Mitral valve stenosis : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/?

Mitral valve stricture (sometimes known as mitral stenosis) could be a sickness that causes narrowing or blockage of the bicuspid valve within your heart. Over time, this condition will cause regular recurrence issues, the next risk of stroke, and should result in heart condition and death.

Mitral valve structure suggests that blood traveling between the chambers on the left facet of your heart can’t flow as simply. This condition is sort of continually the results of Associate in Nursing allergic or reaction to a microorganism infection, however kids may also have this once they are born. It may also happen within the aged.

What is Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/?
Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral stenosis is more likely to happen in ladies than in men. In developed countries, individuals in their 50s and 60s conjure the bulk of stricture cases. In developing countries, it's an additional common designation in younger adults. Once it happens in infants and youngsters, most cases are found before the age of two. it's going to additionally run in families, increasing the danger of getting it if one in every of your relatives additionally has it.

Mitral stenosis is Associate in Nursing uncommon sickness, particularly in developed countries. It affects one out of each a hundred,000 individuals within the U.S. It’s additional common in developing countries, particularly once there’s restricted access to antibiotics and treatment.

  1. Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

  1. Heart

  2. Arteries

  3. Veins

  4. Blood vessels

Medical terms

  • Mitral valve stricture — typically known as valvular heart disease — could be a narrowing of the heart's left atrioventricular valve. This abnormal valve does not open properly, blocking blood flow into the most pumping chamber of your heart (left ventricle). left atrioventricular valve structure will cause you to be tired and in need of breath, among different issues.

  • The main reason for left atrioventricular valve structure is associated infection known as infectious disease, that is expounded to strep infections. infectious disease — currently rare within the u. s., however still common in developing countries — will scar the left atrioventricular valve. Left untreated, left atrioventricular valve stricture will result in serious heart complications.

  •  mitral valve stenosis are drug therapy and open-heart surgery (valve replacement) In some cases patients may need both treatment options Additional treatment options include catheter-based repair of the valve as well as heart rhythm management with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator People with mitral valve stenosis who do not respond to medication and decide not to have surgery must be carefully monitored by their physician

  • : What is it and what causes it? Mitral valve stenosis or MVS for short is a condition in which scar tissue builds up on the mitral valve of your heart This prevents your body from getting enough oxygenated blood when you breathe Typically this condition develops as a result of rheumatic fever or having had your first heart attack when you were younger than 40 years old Treatment for this condition includes changing certain habits to help lower your risk of complications from MVS and medications that are aimed at relieving the symptoms caused by MVS Blood thinners may be used if you have been diagnosed with MVS.

Is mitral valve serious?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) also called floppy valve syndrome is often diagnosed during an echocardiogram The condition can occur in people of any age and either sex However it is more common among females than males particularly after the onset of menopause People with MVP have no symptoms until they experience complications from the condition.

Can you live a normal life with mitral valve prolapse?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common heart disease that causes an abnormal bulging of the mitral valve The valve may leak and not close properly resulting in blood flow issues While it's not life threatening on its own MVP can put you at risk for more serious complications such as high blood pressure stroke and congestive heart failure If you're suspected to have MVP your doctor will order extra tests to determine whether this is the cause of your symptoms When mild cases are detected early enough lifestyle changes and medication can significantly reduce or even eliminate these health problems.

Symptoms Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/

In atrioventricular valve stricture, pressure that builds up within the heart is then sent back to the lungs, leading to fluid buildup (congestion) and shortness of breath.

The condition sometimes progresses slowly over time. you'll feel fine with atrioventricular valve stricture, otherwise you might have gentle symptoms for many years. Symptoms of atrioventricular valve structure generally seem between the ages of fifteen and forty, however they'll occur at any age — even throughout childhood.

If you have got gentle or moderate strictures, you'll not have any symptoms. Many ladies WHO have stenosis aren't aware of it till they develop symptoms whereas pregnant as a result of their heart additionally providing blood to a vertebrate. The symptoms possibly to happen are:

  • Shortness of breath. This is the most common symptom. It usually happens during physical activity and exercise but can also happen while lying down.

  • Fatigue. More than being tired, this describes when you feel exhausted to the point that it interferes with your normal activities.

  • Bronchitis. Infections usually cause this, and if you have mitral stenosis, you may get these infections more often.

  • Heart palpitations (where you become unpleasantly tuned in to your own heartbeat). This usually happens once mitral valve stenosis puts additional pressure on the higher left chamber of your heart, inflicting AN irregular rhythm referred to as arrhythmia. 

  • Stroke. When the higher chambers of your heart area unit beneath enhanced pressure, a clot will kind due to the reduced blood flow. This clot will then travel from your heart to your brain, wherever it will get in a very small vase and cause a stroke. 

  • Coughing blood. This sometimes happens when the limited blood flow puts pressure not just on the upper chamber of your heart but also in the veins in your lungs.

  • Hoarseness. One of the nerves that manage your vocal cords runs next to your heart. magnified pressure within the higher chamber of your heart will place pressure on this nerve. Even as your leg will sleep off if one in all its nerves is ironed on for too long, your voice might provide out if this nerve is below enough pressure. 

  • Swelling in your abdomen, ankles or feet. This happens when your heart is struggling to pump effectively, causing fluid to build up.

Children who are born with mitral stenosis often have these symptoms:

  • Trouble feeding or sweating while feeding. This symptom is one of the most common indicators of mitral stenosis in infants.

  • Cough. This may also include wheezing or struggling to breathe.

  • Slowed growth. This means that the child’s height, weight and other indicators are lower than expected for their age.

  • Frequent respiratory infections.

  • Shortness of breath. This is especially common and in older children, it may cause them to tire out easily when they’re active.

Mitral valve stenosis symptoms may appear or worsen anytime your heart rate increases, such as during exercise. Or they may be triggered by pregnancy or other things that cause stress on the body, such as an infection.

When to see a doctor

Call your doctor for a right away appointment if you've got fatigue or shortness of breath throughout physical activity, heart palpitations or hurting.

If you've been diagnosed with bicuspid valve structure however haven't had symptoms, raise your doctor concerning however usually you must have follow-up evaluations.

Causes Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/

The bicuspid valve is on the left aspect of your heart and it controls blood due the atrium sinistrum (upper chamber) to the heart ventricle (lower chamber). It is the initial valve that blood should withstand once traveling through your lungs to gather gas. It’s additionally the sole valve in your heart that ought to have 2 flaps (called leaflets) rather than 3.

Damage from infections: infectious disease is the commonest explanation for valvular heart disease. typically referred to as rheumatic valvular heart disease, this happens once your system damages the valve whereas fighting associate degree untreated microorganism infection. Rheumatic valvular heart disease becomes worse over time.

Bacteria that cause rheumatic valvular heart disease square measure similar ones that cause streptococcal sore throat and scarlatina. Rheumatic valvular heart disease is commonest in old people, and therefore the identification is sometimes years or maybe decades once the infection happens. That is as a result of it's going to take years or decades before the injury to your heart valves causes symptoms or seems on a checkup.

Wear and tear thanks to age: this sort of pathology is additionally possible with advancing age and results from atomic number 20 buildup on the valve. However, the general public with age-related valvular heart disease have solely gentle or moderate narrowing and should not want treatment.

Present at birth. non inheritable (meaning you've got it once you’re born) valvular heart disease is sometimes detected before the age of two. This sort of pathology will vary from gentle to severe. If not treated, youngsters with severe valvular heart disease generally do not survive past age five.

Causes of mitral valve stenosis include:

  • Rheumatic fever. A complication of throat infection, infectious disease will harm the atrioventricular valve. infectious disease is the commonest reason behind atrioventricular valve pathology. It will harm the atrioventricular valve by inflicting the flaps to thicken or fuse. Signs and symptoms of atrioventricular valve pathology may not show up for years. 

  • Calcium deposits. As you age, calcium deposits can build up around the mitral valve (annulus), which can occasionally cause mitral valve stenosis.

  • Radiation therapy. Treatment for certain types of cancer that requires radiation to your chest area can sometimes cause the mitral valve to thicken and harden.

  • Other causes. In rare cases, babies are born with a narrowed left atrioventricular valve (congenital defect) that causes issues over time. Some reaction diseases, like lupus, additionally could seldom cause left atrioventricular valve stricture. 

How the heart works

The heart, the middle of your cardiovascular system, consists of 4 chambers. the 2 higher chambers (atria) receive blood. The 2 lower chambers (ventricles) pump blood.

Four heart valves open and shut to let blood flow in barely one direction through your heart. The atrioventricular valve — that lies between 2|the 2} chambers on the left facet of your heart — includes two flaps of tissue known as leaflets.

The atrioventricular valve opens once blood flows from the left atrium of the heart to the ventricle. Then the flaps get ready to stop the blood that has simply passed into the ventricle from flowing backward. A defective heart valve fails to either open or shut totally.

Risk factors Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/

Mitral valve stricture is not as common because it once was as a result of the foremost common cause, infectious disease, is rare within the u. s ... However, infectious disease remains a drag in developing nations.

Risk factors for bicuspid valve stricture embody untreated strep infections and a history of infectious disease.

Older adults square measure at inflated risk of bicuspid valve stricture. As you age, Ca deposits will build up round the bicuspid valve, which can cause bicuspid valve stricture.

Rarely, folks that receive therapy to the chest space surely form cancer could develop bicuspid valve stricture.

Complications Mitral valve stenosis

Like alternative heart valve issues, bicuspid valve stricture will strain your heart and reduce blood flow. Untreated, bicuspid valve structure will cause complications such as:

  • High blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension). Increased pressure in the arteries that carry blood from your heart to your lungs (pulmonary arteries) causes your heart to work harder.

  • Heart failure. A narrowed left atrioventricular valve interferes with blood flow. As a result, pressure might increase in your lungs, resulting in fluid buildup. The fluid buildup strains the proper aspect of the guts, resulting in right cardiomyopathy. 

  • Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). In this condition, blood and fluid keep a copy into your lungs. respiratory organ swelling will cause shortness of breath and will cause you to cough up blood-tinged mucous secretion. 

  • Heart enlargement. The pressure buildup of mitral valve stenosis results in enlargement of your heart's upper left chamber (atrium).

  • Atrial fibrillation. The stretching and enlargement of your heart's left atrium may lead to this heart rhythm problem in which the upper chambers of your heart beat chaotically and too quickly.

  • Blood clots. Untreated arrhythmia will cause blood clots to make within the higher left chamber of your heart. Blood clots from your heart will break loose and visit different elements of your body, inflicting serious issues, like a stroke if a clot blocks a vase in your brain. 

Prevention Mitral valve stenosis

The best way to stop bicuspid valve stricture is to forestall its most typical cause, infectious disease. you'll be able to do that by ensuring you and your kids see your doctor for sore throats. Untreated sore throat infections will transform infectious disease. As luck would have it, sore throat is typically simply treated with antibiotics.

Diagnosis Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/

Your doctor can raise concerns about your anamnesis and provide you with a physical examination that pays attention to your heart through a medical instrument. left atrioventricular valve stricture causes associate abnormal heart sound, known as a symptom.
Your doctor will hear your respiratory organs to ascertain for lung congestion — a buildup of fluid in your lungs — which will occur with left atrioventricular valve stricture.
Your doctor can then decide that tests are a unit required to form a diagnosis, and whether or not you wish to be stated as a doctor UN agency focuses on heart conditions (cardiologist).
Your medical aid supplier might discover symptoms of stricture throughout a daily medical examination and refer you to a specialist. A medical specialist can typically do one or a lot of of the subsequent tests to diagnose your case and confirm its severity:

  • Physical exam. One of the best signs of stenosis for an attention supplier to sight could be a cardiac murmur. Your supplier will sometimes hear a murmur once employing a medical instrument to concentrate your heart and respiration throughout a routine physical. additional severe cases will cause over one sound as a part of the murmur, which might facilitate your supplier verify the severity of your case. 

  • Echocardiogram. This test uses ultrasound waves to give healthcare providers a picture of the inside of your heart. It is the most common test used to diagnose mitral stenosis.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This measures the electrical activity of your heart exploitation sensors connected to the skin of your chest. whereas Associate in Nursing ECG will simply notice rhythm issues connected to stricture, it’s sometimes not enough for a whole identification. 

  • Chest X-ray. Using X-rays to see inside your body, a healthcare provider can look for telltale changes in the shape or structure of your heart that mitral stenosis is known to cause.

  • Cardiac catheterization. Using a device inserted into one amongst your blood vessels and rib up to your heart, a specialist will live pressures at intervals in your heart and confirm if you have got valvular heart disease. 

Treatment Mitral valve stenosis/MVS/

If you have got delicate to moderate left atrioventricular valve pathology with no symptoms, you may not want immediate treatment. Instead, your doctor can monitor the valve to visualize if your condition worsens.


No medications will correct an atrioventricular valve defect. However, sure medicine will scale back symptoms by easing the strain on the center and dominate your regular recurrence.

Your doctor may order one or additional of the subsequent medications:

  • Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in your lungs or elsewhere.

  • Blood thinners (anticoagulants) to help prevent blood clots.

  • Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers or digitalis glycosides to slow your heart rate and allow your heart to fill more effectively.

  • Antiarrhythmics to treat atrial fibrillation or other irregular heart rhythms associated with mitral valve stenosis.

  • Antibiotics to prevent a return of rheumatic fever if that's what caused your mitral valve stenosis.

Surgery or other procedures

You may need valve repair or replacement to treat mitral valve stenosis, which may include surgical and nonsurgical options.

  • Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. In this procedure, conjointly known as balloon valvotomy, a doctor inserts a soft, skinny tube (catheter) tipped with a balloon in the Associate in Nursing artery in your arm or groin and guides it to the narrowed valve. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to widen the valve, up blood flow. The balloon is then deflated, and also the tubing with the balloon is removed.
    Not everybody with left atrioventricular valve pathology may be a candidate for balloon valvuloplasty. consult with your doctor to make a decision whether or not it's an Associate in Nursing possibility for you. 

  • Surgical commissurotomy. If balloon valvuloplasty is not Associate in Nursing choice, a heart specialist would possibly perform this heart surgery to get rid of atomic number 20 deposits and different connective tissue to clear the valve passageway. Surgical commissurotomy needs that you simply be placed on a heart-lung bypass machine throughout the surgery. you'll want the procedure perennial if your bicuspid valve stricture returns. 

  • Mitral valve replacement. If the left atrioventricular valve cannot be repaired, surgery could also be suggested to interchange the broken valve with a mechanical one or a valve made up of cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve).
    Biological tissue valves break down over time and will have to be replaced. If you have got a mechanical valve, you may have to take blood thinners to keep away blood clots. Your doctor can confer with you the advantages and risks of every form of valve and discuss that valve could also be applicable for you. 

What medications treat mitral valve stenosis?

The heart's four valves are responsible for preventing blood from flowing backward and for keeping the blood flowing forward through the correct chambers Mitral valve stenosis involves a narrowing of the valve that is situated between the left atrium and left ventricle This makes it difficult to open causing mitral regurgitation which results in extra pressure on the other three valves For most people treatment involves medication to help prevent symptoms and decrease progression of mitral stenosis Medications used to treat mitral valve stenosis include: - Diuretics: Diuretics are a type of medication that causes increased urine output These medications.

Mitral valve stenosis is a condition that causes the mitral valve to become thickened making it hard for blood to flow through The most common cause of mitral valve stenosis is rheumatic fever due to streptococcus bacteria or its remnants.

When does mitral stenosis need surgery?

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States Over one million Americans have mitral stenosis a hereditary or acquired condition that causes a heart valve to prominently bulge outwards necessitating treatment Mitral stenosis can also lead to fluid buildup and low oxygen levels in the blood.

How serious is mitral valve surgery?

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a condition that affects the heart's mitral valve The valve normally allows blood to flow freely back toward the heart but in those with MVP it doesn't close completely As a result some of the blood leaks backward into the left atrium causing symptoms such as palpitations and chest pressure If so much backward leakage occurs that the left ventricle is filled with blood before all of it has circulated through the rest of the body congestive heart failure may occur.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Lifestyle changes will facilitate improvement in your heart health. If you've got left atrioventricular valve stricture, your doctor might suggest that you:

  • Limit salt. Salt in food and drinks could increase pressure on your heart. Avoid high-sodium foods. do not add salt to food. browse food labels and enkindle low-salt dishes once ingestion out. 

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Ask your doctor what a healthy weight is for you.

  • Cut back on alcohol and other stimulants. Heavy alcohol use, caffeine, nicotine and other stimulants can cause your heart to beat faster and worsen arrhythmias.

  • Get regular exercise. How long and onerous you are able to exercise could depend upon the severity of your condition and also the intensity of exercise. however everybody ought to have interaction in a minimum of low-level, regular exercise. raise your doctor for steering before setting out to exercise, particularly if you are considering competitive sports. 

  • Quit smoking. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about programs and medications that can help you quit.

  • See your doctor regularly. Have regular checkups along with your heart surgeon or medical aid doctor. If you have frequent palpitations or feel your heart athletics, get medical help. Quick heart rhythms that are not treated will quickly exacerbate in individuals with atrioventricular valve pathology.
    Women with atrioventricular valve pathology ought to discuss birth prevention with their doctors before changing into pregnancy. maternity causes the center to figure tougher. However a heart with atrioventricular valve pathology tolerates the additional work depending on the degree of pathology and the way the center pumps. If you are pregnant and have atrioventricular valve pathology, your doctors ought to closely monitor you. 

Preparing for your appointment

Your GP is also the primary to suppose you'll have bicuspid valve pathology. when your initial appointment, your doctor could refer you to a specialist.

Here's some info to assist you steel yourself against your appointment.

What you can do

  • Write down your symptoms and when they started.

  • List your key medical information, including other health problems and prescription and over-the-counter medications and supplements you're taking.

  • Take a family member or friend to the appointment, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help remember the information you get.

  • Write down the questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask your doctor at your initial appointment include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes for these symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Do I need to restrict anything before my cardiologist appointment?

Questions to ask if you are referred to a cardiologist include:

  • What is my diagnosis?

  • What treatment do you recommend?

  • What are the possible side effects of the medications you're recommending?

  • What will my recovery be like from the procedure you're recommending?

  • How will you monitor my health over time?

  • What is my risk of long-term complications from this condition?

  • What restrictions do I need to follow?

  • Will physical activity, including sex, increase my risk of complications?

  • What diet and lifestyle changes should I make?

  • I have these other health problems. How can I best manage them together?

It's important for you to understand your condition. Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

A doctor or cardiologist who sees you for possible mitral valve stenosis may ask:

  • What are your symptoms?

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms worsened?

  • Do you have rapid, fluttering or pounding heartbeats?

  • Have you coughed up blood?

  • Does exercise or physical activity worsen your symptoms?

  • Are you aware of a family history of heart problems?

  • Have you had rheumatic fever?

  • Are you being treated or have you recently been treated for any other health conditions?

  • Do you or did you smoke? How much? When did you quit?

  • Do you use alcohol or caffeine? How much?

  • Are you planning to become pregnant in the future?

What you can do in the meantime

While you anticipate your appointment, raise relations whether or not shut relatives have cardiomyopathy. The symptoms of left atrioventricular valve pathology square measure just like different heart conditions, as well as some that run in families. Knowing concerning your family's health history can facilitate your doctor verify your designation and treatment.

If exercise makes your symptoms worse, avoid exerting yourself physically till you've got to see your doctor.

General summary

  1. Mitral valve stenosis is a condition in which the mitral valve does not close properly and blood regurgitates back into the left atrium Mitral valve stenosis usually occurs because of calcium deposits and thickening of the valvular leaflets If this disease is successfully treated with surgery or interventional procedures many patients can go on to live a normal life span The average patient lives 5 years after treatment of mitral valve stenosis.

Next Post Previous Post