Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Obstructive apnea could be a condition within which there are transient pauses in respiration pattern throughout sleep; the foremost common reason for apnea in youngsters is enlarged tonsils and adenoids that block the airway and respiration throughout sleep.

Obstructive apnea (OSA) could be a condition within which there are transient pauses in your child's respiration pattern throughout sleep. respiration sometimes stops as a result of a blockage – or AN "obstruction" – within the airway. OSA happens in up to 2%-5% of youngsters and may occur at any age. It's most ordinarily seen in youngsters between the ages of two and vi years recently.

What is Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?
Obstructive sleep apnea

Sleep apnea leads to several transient awakenings from sleep once the brain senses changes within the chemical element or greenhouse emission within the body and sends signals to the lungs to undertake to induce a breath in. These awakenings are transient and sleep resumes right when. to place it otherwise, it's like hearing the phone phone ring once in your sleep so stop. you will not even arise to reach for the phone, however your sleep is interrupted shortly. I currently imagine this happening over and over again throughout the night! Though your kid might not bear in mind he or she is arousal, these interruptions in sleep will result in daytime issues.

  1. Respiratory system

  1. Nasal cavity

  2. Pharynx

  3. Larynx

  4. Trachea

  5. Bronchioles and smaller air passages

  6. Lungs

  7. Muscles of breathing

Medical terms

  • Pediatric preventative sleep disorder could be a disorder within which your child's respiratory system is part or utterly blocked repeatedly throughout sleep. The condition is thanks to narrowing or blockage of the higher airway throughout sleep.

  • There square measure variations between pediatric preventative sleep disorder and adult sleep disorder. whereas adults sometimes have daytime temporary state, youngsters square measure a lot of possible to possess activity issues. The underlying cause in adults is usually fat, whereas in youngsters the foremost common underlying condition is enlargement of the adenoids and tonsils.

  • Early identification and treatment square measure necessary to stop complications which will have an effect on children's growth, psychological feature development and behavior.

  • (OSA): What parents should know Sleep apnea is the temporary cessation of breath during sleep more than 5 times per hour In children this pause lasts 10 seconds or more and is one of the reasons why kids with OSA snore loudly It also interferes with their ability to get adequate oxygen levels in their blood resulting in health problems as they grow older

  • (OSA) Oropharyngeal hypopharynx and upper airway dilatation are the most common symptoms of pediatric OSA with snoring being a hallmark Adolescent boys are at greater risk for OSA than adolescent girls Family history is an important indicator in children Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with such conditions as ADHD and conduct disorder learning disorders depression anxiety disorders and behavioral problems in childhood.

Symptoms Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

During sleep, signs and symptoms of pediatric sleep apnea might include:

  • Snoring

  • Pauses in breathing

  • Restless sleep

  • Snorting, coughing or choking

  • Mouth breathing

  • Nighttime sweating

  • Bed-wetting

  • Sleep terrors

Infants and young children with obstructive sleep apnea don't always snore. They might just have disturbed sleep.

During the day, children with sleep apnea might:

  • Perform poorly in school

  • Have difficulty paying attention

  • Have learning problems

  • Have behavioral problems

  • Have poor weight gain

  • Be hyperactive

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child constantly wakes up in the morning feeling tired and has behavioral problems.

Causes Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Obesity may be a factor underlying preventive apnea in adults. however in kids the foremost common condition resulting in preventive apnea is enlarged tonsils and adenoids. However, avoirdupois additionally plays a task in kids. alternative underlying factors are often craniofacial anomalies and contractor disorders.

The most common reason behind apnea in kids is enlarged tonsils and adenoids (large relative to the child's airway) that block the airway and impede respiratory throughout sleep. Throughout the daytime, muscles within the head and neck additionally simply keep the airway passages open. Throughout sleep, tone decreases, permitting tissue to come back nearer along and these giant tonsils and adenoids tend to dam the airway for periods of your time. alternative tissues within the nose, neck {and the|and therefore the|and additionally the} tongue also contributes. 

Other causes of OSA include:

  • Obesity

  • Narrow facial bone structure

  • Retrognathia (small jaw)

  • History of cleft palate or pharyngeal flap surgery

  • Low muscle tone (hypotonia, as in neuromuscular diseases)

  • High muscle tone (as in cerebral palsy)

  • Tumor or growth in the airway (rare)

Sleep apnea conjointly happens a lot unremarkably in kids with syndromes that alter the facial structure like mental retardation. alternative kids UN agency could also be at bigger risk for developing OSA embrace those with nasal allergies, asthma, abdomen acid reflux, and frequent higher airway infections.

Risk factors obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Besides obesity, other risk factors for pediatric sleep apnea include having:

  • Down syndrome

  • Abnormalities in the skull or face

  • Cerebral palsy

  • Sickle cell disease

  • Neuromuscular disease

  • History of low birth weight

  • Family history of obstructive sleep apnea

How can I help my child breathe better at night?

Your child can breathe better at night with a few minor adjustments to his bedtime routine Set a regular consistent bedtime schedule and be sure that he gets 8 hours of sleep every day Turn off the television or electronic devices one hour before bedtime so he has time to unwind and relax without stimulating material Dimmed lights or soft music are also good ways to help your child relax and slow down before sleep Stay on top of his smoking and drinking habits; both have been shown to disrupt sleep patterns Finally make sure that your child has a comfortable mattress and pillow for poor posture during sleep contributes to obstructive sleep.

Why can't kids breathe through their nose?

Kids are full of energy and want to be on the go all the time Whether it's dancing, running or climbing stairs kids need to keep moving! But one area that might get left behind is a child's sense of smell Kids have such an active lifestyle that they don't even realize how much their nasal passages are being used – especially if they can't blow their nose due to allergies or a cold All those activities that children take part in daily like sports school and athletics can lead to breathing problems and congestion over time Children who can't breathe through their nose will benefit greatly from using a neti pot or saline.

Will sleeping on my side help sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a serious condition that affects the respiratory system and therefore oxygen levels during sleep Characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or shallow breaths throughout the night sleep apnea can cause significant disruptions to sleep quality If left untreated it can lead to serious health problems such as high blood pressure heart disease and stroke Several types of sleep disorders fall under the umbrella of sleep apnea including central sleep apnea (the most common type) obstructive sleep apnea and complex sleep-related breathing disorders Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) occurs when tissues block the airway while you are.

What foods cause sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which people stop breathing repeatedly while they sleep It usually occurs when a person has chronic nasal congestion or other structural problems with their airway In some cases it may also be triggered by medications alcohol use tobacco and obesity.

Complications Obstructive sleep apnea

Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea can have serious complications, including:

  • Failure to grow

  • Heart problems

  • Death

Diagnosis Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Once your child's medical man suspects apnea, he or she could advocate that your kid be seen by a sleep specialist. additionally to an entire case history and physical examination, a sleep specialist could conduct the subsequent tests to work out if your kid has sleep apnea:

Sleep history: A report of your child's nightly sleeping pattern.

Upper airway analysis: By instrument evaluation and/or by x-rays.

Sleep study (also known as a polysomnogram): This take a look at is sometimes conducted Associate in Nursing exceedingly|in a very} specialized bedchamber during a sleep laboratory with an adult caretaker (usually a parent) close. It measures your child's brain activity, heart rate, quantity of air flow through the mouth and nose, gas and CO2 content within the blood, muscle activity, chest and wall movement and sleep interruptions. A technician is a gift throughout to hassle shoot and replace sensors ought to the kid take them off. The sleep study doesn't hurt and doesn't involve needle sticks. Typically the same "mobile" side study is also suggested if your kid is incredibly sick and is within the hospital.

To diagnose medical specialty apnea, the doctor can review your child's symptoms and case history and conduct a physical communication. Your kid could have an associate degree examination of the neck, mouth and tongue, and adenoids. Your doctor would possibly order many tests to diagnose the condition.

Tests would possibly include:

  • Polysomnogram. Doctors appraise your child's condition through associate long sleep study. This takes a look at using sensors applied to the body to record brain wave activity, respiratory patterns, snoring, atomic number 8 levels, rate and muscle activity whereas your kid sleeps. 

  • Oximetry. If doctors powerfully suspect preventative apnea, and a full polysomnogram is not required or accessible, associate nightlong recording of chemical element levels may facilitate build the identification. Oximetry is often done at reception. However, it generally fails to allow the identification, within which case your kid can still ought to have a polysomnogram. 

  • Electrocardiogram. In associate degree ECG, detector patches with wires connected (electrodes) live the electrical impulses given off by your child's heart. Doctors could use this to take a look at to work out if your kid has an associate degree underlying heart disease. 

Treatment obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Your doctor will work with you to find the most appropriate treatment for your child's sleep apnea. Treatment might include:

  • Medications. Topical nasal steroids, like fluticasone (Dymista) and budesonide (Rhinocort, Pulmicort Flexhaler, others), would possibly ease apnea symptoms for a few youngsters with delicate preventive apnea. For youths with allergies, montelukast (Singulair) would possibly relieve symptoms once used alone, or with nasal steroids. 

  • Removal of the tonsils and adenoids. For moderate to severe apnea, your doctor may refer your kid to a medical specialty ear, nose and throat specialist to debate removing the tonsils and adenoids. AN adenotonsillectomy (ad-uh-no-ton-sil-EK-toh-me) may improve preventive apnea by closing the airway. different kinds of higher airway surgery may be suggested, supporting the child's condition. 

  • Positive airway pressure therapy. In continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP), tiny machines gently blow air through a tube and mask connected to your child's nose, or nose and mouth. The machine sends atmospheric pressure into the rear of your child's throat to stay your child's airway open. Doctors usually treat pediatric preventive sleep disorder with positive airway pressure medical care once medications or removal of adenoids and tonsils isn't effective. 

  • Oral appliances. Oral appliances, such as dental devices or mouthpieces, may be recommended. Some devices help to expand the palate and nasal passages, or move your child's bottom jaw and tongue forward to keep your child's upper airway open. Only some children benefit from such devices.

Lifestyle and home remedies

  • Avoid airway irritants and allergens. All youngsters, however particularly those with medical specialty preventive sleep disorder, ought to be unbroken far from exposure to tobacco smoke or alternative indoor allergens or pollutants, as they'll cause airway irritation and congestion. 

  • Weight loss. Doctors might suggest that your kid change state if he or she is corpulent. Your doctor will give you and your kid with diet and nutrition info, or refer your kid to different specialists like an expert in managing avoirdupois. 

Preparing for your appointment

You'll likely begin by seeing your child's medical aid supplier. Or, you may be referred straight off to associate ear, nose and throat specialist or a sleep medication specialist.

Here's some data to assist you make preparations for your appointment.

What you can do

Make a list of:

  • Your child's symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for your appointment

  • All medications, vitamins or other supplements your child takes, including the doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

For pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What tests are needed?

  • Is this condition likely temporary or chronic?

  • What's the best course of action?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • Should I take my child to a specialist?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • Does your child snore?

  • What else have you observed about your child's sleep?

  • Does your child have problems paying attention?

  • Does your child have learning difficulties?

  • Do you have a family history of obstructive sleep apnea?

General summary

  1. Unfortunately sleep apnea in childhood does not go away In fact the symptoms may get worse as children enter adolescence and adulthood It is important to have your child evaluated by a physician who will monitor his or her breathing at night during an overnight visit to the hospital or clinic The doctor can determine if your child has obstructive sleep apnea through this simple test If so he or she may prescribe continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for your child as a starting point for addressing the problem.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common treatable and serious sleep disorder that occurs when your child’s airway closes or becomes blocked during sleep This blockage causes the airway to be partially or completely blocked for short periods of time which results in loud snoring or gasping for breath When this happens repeatedly throughout the night it can cause excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) Untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with difficulty concentrating irritability and changes in behavior Left untreated it can negatively impact growth and development.

  3. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have breathing problems that can lead to daytime sleepiness and serious health problems If your child has symptoms he or she should be tested for sleep apnea by an ear nose and throat doctor During a sleep study the doctor will check your child's heart rate and blood oxygen levels during sleep You'll also get information on what treatments might help.

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