Placenta accreta : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is Placenta accreta?

Placenta accreta will occur throughout physiological condition once the placenta attaches too deeply into the wall of the female internal reproductive organ. This condition is assumed to be caused by scarring on the liner of the female internal reproductive organ. Girls United Nations agencies have had multiple cesarean sections, different placenta disorders or a history of neoplasm removal within the female internal reproductive organ are at higher risk of developing placenta accreta. This condition is serious.

What is Placenta accreta?
Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta could be a condition within which the placenta (the food supply for a baby within the female internal reproductive organ) grows too deeply into the wall of the uterus. in an exceedingly typical physiological condition, the placenta simply detaches from the wall of the female internal reproductive organ following delivery. In placenta accreta, the placenta has full-grown into the female internal reproductive organ wall and doesn't separate simply following delivery. In severe cases, this condition will result in excessive hemorrhage, which may be serious. It will need a transfusion and even ablation (removal of the uterus).

  1. Female Reproductive System

  • Internal reproductive organs

  1. Ovaries

  2. Fallopian tubes

  3. Uterus

  4. Cervix

  5. Placenta

  • External reproductive organs

  1. Vulva

  2. Clitoris

  3. Vagina

Medical terms

  • Placenta accreta could be a serious physiological state condition that happens once the placenta grows too deeply into the female internal reproductive organ wall.

  • Typically, the placenta detaches from the female internal reproductive organ wall when birthing. With placenta accreta, half or all of the placenta remains hooked up. This will cause severe blood loss when delivery.

  • It's also attainable for the placenta to invade the muscles of the female internal reproductive organ (placenta accreta) or grow through the female internal reproductive organ wall (placenta percreta).

  • Placenta accreta is taken into account as an unsound physiological state complication. If the condition is diagnosed throughout physiological state, you will likely want Associate in Nursing early cesarean section delivery followed by the surgical removal of your female internal reproductive organ (hysterectomy).

  • Placenta accreta is a rare condition in which the placenta sticks too deeply into the uterine wall, usually far from where it normally would, and this can cause serious bleeding after delivery and increase the risk of life-threatening complications for both mother and baby. It occurs as a result of previous surgery on the uterus (such as a cesarean section or hysterectomy), and women with placenta accreta are usually over 35 years old at birth; However it can occur in younger women

It is a serious complication that affects pregnant mothers. Or soon thereafter and it can be very difficult to stop because this type of pregnancy requires a high degree of monitoring Antenatal care may detect early stages of placenta accreta before it becomes a problem allowing doctors to take appropriate measures to avoid complications in the rare cases that is needed Postpartum surgery to remove small pieces of retained placental tissue.

Symptoms Placenta accreta

There are usually no signs or symptoms of placenta accreta throughout maternity. In some cases, though, bright red canal trauma while not pain throughout the trimester or a bit earlier may be a signal.

This type of trauma may additionally be a signal of pregnancy, that is once the placenta lies low within the female internal reproductive organ and covers all or a part of the cervix. Speak to your tending supplier directly if you notice any canal trauma throughout your maternity.

Placenta accreta usually causes no signs or symptoms throughout maternity — though canal trauma throughout the trimester may occur.

Occasionally, placenta accreta is detected throughout a routine ultrasound.

Causes Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta is assumed to be associated with abnormalities within the lining of the female internal reproductive organ, usually because of scarring when a cesarean delivery or alternative female internal reproductive organ surgery. Sometimes, however, placenta accreta happens while not a history of female internal reproductive organ surgery.

It's not clear what triggers placenta accreta. In some cases, it's thought to be associated with abnormalities within the lining of the female internal reproductive organ, that are usually because of scarring when a cesarean delivery or another female internal reproductive organ surgery. confine mind, this condition will happen notwithstanding you haven't had any quite female internal reproductive organ surgery before.

Risk factors Placenta accreta

Many factors can increase the risk of placenta accreta, including:

  • Previous uterine surgery. The risk of placenta accreta increases with the number of C-sections or other uterine surgeries you've had.

  • Placenta position. If the placenta part completely covers your cervix (placenta previa) or sits within the lower portion of your female internal reproductive organ, you are at inflated risk of placenta accreta. 

  • Maternal age. Placenta accreta is more common in women older than 35.

  • Previous childbirth. The risk of placenta accreta increases as your number of pregnancies increases.

What is the mortality rate for placenta accreta?

Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the placenta attaches to an area within the uterus that is not normally where it is located. Because of this, the blood vessels that transport oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus lack adequate blood circulation if left untreated, resulting in severe bleeding in the mother that can be fatal.

Is placenta accreta rare?

Placenta accreta is a condition that occurs when the placenta grows into the wall of the uterus rather than away from it, and this can cause complications for both the mother and the baby during childbirth putting the lives of both at risk. Bleeding and other symptoms mentioned in the question about placenta accreta are generally only seen in women. Women who have a history of previous pregnancy with this condition.

How does placenta accreta affect the baby?

How does placenta accreta affect the mother? Placenta accreta occurs when the attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall is abnormally deep. This condition can lead to an abnormal loss of blood flow which can lead to serious complications for both mother and baby during pregnancy or childbirth, according to . accreta is more prone to postpartum hemorrhage as the flow of large amounts of blood from the womb cannot be stopped after childbirth.

Does placenta accreta recur?

Up to 25% of all cases of placenta accreta are recurrent with patients who undergo a repeat cesarean section and hysterectomy.

Can you have an abortion with placenta accreta?

Yes If you are found to have placenta accreta you may terminate the pregnancy However if symptoms or complications arise after the abortion has been performed that indicate a new complication it is essential that you seek immediate medical attention The following are some examples of such complications: severe bleeding and/or pain with profuse vaginal bleeding fever accompanied by chills excessive cramping in your abdomen (in women who do not have an IUD) and red blood clots larger than two inches in diameter appearing in your urine or bowel movements.

How common is placenta accreta with placenta previa?

According to the American Pregnancy Association placenta previa occurs in between 1 out of 200 and 1 out of 400 pregnancies Placenta accreta is more rare with only an estimated incidence rate as low as one case per 500,000 births.

Complications Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta can cause:

  • Heavy vaginal bleeding. Placenta accreta poses a significant risk of severe epithelial duct hemorrhage (hemorrhage) once delivery. The hemorrhage will cause a serious condition that forestalls your blood from natural action unremarkably (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy), also as respiratory organ failure (adult metabolism distress syndrome) and nephropathy. An introduction can seemingly be necessary. 

  • Premature birth. Placenta accreta might cause labor to begin early. If placenta accreta causes bleeding during your pregnancy, you might need to deliver your baby early.

Diagnosis Placenta accreta

In the past, placenta accreta typically wasn't diagnosed till when the baby was delivered. In some cases, this could still happen, however it's currently most frequently diagnosed throughout physiological state with an associated ultrasound scan.

  1. Gynecological examination

This is excellent news, as a result of associate early identification means that your health care supplier will try to forestall or higher inure complications, like significant hemorrhage.

If you have got any of the chance factors, your health care supplier can additionally fastidiously expect placenta accreta. If the results of the ultrasound are not clear, you'll have resonance imaging (MRI) done.

If you're diagnosed with placenta accreta, your health care supplier can provide you with steerage concerning however you and your baby are unbroken safe throughout your physiological state and delivery.

  1. Pap smear

If you have got risk factors for placenta accreta throughout physiological state — like the placenta partly or completely covering the cervix (placenta previa) or a previous female internal reproductive organ surgery — your health care supplier can fastidiously examine the implantation of your baby's placenta.

Through associate ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, your health care supplier will judge however deeply the placenta is ingrained in your female internal reproductive organ wall.

Treatment Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta cannot be cured throughout pregnancy; but, the risks related to it are managed.

If placenta accreta is diagnosed early, treatment usually involves a planned abdominal delivery to deliver your baby, followed by an ablation. An ablation is once all or a part of the female internal reproductive organ is removed. In some cases, it should be doable to avoid having an ablation. Your aid supplier can discuss all of your choices with you.

Depending on what your aid supplier thinks is the safest, the abdominal delivery is also scheduled early, or it should not be performed till your gestation is term. In some cases, AN emergency abdominal delivery is also required if sudden problems arise.

Your aid supplier might supply or suggest AN prenatal diagnosis check. This check will facilitate your supplier confirm the simplest temporal order for the cesarean, because it will facilitate assessing whether or not your very little one's lungs square measure mature enough for birth.

In some cases, you will incline corticosteroids to hurry up the event of your baby's lungs and alternative organs. This helps defend your baby ought to your supplier suppose AN early cesarean is safest.

Before surgery

Your health care team can embody your accoucheur and gynecologist, subspecialists in girdle surgery, associate degree physiological state team, and a medicine team.

Your health care supplier can discuss the risks and potential complications related to placenta accreta. He or she additionally|may additionally |may also|may additionally} also discuss the chance of your:

  • Having a blood transfusion during or after delivery

  • Needing to be admitted to the intensive care unit after delivery if you have life-threatening bleeding

During surgery

During your cesarean delivery, your health care supplier can deliver your baby through an associate degree initial incision in your abdomen and a second incision in your female internal reproductive organ. During the delivery, a member of your health care team can take away your female internal reproductive organ — with the placenta still connected — to stop severe pain.

After an extirpation, you now will not become pregnant. If you had planned further pregnancies within the future, discuss attainable choices together with your health care supplier.

Rarely, the uterus and placenta might be kept intact, allowing the placenta to dissolve over time. However, this approach can have serious complications, including:

  • Severe vaginal bleeding

  • Infection

  • The need for a hysterectomy at a later date

In addition, limited research suggests that women who are able to avoid hysterectomy after having placenta accreta are at risk of complications, including recurrent placenta accreta, with later pregnancies.

Coping and support

If your health care provider suspects that you have placenta accreta, you'll likely worry about how your condition will affect your delivery, your baby and, possibly, future pregnancies.

To ease your anxiety:

  • Find out about placenta accreta. Gathering data concerning your condition would possibly assist you feel less anxious. ask your health care supplier, do some analysis and connect with girls who've had placenta accreta. 

  • Prepare for a C-section. Ask questions about the procedure, pain management and expectations for recovery.

  • Prepare for a hysterectomy. After the extirpation, you may now not have catamenial cycles or be able to get pregnant. raise your health care supplier regarding what to expect throughout your recovery, the length of recovery and the way the surgery would possibly have an effect on your recovery once an organic process. 

  • Take care of yourself. Set aside time for soothing activities that assist you relax, like reading or paying attention to music. Relaxation techniques, as well as meditation, deep respiratory or target-hunting imaging, might ease stress and manufacture a sense of calm. 

Preparing for your appointment

If you have got epithelial duct injury throughout your trimester, contact your health care supplier quickly. If the injury is severe, look for emergency care.

Often, placenta accreta is suspected once associated with ultrasound early in physiological state. you'll find out about the condition and develop an inspiration to manage it at a follow-up visit.

What you can do

Before your appointment, you might want to:

  • Ask about pre-appointment precautions, such as activities you should avoid and symptoms that should prompt you to seek urgent care.

  • Ask a family member or friend to join you to help you remember the information you're given.

  • Write down questions to ask your healthcare provider.

Some questions to ask your health care provider about placenta accreta include:

  • What's causing the bleeding?

  • What treatment approach do you recommend?

  • What care will I need during my pregnancy?

  • What signs or symptoms should cause me to call you?

  • What signs or symptoms should cause me to go to the hospital?

  • Will I be able to deliver vaginally?

  • Does this condition increase the risk of complications during future pregnancies?

  • Will I need a hysterectomy after the baby is delivered?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions as they occur to you during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • When did you notice vaginal bleeding?

  • Did you bleed only once, or has the bleeding been off and on?

  • How heavy is the bleeding?

  • Is the bleeding accompanied by pain or contractions?

  • Have you had previous pregnancies?

  • Have you had uterine surgeries?

  • How long would it take to get to the hospital in an emergency, including time to arrange child care and transportation?

General summary

  1. Placenta accreta occurs when the placenta grows into the uterine wall after it attaches to the uterus during pregnancy. For some women with this condition, surgery is required to remove the placenta because if it is not removed, parts of it will die and cause infection and bleeding. If you have placenta accreta, your doctor may prescribe blood thinners or steroids to help prevent bleeding complications, and you may also need a dilation and curettage (D&C).

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