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Aortic valve stenosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

 What is Aortic valve stenosis?

Every day, about 2,000 gallons of blood flow into through your heart. you've got four valves in your heart to assist in managing all that blood flow. however generally, they won’t open and shut properly.

One of the foremost common and most serious valve issues is termed semilunar valve stricture.

Stenosis will mean that the leaflets or cusps of your valve have thickened or scarred and don’t open furthermore as they ought to. therefore with every beat, less blood leaves the center to travel out and nourish your body.

Over time, the center has got to work more durable to pump enough blood dead set all of your.

How the center Works

Your heart has four valves that open and shut during a steady rhythm to flow into blood through your body once they square measure operating right.

The semilunar valve is the last of the four valves that blood passes through before feeding the center. By the time blood has reached there, it’s already been through the lungs and picked up another spherical chemical element for your body.

What is Aortic valve stenosis?
valve stenosis

The job of the semilunar valve is to pump that oxygen-rich blood into the artery, the most important vas in your body.

Your semilunar valve keeps blood flowing from your heart’s lower left chamber (left ventricle) to the artery (the main artery transfers blood from the center to the body). Valvular heart disease happens once that valve narrows and blood cannot flow usually. The condition could vary from gentle to severe.

Over time, semilunar valve stricture causes your heart’s heart ventricle to pump more durably to push blood through the narrowed semilunar valve. The additional effort could cause the heart ventricle to thicken, enlarge and weaken. If not self-addressed, this kind of heart valve unwellness could result in heart condition.

  1. Circulatory system

    1. Heart

    2. Arteries

    3. Veins

    4. Capillaries

medical terms

Aortic valve stenosis is a condition in which the aortic valve becomes narrowed and hardened. This narrowing restricts the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta causing an obstruction of the blood flow. As a result, the left ventricle has to pump harder in order to push the same amount of blood through the narrowed valve. As the stenosis progresses and the valve opening becomes smaller, symptoms such as chest pain and shortness of breath may occur, as well as fatigue, dizziness, fainting, and fluid retention.ortic valve stenosis is a condition in which the aortic valve, found in the heart, narrows and restricts blood flow. This can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood to the rest of the body, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Untreated, aortic valve stenosis can lead to further complications, such as heart failure, stroke, or sudden cardiac death. Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a birth defect, or it can be acquired due to age or other conditions.

Aortic valve pathology — or valvular heart disease — happens once the heart's semilunar valve narrows. The valve does not open absolutely, that reduces or blocks blood due your heart into the most artery to your body (aorta) and to the remainder of your body.

Your treatment depends on the severity of your condition. you'll want surgery to repair or replace the valve. while not treated, severe semilunar valve pathology will result in death.

 Most patients with aortic stenosis are aware of the condition and it is typically diagnosed during routine physical examinations or by heart attack or chest pain symptoms Some people however remain undiagnosed for years as the condition progresses slowly Untreated aortic stenosis can lead to dangerous complications such as cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure While surgery remains the best available treatment for aortic stenosis promising new procedures have been developed to help manage this disease in some patients These treatments can delay surgery while they control symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease.

Symptoms Aortic valve stenosis

When you have delicate semilunar valve pathology, you'll ne'er feel any symptoms. It will typically take a protracted time for symptoms to become noticeable. Gradual signs of a weakening heart will generally be unnoticed.

Aortic valve pathology ranges from delicate to severe. Signs and symptoms usually occur once narrowing of the valve is severe. Some folks with semilunar valve pathology might not have symptoms for several years.

Signs and symptoms of semilunar valve pathology could include:

  • Abnormal heart sound (heart murmur) heard through a stethoscope

  • Chest pain (angina) or tightness with activity

  • Feeling faint or dizzy or fainting with activity

  • Shortness of breath, especially when you have been active

  • Fatigue, especially during times of increased activity

  • Rapid, fluttering heartbeat (palpitations)

  • Not eating enough (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis)

  • Not gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis)

Aortic valve stenosis may lead to heart failure. Heart failure signs and symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, and swollen ankles and feet.

When to see a doctor

If you've got a murmur, your doctor could suggest that you just visit a doctor trained in diseases of the guts (cardiologist). If you develop any symptoms which will counsel semilunar valve pathology, see your doctor. 

Causes Aortic valve stenosis

Several conditions will cause your semilunar valve to thicken. Among them are:

Calcium buildup: Your blood carries metal, among different minerals and nutrients. As blood passes through the semilunar valve year after year, metal deposits will kindle on the valve. this will build it stiffer, therefore it won’t absolutely open.

Heart defect from birth: a standard semilunar valve has 3 flaps, or cusps, that work snugly along. Some folks are born with an associate degree semilunar valve that has one, two, or perhaps four cusps. the guts will perform simply fine this manner for years.

But as you progress into adulthood, the abnormal valve is a bit doubtless to induce stiffer and not open similarly. This sort of inborn heart defect may be treated by repairing or commuting the valve.

Rheumatic fever: tho' this complication from septic sore throat or contagious disease isn’t nearly as common because it once was, it will still cause a threat. infectious disease will scar the semilunar valve. connective tissue makes it easier for metal to create au courant the valve.

Your heart has four valves that keep blood flowing within the correct direction. These valves embody the left atrioventricular valve, right atrioventricular valve, semilunar valve and semilunar valve. Every valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and shut once throughout every heartbeat. Sometimes, the valves do not open or shut properly. If a valve does not absolutely open or shut, blood flow is reduced or blocked.

In semilunar valve stricture, the semilunar valve between the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) and therefore the arteria doesn't open fully. The world through which blood moves out of the guts to the arteries is narrowed (stenosis).

When the semilunar valve gap is narrowed, your heart should work more durable to pump enough blood into the arteries and to the remainder of your body. The additional work of the guts will cause the ventricle to thicken and enlarge. Eventually the strain will cause a weakened cardiac muscle and might ultimately cause heart condition and different serious issues.

Aortic valve stricture causes include:

  • Congenital heart defect. Some youngsters are a unit born with an associated semilunar valve that has solely 2 cusps (bicuspid arterial blood vessel valve) rather than 3 (tricuspid arterial blood vessel valve). Rarely, associate semilunar valves could have one (unicuspid) or four (quadricuspid) cusps.
    Having a non inheritable heart defect like a bicuspid semilunar valve needs regular checkups by a doctor. The valve defect might not cause any issues till adulthood. If the valve begins to slender or leak, it should have to be compelled to be repaired or replaced. 

  • Calcium buildup on the valve. Calcium could be a mineral found in your blood. As blood repeatedly flows over the semilunar valve, atomic number 20 deposits will build up the guts valves (aortic valve calcification).
    The atomic number 20 deposits could ne'er cause any issues. semilunar valve stricture that is associated with increasing age and atomic number 20 deposit buildup typically does not cause symptoms till ages seventy or eighty. However, in some individuals — notably those with a non heritable semilunar valve defect — atomic number 20 deposits lead to stiffening of the valve cusps at a younger age.
    Heart valve atomic number 20 deposits are not connected to taking atomic number 20 tablets or drinking calcium-fortified products. 

  • Rheumatic fever. This complication of raw throat infection might lead to connective tissue forming on the semilunar valve. connective tissue will slender the semilunar valve gap or produce a rough surface on that Ca deposits will collect.
    Rheumatic fever might harm quote one heart valve, and in addition than a technique. whereas infectious disease is rare within the US, some older adults had infectious disease as youngsters. 

Risk factors Aortic valve stenosis

Risk factors of aortic valve stenosis include:

  • Older age

  • Certain heart conditions present at birth (congenital heart disease) such as a bicuspid aortic valve

  • History of infections that can affect the heart

  • Having cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure

  • Chronic kidney disease

  • History of radiation therapy to the chest

Complications Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis can cause complications, including:

  • Heart failure

  • Stroke

  • Blood clots

  • Bleeding

  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)

  • Infections that affect the heart, such as endocarditis

  • Death

Prevention Aortic valve stenosis

Some possible ways to prevent aortic valve stenosis include:

  • Taking steps to prevent rheumatic fever. You can try this by ensuring that you just see your doctor once you have pharyngitis. Untreated throat infection will transform infectious disease. Luckily, throat infection will typically be simply treated with antibiotics. infectious disease is additionally common in youngsters and young adults. 

  • Addressing risk factors for coronary artery disease. These include high blood pressure, obesity and high cholesterol levels. These factors may be linked to aortic valve stenosis, so it's a good idea to keep your weight, blood pressure and cholesterol levels under control if you have aortic valve stenosis.

  • Taking care of your teeth and gums. There is also a link between infected gums (gingivitis) and infected heart tissue (endocarditis). Inflammation of heart tissue caused by infection will slender arteries and irritate semilunar valve pathology.
    Once you recognize that you just have semilunar valve pathology, your doctor could advocate that you just limit strenuous activity to avoid laboring your heart. 

How long can you live with aortic stenosis?

Aortic stenosis is a condition in which the aortic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from the heart If left untreated it can severely weaken your heart muscle and eventually lead to an enlarged heart and even heart failure Though uncommon serious cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis can result in death The severity of symptoms will vary depending on how much narrowing occurs in your aortic valve Some patients live 20 years or more with aortic stenosis while others may face life-threatening complications within five years There are several types of treatment available for aortic stenosis that work to keep.

How serious is aortic stenosis?

The aortic valve opens to allow blood from the heart's left ventricle or lower chamber through a passageway in the heart The passageway then sends blood throughout the body When the aortic valve is narrowed often due to calcification of its leaflets it no longer fully opens and closes as needed for blood to flow easily between the chambers of the heart Because of this narrowing or stenosis of the aortic valve less blood flows from the left ventricle into the passageway leading to other parts of the body In some cases only one leaflet is involved.

How fast does aortic stenosis progress?

Aortic stenosis is the narrowing of the valve that separates your heart from your aorta This narrowing prevents adequate blood flow from moving through to the rest of the body causing symptoms such as shortness of breath chest pain dizziness and weakness Aortic stenosis typically progresses slowly over a person's lifetime and requires medication to treat However this condition can lead to complications requiring emergency treatment or surgery if left untreated.

How do I know if my aortic stenosis is getting worse?

Aortic stenosis is a condition in which the valve between the heart and the aorta narrows naturally causing blood flow to slow Symptoms of aortic stenosis include shortness of breath or rapid breathing (tachypnea) which worsens with exercise You may also faint with exertion and become tired easily Bright red blood from your heart is another symptom most noticeable when you cough or blow your nose Your doctor can also perform an echocardiogram to view both sides of your heart at once making it easier to see whether there are any irregularities in the functioning of your heart valves.

Can aortic stenosis cause sudden death?

Aortic stenosis is a heart defect that occurs when the area where blood exits from the left ventricle into the aorta or main artery of the body gets constricted If this condition remains untreated it can lead to sudden death.

Diagnosis Aortic valve stenosis

For many folks, a routine medical checkup reveals the primary sign of semilunar valve stricture. A doctor being attentive to your heart with a medical instrument might hear a “whooshing” sound or an additional heartbeat sound. This is often referred to as a symptom. It typically indicates valve bother, however not perpetually.

To diagnose semilunar valve stricture, your doctor can review your signs and symptoms, discuss your anamnesis, and do a physical examination. He or she's going to hear your heart with a medical instrument to see if you've got a symptom which will signal AN semilunar valve condition.


Your doctor could order many tests to verify or rule out semilunar valve pathology. Tests can also confirm a cause and also the condition's severity.

Tests for semilunar valve pathology could include:

  • Echocardiogram. This check uses sound waves to form pictures of your heart in motion. A technician presses a tool (transducer) firmly against your skin, aiming an associate degree ultrasound beam through your chest to your heart. The electrical device records the acoustic wave echoes from your heart, and a laptop converts the echoes into pictures that your doctor will read on a monitor.
    A sonogram will show your doctor however blood flows through your heart and heart valves. It will facilitate establishing a weakened muscle and verify the severity of semilunar valve stricture.
    If your doctor wants a better check out your semilunar valve, a transesophageal sonogram could also be done. During this check, a versatile tube containing the electrical device is radio-controlled down your throat and into your muscular structure. 

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This painless check detects and records your heart's electrical activity victimizing little sensors (electrodes) hooked up to your chest and arms and, sometimes, legs. Associate in Nursing electrocardiogram will enlarge chambers of your heart, cardiomyopathy and abnormal heart rhythms. 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can help your doctor determine whether your heart is enlarged, which can occur in aortic valve stenosis. It can also show swelling of the aorta and calcium buildup on your aortic valve.

  • Exercise tests or stress tests. Exercise tests help your doctor determine whether signs and symptoms of aortic valve disease occur during physical activity. These tests can help determine the severity of your condition. If you are unable to exercise, medications that have similar effects as exercise on your heart may be given to complete the test.

  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan. A viscus CT scan combines many X-ray pictures to produce an additional elaborate cross-sectional read of the center. Doctors might use viscus CT to live the scale of your arterial blood vessel and appearance at your semilunar valve additional closely. 

  • Cardiac MRI. A cardiac MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of your heart. This test may be used to determine the severity of your condition and evaluate the size of your aorta.

  • Cardiac catheterization. This take a look at is not typically accustomed to diagnose semilunar valve malady, however it should be used if different tests are not able to diagnose the condition or to see its severity. It should even be used before semilunar valve surgery to make sure the arteries that feed the guts muscle (coronary arteries) don't seem to be blocked.
    In this procedure, your doctor threads a skinny tube (catheter) through a vessel in your arm or groin. Associate in Nursing guides it to an artery in your heart.
    Sometimes, dye is injected through the tubing to assist your arteries show up additional clearly on Associate in Nursing X-ray (coronary angiogram). A coronary image|X-ray photograph} provides your doctor an in depth picture of your heart arteries and the way your heart functions. throughout the take a look at, your doctor may live the pressure within your heart chambers. 

Treatment Aortic valve stenosis

If you’re not having symptoms and your heart is otherwise healthy, you always don’t ought to treat delicate strictures. it should be one thing that your doctor keeps tabs on with regular checkups.

Many people with semilunar valve stricture even have alternative issues, like high pressure level or associate degree heart disease.

Medications for pressure level or to manage your abnormal cardiac rhythm won’t reverse valve stricture, however they're going to facilitate keeping your heart as healthy as attainable.

Treatment for semilunar valve structure depends on your signs and symptoms and therefore the severity of the condition.

If you have got delicate symptoms or none the least bit, you will solely ought to have your condition monitored with regular doctor's appointments. Your doctor might advocate healthy fashion changes and medications to treat symptoms or cut back the danger of complications.

Surgery or other procedures

You may eventually want surgery to repair or replace the unhealthy semilunar valve, though you do not have symptoms. Semilunar valve surgery could also be done at identical time as different operations.

Surgery to repair or replace Associate in Nursing semilunar valve is sometimes done through a cut (incision) within the chest. Less invasive approaches could also be accessible. raise your doctor if you are a candidate for these procedures. Semilunar valve surgery could also be done at identical time as different operations.

Surgery choices for semilunar valve pathology include:

  • Aortic valve repair. To repair associate degree semilunar valve, surgeons separate valve flaps (cusps) that have amalgamated. However, surgeons seldom repair associate degree semilunar valves to treat semilunar valve stricture. typically semilunar valve stricture needs semilunar valve replacement.

  • Balloon valvuloplasty. This procedure will treat semilunar valve stricture in infants and youngsters. However, the valve tends to slender once more in adults who've had the procedure, therefore it has always solely wiped out adults United Nations agency square measure too sick for surgery or United Nations agency square measure looking forward to a valve replacement, as they generally want further procedures to treat the narrowed valve over time.
    In this procedure, a doctor inserts a protracted, skinny tube (catheter) with a balloon on the tip into an associate degree artery in your arm or groin and guides it to the semilunar valve. Once in situ, the balloon is inflated, which widens the valve gap. The balloon is then deflated, and also the tubing and balloon square measure removed. 

  • Aortic valve replacement. Aortic valve replacement is usually required to treat semilunar valve pathology. In semilunar valve replacement, your Dr. removes the broken valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made of cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve).
    Biological tissue valves break down over time and should eventually get replaced. individuals with mechanical valves can always take blood-thinning medications to stop blood clots. Your doctor can visit you on the advantages and risks of every form of valve. 

  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This less invasive procedure is also an associate degree possibility for those that area unit thought-about to be at intermediate or high risk of complications from surgical semilunar valve replacement.
    In TAVR, doctors insert a tubing in your leg or chest and guide it to your heart. A replacement valve is then inserted through the tubing and radio-controlled to your heart. A balloon could expand the valve, or some valves will self-expand. Once the valve is established , doctors take away the tubing from your vessel. Doctors may additionally perform a tubing procedure to insert a replacement valve into a biological tissue valve that's not operating properly. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

You'll have regular follow-up appointments together with your doctor to observe your condition. you'll have to continue taking all of your medications as prescribed.

Your doctor might recommend that you simply incorporate many wholesome modus vivendi changes into your life, including:

  • Eating a heart-healthy diet. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, low-fat or fat-free dairy products, poultry, fish, and whole grains. Avoid saturated and trans fat, and excess salt and sugar.

  • Maintaining a healthy weight. Aim to keep a healthy weight. If you're overweight or obese, your doctor may recommend that you lose weight.

  • Getting regular physical activity. Aim to include about 30 minutes of physical activity, such as brisk walks, into your daily fitness routine.

  • Managing stress. Find ways to help manage your stress, such as through relaxation activities, mindfulness, exercise, and spending time with family and friends.

  • Avoiding tobacco. If you smoke, quit. raise your doctor concerning resources to assist you quit smoking. connecting a support cluster is also useful.
    For women with semilunar valve stricture, it is important to speak along with your doctor before you become pregnant. Together, you and your doctor will discuss which medications are safe to require throughout your physiological condition, and whether or not you would like a procedure to treat your valve condition before obtaining a pregnancy.

Preparing for your appointment

If you think that you have got semilunar valve pathology, think about being evaluated and treated at a center with a multidisciplinary team of cardiologists and alternative doctors and medical workers trained and toughened in evaluating and treating heart valve malady.

Here's some info to assist you indurate your appointment.

What you can do

  • Be aware of pre-appointment restrictions. When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do beforehand.

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to heart valve disease.

  • Write down key personal information, including a family history of heart disease and any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements you take.

  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help you remember information you receive.

  • Be prepared to discuss your diet and exercise habits. If you don't already eat well and exercise, be ready to talk to your doctor about challenges you might face in getting started.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

For aortic valve stenosis, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?

  • What tests will I need?

  • What's the best treatment?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • If I need surgery, which surgeon do you recommend for heart valve surgery?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Do you always have symptoms or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, improves your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, worsens your symptoms?

General summary

  • Aortic valve stenosis is a condition in which the aortic valve becomes narrowed and hardened. This narrowing restricts the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta causing an obstruction of the blood flow. As a result, the left ventricle has to pump harder in order to push the same amount of blood through the narrowed valve. As the stenosis progresses and the valve opening becomes smaller, symptoms such as chest pain and shortness of breath may occur, as well as fatigue, dizziness, fainting, and fluid retention.
  • In some cases aortic stenosis may be treated with medication These drugs can help to open the valve and relieve symptoms of fatigue and shortness of breath If your doctor recommends medication then you should consider wearing a medical alert bracelet that indicates that you have heart disease This will help to protect you from being misdiagnosed for another ailment if you happen to go to the hospital in an emergency situation.

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Aortic valve stenosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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