorder in children is often called a leukemia While this term refers to cancerous cells the word leukemia actually stems from the Greek words leukos (meaning light) and haema (meaning “blood”) In other words it means that the blood of someone with this condition appears to be very pale because there are fewer red blood cells than normal.

  • Children with diseases that impair their ability to produce blood cells can have white blood cell disorders These disorders include thalassemia a group of genetic blood disorders and cases in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys bone marrow stem cells Both conditions seriously impact a child's health and require ongoing care from an oncologist Treatment for these disorders often includes regular visits to a doctor for transfusions or infusions.

Your body produces white blood cells (leukocytes) which help fight bacterial infections viruses and fungi If your child has too few or too many white blood cells in general here's what it means:

  • Low white blood cell count (leukopenia)A low white blood cell count increases the risk of infections and may be caused by a number of different diseases and conditions

  • A high white blood cell count (leukocytosis) is an indication of a high level of infectionWhen a high white blood cell count is present it means that the body has too many leukocytes circulating in the blood This usually occurs from having an infection

There are several types of white blood cells each with a different disease-fighting activity The main types are:

  • Neutrophils

  • Lymphocytes

  • Monocytes

  • Eosinophils

  • Basophils

White blood cell disorders that involve a specific type of white blood cell include:

  • Neutropenia. Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils which are white blood cells that fight infections of fungi and bacteria Neutropenia can be caused by cancer or by diseases or disorders that damage bone marrow In addition certain medications and other diseases or disorders can cause neutropenia Neutropenia can be caused by certain conditions

  • Lymphocytopenia. Lymphocytopenia (limit-for-si-toh-PEE-nee-uh) is a decrease in lymphocytes, the type of white blood cell that, among other tasks, protects your body from viral infections. Lymphocytopenia can result from an inherited syndrome, be associated with certain diseases, or be a side effect from medications or other treatments. 

  • Monocyte disorders.Monocytes help get rid of dead or damaged tissue and regulate your body's immune response. Infections, cancer, autoimmune diseases and other conditions can cause an increased number of monocytes. A decreased number can be the result of toxins, chemotherapy and other causes. 

  • Eosinophilia.Eosinophilia is a higher than normal number of eosinophils Eosinophilia can be caused by an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection

  • Basophilic disorders. Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FIL-e-uh) is a higher than normal number of eosinophil cells, a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. Eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of conditions and disorders, most commonly by an allergic reaction or a parasitic infection. 

  • Basophilic disorders. Basophils account for only a small number of white blood cells, but they have a role in wound healing, infection and allergic reactions. A decreased number of basophils can result from allergic reactions or infections. An increased number can be caused by certain types of blood cancer or other disorders.

  1. What is Blood?
  2. Circulatory system

    The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.


    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

Symptoms Pediatric white blood cell disorders

Symptoms depend on the kind of white vegetative cell disorder a toddler has associated. It's necessary to get a correct diagnosis from your child' physician. Common symptoms once white blood cells disorders include:

  • frequent infections, most often in the lungs, ears or sinuses

  • skin abscesses

  • mouth sores

  • invasive fungal infections

  • severe tooth and gum (periodontal) disease

Certain conditions can have unique symptoms, such as delayed wound healing in leukocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic, sometimes greasy, diarrhea in

Causes Pediatric white blood cell disorders

Leukopenia is the general term for low numbers of neutrophils within the blood. it should be inherent (due to genetic causes) or non heritable (caused by medications/drugs, toxins, viruses or attacks from the child’s own immune system). Shwachman-Diamond syndrome may be a rare hereditary disease marked by exocrine gland dysfunction and congenital neutropenia—low numbers of neutrophils thanks to lean production. Kostmann syndrome is a severe sort of congenital neutropenia. during this hereditary disorder, the blood nearly lacks neutrophils as a result of they are doing not mature properly. Patients gift with infections and mouth sores early in life.

When the white blood cell count is high

symptoms may be a rare increase within the range of white blood cells in the blood, sometimes as a result of signals created by different cell occupations for additional eosinophil production. Neutrophilia, meanwhile, is a rise in the number of neutrophils in the blood. Most commonly, neutrophilia is non heritable and happens in response to infections or drugs. different rare causes exist.

Why would a child have low white blood cells?

Children who experience mild or moderate infections such as an ear infection or strep throat rarely develop so low white blood cells that they are diagnosed with leukemia This is because the infections trigger an immune response in which the body produces more white blood cells Children who have chronic health problems such as being born with a genetic disorder may be at risk for developing low white blood cells and leukemia.

How does a child with leukemia act?

If a child has leukemia he or she will often experience aches and pains in the lymph nodes The lymph nodes are located in various areas of a person's body including under the arms neck and groin area When these nodes become swollen it can be a sign that cancer is present A child with leukemia may also lose his or her hair because chemotherapy affects that function of the body by slowing down cell growth The hair loss is most visible at the front side where head meets face and near to the ears on either side of temple regions Children may also develop rashes on their faces during treatment periods They are.

What age is childhood leukemia most common?

Childhood leukemia is most commonly found in children between the ages of two and five However childhood leukemia can occur at any age For example adolescents who were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia as toddlers may experience a resurgence of their cancer when they reach adolescence Any child who has not yet reached puberty should be monitored for signs and symptoms of leukemia because the disease often strikes during this period.

Diagnosis Pediatric white blood cell disorders

Depending on the type of white blood cell disorder a child has, the doctor may order:

  • blood work to evaluate white blood cells' number and morphology (appearance)

  • bone marrow testing

Doctors may order additional specific tests to confirm or rule out certain disorders, such as:

  • specific tests for leukocyte function

  • stool sample for Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

After all tests are completed, hematologists will be able to outline the best treatment options.

  1. Stages of disease diagnosis

Treatment Pediatric white blood cell disorders

Treatment depends on the underlying problem (e.g., acquired, congenital) and severity and may include:

  • oral or intravenous antibiotics to fight infection

  • colony-stimulating factor to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more white blood cells

Stem cell (bone marrow) transplant could also be an associated possibility for severe non inheritable diseases. Bone marrow transplant involves the replacement of morbid bone marrow with another person’s healthy bone marrow. Unfortunately, it's going to} not be an option for everyone. The success of a transplant depends on several factors, comparable to how close the match is between kid and donor (matched siblings are best; if your child features a sibling, there's a 1-in-4 probability they're going to be a match) and therefore the patient' age. The choice to proceed with bone marrow transplant should be mentioned along with your child’s specialist and a stem cell transplant team.

  1. Circulatory Rehabilitation
  2. Psychological rehabilitation for cancer
  3. Child medical and psychological care

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Each kid is completely different based mostly on however severe his or her symptoms are and what treatment he or she is also getting. speak along with your child' attention supplier once you ought to decide. For example, you'll be schooled to call if your child has:

  • Signs of infection, like a fever, or flu-like symptoms

  • Bleeding that you cannot control

  • Increased tiredness

How can I help my child live with aplastic anemia?

Work along with your kid' healthcare supplier to develop a treatment plan.

attempt to make your child' life as traditional as possible.

 keep in mind to also listen to different children within the family.

 Work closely with your child’s college to create positive he or she gets what's needed.

 Your child may additionally qualify for special programs beneath Section 504 of the

General summary

  1. Leukemia is associated with a type of white blood cell known as lymphocytes which are the only kind of white blood cells found in large numbers in the bloodstream.

  2. Pediatric white blood cell disorders are diseases of the blood and bone marrow. These disorders can cause an increase or decrease in the number of white blood cells. White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. They help the body fight infection.

  3. White blood cell disorders are a group of conditions that affect the production or function of white blood cells. These disorders can be either acquired or inherited. Inherited disorders are caused by changes in the genes that control the production of white blood cells. Acquired disorders develop later in life and can be caused by infections, medications, or other health conditions.

Pediatric white blood cell disorders : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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