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Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)(PDD): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors , Complications , Prevention

 What is Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)?

Persistent clinical depression, also known as dysthymic depression (dis-THIE-me-uh), is a continuous semipermanent (chronic) type of depression. you'll lose interest in traditional daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, associate degreed have low vanity and an overall feeling of inadequacy. These feelings last for years and should considerably interfere together with your relationships, school, work and daily activities. --pps-- If you've got persistent depressive disorder, you may notice it laborious to be upbeat even on happy occasions — you may be delineated  as having a dark personality, perpetually complaining or incapable of getting fun. tho' persistent depressive disorder isn't as severe as major depression, your current depressed mood may be mild, moderate or severe. --pps-- attributable to the chronic nature of persistent depressive disorder, managing depression symptoms is challenging, however a mix of speak medical care (psychotherapy) and medicine can be effective in

 treating this condition.


What is Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)


Medical terms

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is mild or moderate depression that doesn’t go away. Someone with PDD encompasses a sad, dark, or low mood and 2 or additional alternative symptoms of depression. The symptoms last most of the day, on most days, over a protracted amount of time.

 Tending suppliers want to decide the condition of depression or dysthymic disorder.

 What’s the distinction between depression and protracted depressive disorder?

Persistent depressive disorder could be a kind of depression. It’s less severe than major depressive disorder — another kind — but it’s ongoing. It’s outlined as lasting a minimum of 2 years in adults and at least one year in kids and teens. Throughout this time, symptoms will't be absent for quite two consecutive months to fulfill the factors for PDD.

 

PDD can happen to anyone at any age. In fact, 3% or additional of the U.S. population experiences it at some purpose in their lives.

  • PDD is more common in girls and in people that have relatives with an equivalent.

  • Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD), formerly known as Dysthymic Disorder, is a type of depression that is characterized by a low-level of depressed moods that last for at least two years. It is similar to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) but is usually less severe and can last for much longer. PDD can often go undiagnosed as it does not always have the same debilitating effects as MDD, however it can still take a toll on one's quality of life. Some common symptoms of PDD include feelings of hopelessness, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, and difficulty concentrating.

  1. Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal's or human's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the organism, then it works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to these changes. Nervous tissue first originated in wormlike animals about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Brain

  2. Cerebral hemispheres

  3. Diencephalon or interbrain

  4. Thalamus

  5. Hypothalamus

  6. Midbrain

  7. Cerebellum

  8. Pons

  9. Medulla oblongata

  10. The spinal cord

  11. The ventricular system

  12. Choroid plexus

  1. Peripheral nervous system

The nervous system is an important part of the human body. It controls and coordinates all the activities of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord.


  1. Nerves

  2. Cranial nerves

  3. Spinal nerves

  4. Ganglia

  5. Enteric nervous system

persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)

in adults Persistent depressive disorder also known as dysthymia is a form of depression that ranges in severity from mild to severe and involves symptoms such as low self-esteem chronic hopelessness feelings of inadequacy or guilt difficulty concentrating on tasks and an overall negative attitude about life Lack of pleasure in daily activities is another symptom common to both major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder While these two conditions often occur together people with persistent depressive disorder are less likely to experience the same high levels of intensity in their symptoms experienced by people who have major depressive disorder.

Is dysthymia a serious mental illness?

Dysthymia is not as serious as major depression It's more of a chronic mild state of depression that lasts for at least two years and not more than one year With dysthymia the individual will have periods when symptoms decrease to a less severe level such as having only mild or infrequent symptoms of depression The disorder affects approximately 3% to 7% of the adult population in developed countries.

Is dysthymia a lifelong disorder?

Dysthymia also known as persistent depressive disorder is a mild form of depression that lasts anywhere from two years to a lifetime It is characterized by low moods and little interest or pleasure in activities that the person enjoyed before the onset of symptoms While this may seem like a relatively benign problem dysthymia has been associated with an increased risk for developing other mental conditions and physical health problems over time.

How long does dysthymia last?

People who develop dysthymia have a difficult time returning to their normal level of functioning This is especially true if the individual does not receive proper support from family friends and professionals People with dysthymia are at increased risk for developing other mental illnesses primarily major depression and anxiety disorders.

Is persistent depressive disorder a disability?

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression that causes severe episodes of low moods which can last for weeks or months This depression is considered a disability because it prevents you from meeting your daily responsibilities and severely interferes with your ability to function at work home school and in social situations The American Psychiatric Association describes this condition as "a depressive illness that lasts all year.

Can you work with dysthymia?

Dysthymia is a form of chronic depression that involves milder but longer-lasting symptoms than the classic clinical picture of major depression People with dysthymia can experience long periods of relatively low mood and diminished interest or pleasure in day-to-day activities that may cause problems at work or school and lead to difficulties in relationships Insomnia lack of appetite and generalized aches and pains are common as well as low self-esteem poor concentration fatigue feelings of inadequacy and even suicidal thoughts In addition to medical treatment with antidepressants (which have been proven effective) psychotherapy is also recommended.

Can PDD be cured?

PDD can be cured or controlled The first step in the treatment of PDD is to identify the underlying cause There are a number of medical conditions that can mimic or be related to autism so it is important for your child to see a doctor who specializes in treating children with PDDs as well as a neurologist and/or psychiatrist if they suspect that your child may have an underlying medical condition that needs treatment.

How can I help someone with PDD?

People with PDD will improve through therapy and the support of their families and friends. How you can help someone with PDD depends on how they are affected by the disorder.

Symptoms Persistent depressive disorder

The main symptom of PDD could be a sad, low or dark mood. Other signs might embody Persistent clinical depression symptoms sometimes come back and re-examine a number of years, and their intensity will modify over time. However, typically symptoms don't disappear for over 2 months at a time. In addition, major depression episodes may occur before or throughout persistent depressive disorder — this can be generally known as double depression

Symptoms of persistent depressive disorder can cause significant impairment and may include:

  • Loss of interest in daily activities

  • Sadness, emptiness or feeling down

  • Hopelessness

  • Avoidance of social activities

  • Feelings of guilt and worries over the past

  • Poor appetite or overeating

  • Sleep problems

  • Tiredness and lack of energy

  • Low self-esteem, self-criticism or feeling incapable

  • Trouble concentrating and trouble making decisions

  • Irritability or excessive anger

  • Decreased activity, effectiveness and productivity

In children, symptoms of persistent depressive disorder may include depressed mood and irritability.

When to see a doctor

If you assume the symptoms are yourself or some other person, tell someone right away. you'll be {able to} tell a care provider, a lover or a loved one as a result of these feelings having gone on for such an extended time, you'll think they'll continuously be a part of your life. however if you've got any symptoms of persistent depressive disorder, ask for medical help. --pps-- discuss with your medical care doctor about your symptoms. Or seek help directly from a psychological state professional. If you're reluctant to envision a mental health professional, reach out to somebody else who could also be able to help guide you to treatment, whether or not it's a friend or precious one, a teacher, a religion leader, or some other person you trust. --pps-- If you're thinking that you'll hurt yourself or try suicide, decision 911 or your native emergency range immediately.

Causes Persistent depressive disorder

Scientists don’t fully perceive what causes PDD. However, it could possibly be related to low levels of serotonin. a monoamine neurotransmitter may be a natural endocrine that controls our emotions and feelings of well-being. It additionally influences different body functions. PDD may get triggered by a traumatic event in life. Examples include losing a job, having a honey die, experiencing a criminal offense or prying into a breakup.

The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder isn't known. As with major depression, it may involve more than one cause, such as:

  • Biological differences. People with persistent depressive disorder may have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain, but they may eventually help pinpoint causes.

  • Brain chemistry. Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring brain chemicals that likely play a role in depression. Recent research indicates that changes in the function and effect of these neurotransmitters and how they interact with neural circuits involved in maintaining mood stability may play a significant role in depression and its treatment.

  • Inherited traits. Persistent depressive disorder appears to be more common in people whose blood relatives also have the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing depression.

  • Life events. As with major depression, traumatic events such as the loss of a loved one, financial problems or a high level of stress can trigger persistent depressive disorder in some people

Risk factors Persistent depressive disorder

Persistent depressive disorder often begins early — in childhood, the teenager years or young adult life — and is chronic. bound factors seem to extend the danger of developing or triggering persistent depressive disorder, including:

  • Having a first-degree relative with major depressive disorder or other depressive disorders

  • Traumatic or stressful life events, such as the loss of a loved one or financial problems

  • Personality traits that include negativity, such as low self-esteem and being too dependent, self-critical or pessimistic

  • History of other mental health disorders, such as a personality disorder

Complications Persistent depressive disorder

Conditions that may be linked with persistent depressive disorder include:

  • Reduced quality of life

  • Major depression, anxiety disorders and other mood disorders

  • Substance abuse

  • Relationship difficulties and family conflicts

  • School and work problems and decreased productivity

  • Chronic pain and general medical illnesses

  • Suicidal thoughts or behavior

  • Personality disorders or other mental health disorders

Prevention Persistent depressive disorder

There's no sure way to prevent persistent depressive disorder. Because it often starts in childhood or during the teenage years, identifying children at risk of the condition may help them get early treatment.

Strategies that may help ward off symptoms include the following:

  • Take steps to control stress, to increase your resilience and to boost your self-esteem.

  • Reach out to family and friends, especially in times of crisis, to help you weather rough spells.

  • Get treatment at the earliest sign of a problem to help prevent symptoms from worsening.

  • Consider getting long-term maintenance treatment to help prevent a relapse of symptoms.

Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)

  • Symptoms & causes

  • Diagnosis & treatment


Diagnosis Persistent depressive disorder

Your care supplier could order blood or wee wee tests to rule out different causes. The healthcare provider additionally might refer you to a man of science or head-shrinker to speak concerning your symptoms. These suppliers are specially trained to debate mental health.

If your doctor suspects you have persistent depressive disorder, exams and tests may include:

  • Physical exam. The doctor may do a physical exam and ask in-depth questions about your health to determine what may be causing your depression. In some cases, it may be linked to an underlying physical health problem.

  • Lab tests. Your doctor may order lab tests to rule out other medical conditions that may cause depressive symptoms. For example, your doctor may order a blood test to find out if your thyroid is underactive (hypothyroidism).

  • Psychological evaluation. This includes discussing your thoughts, feelings and behavior and it may include a questionnaire to help pinpoint a diagnosis. This evaluation can help determine if you have persistent depressive disorder or another condition that can affect mood, such as major depression, bipolar disorder or seasonal affective disorder.

For a diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder, the main indication for an adult differs somewhat from that of a child:

  • For an adult, depressed mood occurs most of the day for two or more years

  • For a child, depressed mood or irritability occurs most of the day for at least one year

Symptoms caused by persistent depressive disorder can vary from person to person. When persistent depressive disorder starts before age 21, it's called early onset; if it starts at age 21 or older, it's called late onset.

  1. Stages of disease diagnosis

Treatment Persistent depressive disorder

The most effective treatment for PDD combines medications and talk therapy, or counseling. --pps-- Antidepressants are prescribed drugs that may relieve depression. There are many alternative forms of medications for the treatment of depression. The foremost unremarkably used are 2 broad categories:

Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). you will have to take medication for a month or longer before you're feeling a difference. confirm to continue taking the medication precisely as your tending supplier prescribed. albeit you have got facet effects or feel abundant better, don’t stop without talking to your tending supplier first. --pps-- content can even facilitate managing PDD. One kind of medical care, psychological feature activity therapy (CBT), is usually useful for depression. An expert or scientist can assist you examine your thoughts and emotions and the way they have an effect on your actions. CBT can help you unlearn negative thoughts and develop additional positive thinking.

The two main treatments for persistent depressive disorder are medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy). The treatment approach your doctor recommends depends on factors such as:

  • Previous treatment methods

  • Your ability to tolerate medications

  • Severity of your symptoms

  • Your desire to address emotional or situational issues affecting your life

  • Your personal preferences

  • Other emotional problems you may have

Psychotherapy may be the first recommendation for children and adolescents with persistent depressive disorder, but that depends on the individual. Sometimes antidepressants are also needed.

Medications

The types of antidepressants most commonly used to treat persistent depressive disorder include:

  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

  • Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Talk with your doctor or pharmacist about possible side effects.

Finding the right medication

You may have to strive for many medications or a mixture before you discover one that works. This needs patience, as some medications take several weeks or longer for full results. Associate in Nursing for aspect effects to ease as your body adjusts. - Don't stop taking medication while not reprimanding your doctor — your doctor will assist you bit by bit and safely decrease your dose. Stopping treatment short or missing several doses may cause withdrawal-like symptoms, and quitting sharply may cause a sudden worsening of depression. once you have persistent depressive disorder, you will need to take antidepressants long term to stay symptoms in check

Antidepressants and pregnancy

If you're pregnant or breast-feeding, some antidepressants may pose an increased health risk to your unborn baby or nursing child. Talk to your doctor if you become pregnant or are planning on becoming pregnant.

FDA alert on antidepressants

Although ANtidepressants are usually safe once taken as directed, the FDA needs all medicines to carry a recording machine warning, the strictest warning for prescriptions. In some cases, children, teenages and young adults underneath twenty five could have a rise in dangerous  thoughts or behavior when taking antidepressants, particularly within the 1st few weeks when beginning or when the dose is amended.  Anyone taking an antidepressant ought to be watched closely for worsening depression or uncommon behavior, especially when first starting a brand new medication or with a change in dosage. If your teen has suicidal thoughts whereas taking an antidepressant, immediately contact your doctor or get emergency help.  Keep in mind that antidepressants are a lot of possible to cut back suicide risk within the end of the day by rising mood.

Psychotherapy

  1. Psychological rehabilitation
  2. Child medical and psychological care
  3. Rehabilitation of The Brain and Nerves

Psychotherapy is a general term for treating depression by speaking about your condition and connected problems with a psychological state professional. Psychotherapy is additionally called talk medical aid or psychological counseling. differing types of psychotherapy, corresponding to psychological feature activity therapy, may be effective for persistent depressive disorder. You and your expert will discuss which sort of therapy is correct for you, your goals for therapy and different issues, such as the length of treatment

Psychotherapy can help you:

  • Adjust to a crisis or other current difficulty

  • Identify issues that contribute to your depression and change behaviors that make it worse

  • Identify negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones

  • Find better ways to cope and solve problems

  • Explore relationships and experiences, and develop positive interactions with others

  • Regain a sense of satisfaction and control in your life and help ease depression symptoms, such as hopelessness and anger

  • Learn to set realistic goals for your life

Lifestyle and home remedies

Persistent depressive disorder generally isn't a condition that you can treat on your own. But, in addition to professional treatment, these self-care steps can help:

  • Stick to your treatment plan. Don't skip psychotherapy sessions or appointments, and even if you're feeling well, don't skip your medications. Give yourself time to improve gradually.

  • Learn about persistent depressive disorder. Education about your condition can empower you and motivate you to stick to your treatment plan. Encourage your family to learn about the disorder to help them understand and support you.

  • Pay attention to warning signs. Work with your doctor or therapist to learn what might trigger your symptoms. Make a plan so that you know what to do if symptoms get worse or return. Contact your doctor or therapist if you notice any changes in symptoms or how you feel. Consider involving family members or friends to watch for warning signs.

  • Take care of yourself. Eat healthy, be physically active and get plenty of sleep. Consider walking, jogging, swimming, gardening or another activity that you enjoy. Sleeping well is important for both your physical and mental well-being. If you're having trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor about what you can do.

  • Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs. It may seem like alcohol or drugs lessen depression-related symptoms, but in the long run they generally worsen depression and make it harder to treat. Talk with your doctor or therapist if you need help dealing with alcohol or drug use.

Alternative medicine

Make certain you perceive the risks in addition as potential edges if you pursue different or complementary therapy. Avoid exchanging typical medical treatment or psychotherapy with alternative medicine. Once it involves depression, alternative treatments aren't a substitute for medical care. --pps-- For example, the flavoring supplement referred to as St. John' wort isn't approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat depression within the U.S., tho' it' available. It should facilitate the improvement of delicate or moderate depression, however the proof is not conclusive.  St. John' wort will interfere with a variety of medications, including blood-thinning drugs, birth management pills, chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS medications and medicines to stop organ rejection when a transplant. Also, avoid taking St. John' wort whereas taking antidepressants as a result of the mix will cause serious facet effects.

FDA doesn't monitor supplements

Dietary supplements aren't approved and monitored by the FDA the same way medications are. You can't always be certain of what you're getting and whether it's safe. Also, because some herbal and other dietary supplements can interfere with prescription medications or cause dangerous interactions, talk to your healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Coping and support

Persistent depressive disorder makes it hard to engage in behavior and activities that can help you feel better. In addition to the treatments recommended by your doctor or therapist, consider these tips:

  • Focus on your goals. Dealing with persistent depressive disorder is an ongoing process. Set reasonable goals for yourself. Stay motivated by keeping your goals in mind. But give yourself permission to do less when you feel down.

  • Simplify your life. Cut back on obligations when possible. Structure your time by planning your day. You may find it helps to make a list of daily tasks, use sticky notes as reminders or use a planner to stay organized.

  • Write in a journal. Journaling as part of your treatment may improve mood by allowing you to express pain, anger, fear or other emotions.

  • Read reputable self-help books and websites. Ask your doctor or therapist to recommend books or websites to read.

  • Stay connected. Don't become isolated. Try to participate in social activities, and get together with family or friends regularly. Support groups for people with depression can help you connect with others facing similar challenges and share experiences.

  • Learn ways to relax and manage your stress. Examples include meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga and tai chi.

  • Don't make important decisions when you're down. Avoid decision-making when you're feeling depressed, since you may not be thinking clearly.

Preparing for your appointment

You may decide to schedule an appointment with your primary care doctor to talk about your concerns or you may decide to see a mental health specialist, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, for evaluation.

What you can do

Prepare for your appointment by making a list of:

  • Any symptoms you've had, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment

  • Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes

  • All medications, vitamins, supplements or herbal preparations that you're taking, and the doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

Taking a family member or friend along can help you remember something that you missed or forgot.

Basic questions to ask your doctor may include:

  • Why can't I get over this depression on my own?

  • How do you treat this type of depression?

  • Will talk therapy (psychotherapy) help?

  • Are there medications that might help?

  • How long will I need to take medication?

  • What are some of the side effects of the medication you're recommending?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed materials that I can have?

  • How often will we meet?

  • How long will treatment take?

  • What can I do to help myself?

  • What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you several questions, such as:

  • What have you tried on your own to feel better?

  • When did you first notice symptoms?

  • How is your daily life affected by your symptoms?

  • What other treatment have you had?

  • What things make you feel worse?

  • Have any relatives had any type of depression or another mental illness?

  • What do you hope to gain from treatment?

General summary

  1.  Adults Persistent depressive disorder also known as dysthymia is a form of depression that ranges in severity from mild to severe and involves symptoms such as low self-esteem chronic hopelessness feelings of inadequacy or guilt difficulty concentrating on tasks and an overall negative attitude about life Lack of pleasure in daily activities is another symptom common to both major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder While these two conditions often occur together people with persistent depressive disorder are less likely to experience the same high levels of intensity in their symptoms experienced by people who have major depressive disorder.

  2. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) is a type of depression that can last for two years or more. It is characterized by a low mood and a lack of interest in activities that would normally bring pleasure or satisfaction. People with PDD may experience feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, and a general loss of interest in life. They may also suffer from changes in sleep patterns, appetite, concentration, and energy levels.

  3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) is a type of depression that is characterized by an ongoing, low-level of sadness that does not go away. It can last for two years or more, and can significantly interfere with a person's daily functioning. It is different from major depression in that the symptoms tend to be less intense and long-lasting. Symptoms of PDD include feelings of hopelessness, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, low energy, changes in appetite, difficulty sleeping, and lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyable.

Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)(PDD): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis ,Treatment , Risk factors  , Complications , Prevention

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