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Mitral valve prolapse : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

  What is Mitral Valve Prolapse?

The atrioventricular valve is found between the atrium sinistrum and also the ventricle and consists of 2 flaps. Commonly, the flaps square measure control tightly closed throughout left cavity contraction (systole) by the chordae tendineae (small sinew "cords" that connect the flaps to the muscles of the heart). In atrioventricular valve Prolapse, the flaps enlarge and stretch inward toward the atrium sinistrum, generally "snapping" throughout the beat, and should permit some flowing of blood into the atrium sinistrum (regurgitation).

Mitral valve prolapse may be a form of myxomatous valve unwellness. The tissue of the atrioventricular valve leaflets and chordae square measure abnormally stretchable, so because the heart beats, the atrioventricular valve bows or flops into the atrium sinistrum.

Those with atrioventricular valve prolapse might not have any regurgitation (leaky valve) or they will have a spread of severity from a gentle leak to a really floppy, leaky valve.

What is Mitral Valve Prolapse?
Mitral Valve Prolapse

The majority of individuals don't have any leak or a gentle leak. During this case, the player isn't a cause for concern. attiny low share of individuals with atrioventricular valve prolapse have severe players, requiring any treatment.

Mitral valve prolapse is extremely common, affecting 3 to 5 p.c of the population.

Females square measure affected double as typically as males.

Mitral valve prolapse may be seen in kids, teens, and adults.

  1. Circulatory system

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Capillaries

Medical terms

  • Mitral valve prolapse is a common cardiac disorder that occurs in 1-2% of the general population. It is characterized by the displacement of the valve leaflets into the left atrium, which can cause an abnormal regurgitation of blood. Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse can vary from person to person, and can range from chest pain and palpitations to fatigue and dizziness. In some cases, mitral valve prolapse does not require any treatment, however in severe cases, doctors may recommend surgery to correct the problem.

  • Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is an abnormality of the heart’s mitral valve which is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. It occurs when the two leaflets of the valve protrude or bulge abnormally into the left atrium during systole, the part of a heartbeat when the heart contracts and pumps blood to the rest of the body. MVP is common, affecting 2-3% of the population, and is typically asymptomatic. However, it can be associated with complications such as arrhythmias and murmur.

  • Mitral valve prolapse could be a variety of heart valve sickness that affects the valve between the left heart chambers. The flaps (leaflets) of the left atrioventricular valve square measure floppy. They bulge backward (prolapse) sort of a parachute into the heart's left higher chamber because the heart squeezes (contracts).

  • Mitral (MY-trul) valve prolapse typically causes blood to leak backward across the valve, a condition known as left atrioventricular valve regurgitation.

  • Usually, left atrioventricular valve prolapse is not dangerous and does not need treatment or manner changes. however some folks may have medications or surgery, particularly if the prolapse causes severe regurgitation.

Other names to explain left atrioventricular valve prolapse include:

  • Barlow syndrome

  • Billowing mitral valve syndrome

  • Click-murmur syndrome

  • Floppy valve syndrome

  • Mitral prolapse

  • Myxomatous mitral valve disease

People who are diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse are often surprised by their diagnosis The condition often goes undiagnosed until a person experiences symptoms and that can be dangerous When the heart is unable to properly pump blood due to defective valves it can lead to arrhythmias or palpitations that may go unnoticed for years In addition left untreated people who experience mitral valve prolapse may develop heart failure within the first decade of being diagnosed with this condition

symptoms Mitral valve prolapse is a common condition that causes the heart to beat in an irregular way It may cause some people to experience mild symptoms such as fatigue palpitations or shortness of breath However it can sometimes lead to severe life-threatening complications such as arrhythmia and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs)

Symptoms Mitral valve prolapse

Signs and symptoms of left atrioventricular valve prolapse area unit thanks to the quantity of blood unseaworthy backward through the valve.

Mitral valve prolapse symptoms will vary widely from one person to another. Many of us with left atrioventricular valve prolapse haven't got noticeable symptoms. people could have delicate symptoms that develop bit by bit.

Symptoms of left atrioventricular valve prolapse could include:

  • A racing or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, especially during exercise or when lying flat

  • Fatigue

When to see a doctor

If you've got symptoms of bicuspid valve prolapse, create an arrangement along with your health care supplier. several alternative conditions will cause similar symptoms.

If you are having unexpected or uncommon pain or suppose you are having a heart failure, request emergency treatment at once.

If you have been diagnosed with bicuspid valve prolapse, see your supplier if your symptoms worsen.

Causes Mitral valve prolapse

The reason for atrioventricular valve Prolapse is unknown, however is believed to be coupled to heredity. Primary and secondary types of atrioventricular valve Prolapse square measure delineate below.

Primary atrioventricular valve Prolapse. Primary atrioventricular valve Prolapse is distinguished by thickening of 1 or each valve flap. different effects square measure pathology (scarring) of the flap surface, cutting or prolongation of the chordae tendineae, and protein deposits on the flaps. The first kind of atrioventricular valve Prolapse is seen often in individuals with autosomal dominant disorder or different inheritable animal tissue diseases, however is most frequently seen in individuals with no different kind of heart condition.

Secondary atrioventricular valve Prolapse. In secondary atrioventricular valve Prolapse, the flaps don't seem to be thickened. The prolapse could also be thanks to anemia injury (caused by attenuate blood flow as a result of arterial blood vessel disease) to the outgrowth muscles connected to the chordae tendineae or to useful changes within the heart muscle. Secondary atrioventricular valve Prolapse might result from injury to controller structures throughout acute MI, rheumatic heart condition, or cardiomyopathy (occurs once the muscle mass of the ventricle of the center is larger than normal).

To understand the causes of atrioventricular valve unwellness, it's going to be useful to understand however the center works.

The atrioventricular valve is one amongst four valves within the heart that keep blood flowing within the right direction. Every valve has flaps (leaflets) that open and shut once throughout every heartbeat. If a valve does not open or shut properly, blood flow through the center to the body will be reduced.

In atrioventricular valve prolapse, one or each of the atrioventricular valve leaflets have further tissue or stretch over usual. The leaflets will bulge backward (prolapse) sort of a parachute into the left higher heart chamber (left atrium) on every occasion the center contracts to pump blood.

The bulging might keep the valve from closing tightly. If blood leaks backward through the valve, the condition is termed atrioventricular valve regurgitation.

Risk factors Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse will develop in someone at any age. Serious symptoms of atrioventricular valve prolapse tend to occur most frequently in men older than fifty.

Mitral valve prolapse will occur in families (be inherited) and will be connected to many alternative conditions, including:

  • Ebstein anomaly

  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

  • Graves' disease

  • Marfan syndrome

  • Muscular dystrophy

  • Scoliosis

Complications Mitral valve prolapse

Potential complications of mitral valve prolapse may include:

  • Mitral valve regurgitation. The atrioventricular valve flaps do not shut tightly. Blood flows backward once the valve is closed, creating it more durable for the center to figure properly. Being male or having a high pressure level will increase the danger of atrioventricular valve regurgitation. 

  • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias). Irregular heartbeats may occur if mitral valve prolapse leads to severe regurgitation and swelling of the upper left heart chamber (atrium).

What should I avoid if I have mitral valve prolapse?

Avoidance of certain activities can help you prevent worsening mitral valve prolapse. Avoid doing any activity that causes severe chest pain or tightness in the chest, throat tightness, swollen ankles or feet dizziness, faintness or rapid heartbeat.

Can you live a normal life with mitral valve prolapse?

Why is it that we all take our hearts for granted? For most of us the heart beats continuously without paying attention to its actions We don't know how hard it works and the effort that goes into keeping us alive every second It's only when something happens to our hearts do we realize how important they are I am talking about mitral valve prolapse (MVP) As the name implies it affects a part of your heart called a valve It's a condition in which one or both of your mitral valves doesn't function properly causing leakage between chambers of your heart The good news is you can live.

How do you prevent mitral valve prolapse from getting worse?

Mitral valve prolapse occurs when the valve between your heart’s lower chambers (the left atrium and the left ventricle) is weakened When you have mitral valve prolapse you may feel like you are having an irregular heartbeat or irregular fluttering sensations in your chest These symptoms usually do not cause any serious medical problems but some people who experience these symptoms may be diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse syndrome—a condition that causes no symptoms during rest but can worsen if you are physically active Common symptoms of mitral valve prolapse include palpitations and a feeling of breathlessness Mit.

How long can you live with mitral valve prolapse?

Someone with MVP generally experiences no symptoms Symptoms arise only in certain situations especially when exercise is involved The most common symptom of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart murmur that arises due to the prolapsing leaflets fluttering back and forth against each other which can create noise similar to the sound of someone rubbing their fingers together or tapping a pencil rapidly on a hard surface like wood Generally speaking MVP usually causes fatigue and exhaustion under exertion; however this condition can also cause sharp pains in your chest during any kind of strenuous workout or activity such as running up stairs or carrying groceries inside.

Can anxiety cause mitral valve prolapse?

Anxiety is often caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain which can cause changes in your behavior and feelings Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the United States with approximately 18 percent of adults experiencing them one year While some anxiety disorders have particular triggers anxiety itself does not directly cause mitral valve prolapse If you have mitral valve prolapse and also experience symptoms of anxiety it is likely that your doctor will diagnose you with mitral valve prolapse syndrome which causes more than just heart-related symptoms Mitral valve prolapse syndrome can include cardiovascular symptoms such as palpitations chest pain.

Does mitral valve prolapse get worse with age?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a relatively common heart disorder in which the leaflets of the mitral valve don't function properly The leaflets may flutter and even bulge into the left atrium allowing blood to leak backward into the atrium when the ventricles contract This can cause an irregular and fast heartbeat called arrhythmia.

Is mitral valve prolapse considered a heart condition?

Mitral valve prolapse usually does not cause any symptoms so it can be difficult to diagnose However if you experience heart palpitations and a racing heart when at rest or experience lightheadedness and fainting spells have frequent chest pain or swelling in the legs consult your physician immediately Warning signs of mitral valve prolapse include shortness of breath due to fluid buildup in the lungs on exertion wheezing and coughing during exercise and difficulty breathing at night.

Diagnosis Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse is sometimes diagnosed throughout a routine physical test. MVP is named the click-murmur sound as a result of which the doctor can hear a click and a murmur (abnormal blood flow through the valve) because the valve leaflets bow into the atrium sinistrum with every heartbeat.

To diagnose bicuspid valve prolapse, your health care supplier can typically do a physical test and hear your heart with a medical instrument.

If you have got bicuspid valve prolapse, a clicking sound is also detected through the medical instrument. If blood is leaky backward through the bicuspid valve, a whooshing sound (heart murmur) additionally is also detected.


Tests that may done to help confirm mitral valve prolapse and evaluate the heart include:

  • Echocardiogram. A sonogram uses sound waves to form pictures of the center in motion. A regular sonogram, additionally referred to as a transthoracic sonogram (TTE), will ensure a diagnosing of atrioventricular valve prolapse and confirm its severity.
    Sometimes, a transesophageal sonogram (TTE) could also be done to induce more-detailed pictures of the atrioventricular valve. During this form of sonogram, a tiny electrical device connected to the tip of a tube is inserted down the tube leading from the mouth to the abdomen (esophagus). 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray shows the condition of the heart and lungs. It can help show if the heart is enlarged.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test measures the electrical activity of the heart. An ECG can detect irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) related to mitral valve disease.

  • Exercise or stress tests. These tests usually involve walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike whereas the guts is monitored with ECG. Exercise tests facilitate revealing however the guts responds to physical activity and whether or not bicuspid valve prolapse symptoms occur throughout exercise. If you are unable to exercise, you could possibly take medications that mimic the result of exercise on the guts. 

  • Cardiac catheterization. This check is not typically accustomed to diagnose left atrioventricular valve prolapse, however it is often useful if different tests haven't diagnosed the condition. A health care supplier threads a skinny tube (catheter) through a vessel within the arm or groin to AN artery within the heart and injects dye through the tubing. This makes the arteries within the heart chambers show up additionally clearly on AN X-ray. 

  1. echocardiography
  2. ballistocardiography

Treatment Mitral valve prolapse

Most people with bicuspid valve prolapse, significantly individuals with no symptoms, do not need treatment.

If you've got bicuspid valve regurgitation however haven't got symptoms, your health care supplier might suggest regular checkups to observe your condition.

If you've got severe bicuspid valve regurgitation, medications or surgery is also required albeit you do not have symptoms.


Medications could also be required to treat irregular heartbeats or different complications of atrioventricular valve prolapse. Medications include:

  • Beta blockers. These drugs relax blood vessels and slow the heartbeat, which reduces blood pressure.

  • Water pills (diuretics). These medicines help remove salt (sodium) and water through your urine, reducing blood pressure.

  • Heart rhythm drugs (antiarrhythmics). Medications may be used to help control irregular heart rhythms.

  • Blood thinners (anticoagulants). If bicuspid valve malady is inflicting associate degree irregular heartbeat referred to as arrhythmia, your health care supplier could suggest blood-thinning medication to stop blood clots. arrhythmia will increase the chance of blood clots and strokes. If you had bicuspid valve replacement with a mechanical valve, blood thinners square measure required for all times .

  • Antibiotics. The yankee Heart Association says antibiotics are not sometimes necessary for somebody with left atrioventricular valve prolapse. However, if you've had left atrioventricular valve replacement, your care supplier might advocate taking antibiotics before dental procedures to stop a heart infection known as infective carditis. 

Surgery and other procedures

Most people with left atrioventricular valve prolapse do not want surgery. However surgery could also be suggested if mitral prolapse causes severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, whether or not or not you've got symptoms.

Surgery for an unhealthy or broken left atrioventricular valve includes left atrioventricular valve repair or left atrioventricular valve replacement. Left atrioventricular valve repair is most popular as a result of it saves the prevailing valve.

Valve repair and replacement could also be done victimization heart surgery or minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive surgery involves smaller incisions and will have less blood loss and a faster recovery time.

During left atrioventricular valve repair surgery, the Dr. may take away excess tissue from the prolapsed valve therefore the flaps will shut tightly. The Dr. may additionally replace the cords that support the valve. different repairs may additionally be done.

If left atrioventricular valve repair is not potential, the valve could also be replaced. Throughout left atrioventricular valve replacement surgery, a Dr. removes the left atrioventricular valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made up of cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve).

Sometimes, a heart tube procedure is finished to position a replacement valve into a biological tissue valve that does not work well. This is often known as a valve-in-valve procedure. 

  1. heart transplant

  2. Heart valve transplantation

  3. Cardiac rehabilitation and circulatory rehabilitation

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you've got bicuspid valve prolapse, you will have regular follow-up appointments together with your health care supplier to observe your condition.

It's also vital to require steps to stay healthy.

  • Eat a heart-healthy diet. Eat a range of fruits and vegetables. opt for low-fat or fatless farm products, poultry, fish, and whole grains. Avoid saturated and trans fat, and excess salt and sugar. 

  • Maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight or have obesity, your health care provider might recommend that you lose weight.

  • Get regular physical activity. Most people with bicuspid valve prolapse are able to do daily activities and exercise while not under restrictions. Aim to incorporate regarding half-hour of physical activity, like brisk walks, into your daily fitness routine. If bicuspid valve prolapse causes severe regurgitation, your supplier might suggest sure exercise limitations. 

  • Manage stress. Getting additional exercise, connecting with others and active attentiveness area unit some ways that to scale back stress. 

  • Avoid tobacco. If you smoke, quit. Ask your healthcare provider about resources to help you quit smoking.

Preparing for your appointment

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you create the appointment, make certain to raise if there is something you would like to try and do beforehand. 

  • Write down your symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to mitral valve prolapse, and when they began.

  • Write down key personal information, including a family history of heart disease, heart defects, genetic disorders, strokes, high blood pressure or diabetes, and any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you take, including doses.

  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help you remember the information you're given.

  • Be prepared to discuss your diet and exercise habits. If you do not already follow a diet or exercise routine, be able to visit your health care supplier regarding any challenges you would possibly face in obtaining a start. 

  • Write down questions to ask your provider.

For mitral valve prolapse, some basic questions to ask your health care provider include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes?

  • What tests do I need?

  • Do I need treatment? What kind?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?

  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • If I need surgery, which surgeon do you recommend for mitral valve repair?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing for me?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

Don't hesitate to ask any questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • Do you always have symptoms or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What makes the symptoms better?

  • What makes the symptoms worse?

General summary

  1. Since MVR often occurs in combination with other heart conditions (such as mitral valve stenosis and cardiomyopathy) the best course of action is to treat all disorders simultaneously For example if your doctor recommends valve repair or replacement he or she may also recommend treatment for the underlying condition.

  2. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is a condition that affects the mitral valve, which is located in the heart. It is a condition where the valve does not close properly, resulting in blood regurgitation or backflow into the heart. This can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath and palpitations, and sometimes can even result in more serious problems. MVP is often inherited, and is more common in women and those with a family history of the condition.

  3. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is a condition where one or both of the mitral valves in the heart does not close completely. This causes blood to leak back into the left atrium, potentially leading to mitral regurgitation. Symptoms of MVP can include a feeling of fluttering in the chest, shortness of breath, palpitations, and fatigue. If left untreated, MVP can lead to more serious health complications such as an enlarged heart and heart failure.

Mitral valve prolapse : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

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