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Retinal detachment : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Retinal detachment?

Retinal detachment, or a vision defect, may be a serious condition. The retina, the layer of tissue within the back of the attention, pulls far from tissues supporting it. sharp changes, as well as eye floaters and flashes and darkening facet vision, are signs this could be happening. A vision defect wants treatment as presently as doable.

Retinal detachment, or a vision defect, may be a serious condition that affects your vision and may result in sightlessness if not treated. It happens to a layer of tissue known as the membrane that lines the rear of the attention. It involves the membrane pulling far from tissues supporting it. Symptoms embrace flashes of sunshine, floaters or seeing a shadow in your vision. Floaters are dark spots and squiggles in your vision.

You may expertise warning signs like these before the membrane detaches, as within the case of retinal tears. detachment of the retina usually happens ad libitum, or suddenly. The danger factors embrace age, ametropia, history of eye surgeries or trauma, and case history of retinal detachments.

Call your eye care supplier or move to the ER quickly if you're thinking that you've got a vision defect.

The membrane senses lightweight and sends signals to the brain thus we will see. once the membrane detaches, it can’t do its job. Your vision would possibly become bleary. And you may lose vision for good if the detachment isn’t repaired. obtaining prompt treatment will save your visual modality.

What is Retinal detachment

Explanation of medical terms and concepts Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment describes AN emergency state of affairs during which a skinny layer of tissue (the retina) at the rear of the attention pulls off from its traditional position.

Retinal detachment separates the retinal cells from the layer of blood vessels that has O and nourishment. The longer visual defect goes untreated, the bigger your risk of permanent vision loss within the affected eye.

Warning signs of visual defect might embrace one or all of the following: the unexpected look of floaters and flashes and reduced vision. Contacting an eye fixed specialist (ophthalmologist) quickly will facilitate saving your vision.

People who have retinal detachment usually complain of a sudden onset of floaters flashes or streaks in the vision Flashes may look like lightning or sparkles and are often described as seeing images from a camera flashbulb Floaters are spots that seem to drift through the field of vision similar to how debris would float around in water These symptoms indicate that there is a tear in the retina which can cause loss of vision if left untreated

surgery If you have a retinal detachment it is important to see an ophthalmologist right away When the retina detaches vision can become blurry or dim If the detachment becomes worse permanent loss of part of your vision may result The type and severity of treatment will be based on how much damage has occurred and what caused the retinal tear in the first place Common treatments for retinal tears include laser surgery (such as photocoagulation) cryopexy (freezing) pneumatic retinopexy (gas) and vitrectomy (retina removal) Severe cases may require.

Symptoms Retinal detachment

Some folks don’t notice any symptoms of visual defect, whereas others do. It depends on severity — if a bigger part of the membrane detaches, you’re likely to experience symptoms.

Retinal detachment itself is painless. But warning signs almost always appear before it occurs or has advanced, such as:

  • The sudden appearance of many floaters — tiny specks that seem to drift through your field of vision

  • Flashes of light in one or both eyes (photopsia)

  • Blurred vision

  • Gradually reduced side (peripheral) vision

  • A curtain-like shadow over your visual field

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical attention if you're experiencing the signs or symptoms of visual defects. a visual defect may be a medical emergency within which you'll for good lose your vision. 

Causes Retinal detachment

Rhegmatogenous: the foremost common reason for detachment of the {retina|detached retina|visual impairment|visual defect|vision defect|visual disorder} happens once there’s a tiny low tear in your retina. Eye fluid known as vitreous will travel through the tear and collect behind the tissue layer. It then pushes the tissue layer away, detaching it from the rear of your eye. This sort of detachment typically happens as you develop. because the vitreous shrinks and thins with age, it pulls on the tissue layer, tearing it.

There are three different types of retinal detachment:

  • Rhegmatogenous (reg-ma-TODGE-uh-nus). These styles of retinal detachments are the foremost common unit. Rhegmatogenous detachments are a unit caused by a hole or tear within the membrane that permits fluid to undergo and collect beneath the membrane, pulling the membrane faraway from underlying tissues. The areas wherever the membrane detaches lose their blood and pack up, inflicting you to lose vision.
    The most common explanation for rhegmatogenous detachment is aging. As you age, the gel-like material that fills the within of your eye, referred to as the vitreous (VIT-ree-us), might modify in consistency and shrink or become additional liquid. Normally, the vitreous separates from the surface of the membrane with none complications — a standard condition known as posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). One complication of this separation may be a tear.
    As the vitreous separates or peels off the membrane, it's going to tug on the membrane with enough force to make a retinal tear. Left untreated, the liquid vitreous will undergo the lay into the house behind the membrane, causing the membrane to become detached. 

  • Tractional. This type of detachment can occur when scar tissue grows on the retina's surface, causing the retina to pull away from the back of the eye. Tractional detachment is typically seen in people who have poorly controlled diabetes or other conditions.

  • Exudative. In this variety of detachment, fluid accumulates at a lower place in the membrane, however there are not any holes or tears within the membrane. Exudative detachment will be caused by age-related devolution, injury to the attention, tumors or inflammatory disorders. 

Risk factors Retinal detachment

The following factors increase your risk of retinal detachment:

  • Aging — retinal detachment is more common in people over age 50

  • Previous retinal detachment in one eye

  • Family history of retinal detachment

  • Extreme nearsightedness (myopia)

  • Previous eye surgery, such as cataract removal

  • Previous severe eye injury

  • Previous other eye disease or disorder, including retinoschisis, uveitis or thinning of the peripheral retina (lattice degeneration)

Diagnosis Retinal detachment

You need a watch to diagnose visual impairment. Your eye care supplier can use an expanded eye communicating to examine your membrane. They’ll place eye drops in your eyes. The drops dilate, or widen, the pupil. Once many minutes, your supplier will get an in-depth look at the membrane.

Your supplier could advocate different tests once the expanded eye communicates. These tests square measure noninvasive and won’t hurt. they assist your supplier see your membrane clearly and in additional detail:

Optical coherence pictorial representation (OCT): You get dilating eye drops for this imaging. Then you sit in front of the October machine. You rest your head on a support, thus it stays still. The machine scans your eye however it doesn't bite it.

Eye (ocular) ultrasound: You wouldn't like dilating drops for this scan, however your supplier could use drops to numb your eyes thus you won’t feel any discomfort. You sit in an exceedingly chair and rest your head on a support, thus it stays still. Your supplier gently places AN instrument against the front of your eye to scan it. Next, you sit along with your eyes closed. Your supplier puts gel on your eyelids. Along with your eyes closed, you progress your eyeballs as your doctor scans them with a constant instrument.

Your doctor may use the following tests, instruments and procedures to diagnose retinal detachment:

  • Retinal examination. The doctor could use an Associate in Nursing instrument with a bright light-weight and special lenses to look at the rear of your eye, as well as the tissue layer. This sort of device provides an extremely elaborated read of your whole eye, permitting the doctor to check any retinal holes, tears or detachments. 

  • Ultrasound imaging. Your doctor might use this check if injury has occurred within the eye, creating it troublesome to envision your membrane.
    Your doctor can doubtless examine each eye albeit you've got symptoms in exactly one. If a tear isn't known at this visit, your doctor might ask you to come back inside some weeks to verify that your eye has not developed a delayed tear as a result of constant vitreous separation. Also, if you experience new symptoms, it is important to come back to your doctor quickly. 

Treatment Retinal detachment

Surgery is nearly continually wont to repair a retinal tear, hole or detachment. numerous techniques square measure out there. raise your eye doctor regarding the risks and edges of your treatment choices. along you'll be able to verify what procedure or combination of procedures is best for you.

Laser (thermal) medical care or cryopexy (freezing). Sometimes, your supplier can diagnose a membrane tear before the retina starts propulsion away. Your supplier uses a medical optical maser or a phase transition tool to seal the tear. These devices produce a scar that holds the membrane in situ.

Pneumatic retinopexy. Your supplier might suggest this approach if the detachment isn’t as in depth.

Retinal tears

When a retinal tear or hole hasn't nonetheless progressed to detachment, your eye sawbones might recommend one in all the subsequent procedures to stop detached retina and preserve vision.

  • Laser surgery (photocoagulation). The operating surgeon directs a shaft into the attention through the pupil. The optical maser burns round the retinal tear, causing scarring that sometimes "welds" the tissue layer to underlying tissue. 

  • Freezing (cryopexy). After providing you with an area anesthetic to numb your eye, the sawbones apply a phase transition probe to the outer surface of the attention directly over the tear. The phase transition causes a scar that helps secure the membrane to the attention wall.
    Both of those procedures are done on an Associate in Nursing patient basis. During your procedure, you will probably be suggested to avoid activities which may jar the eyes — like running — for some weeks approximately. 

Retinal detachment

If your tissue layer has detached, you will need surgery to repair it, ideally inside days of a designation. The sort of surgery your doctor recommends can rely on many factors, together with how severe the detachment is.

  • Injecting air or gas into your eye. In this procedure, known as gas retinopexy (RET-ih-no-pek-see), the medico injects a bubble of air or gas into the middle a part of the attention (the vitreous cavity). If positioned properly, the bubble pushes the world of the membrane containing the opening or holes against the wall of the attention, stopping the flow of fluid into the area behind the membrane. Your doctor additionally uses cryopexy throughout the procedure to repair the retinal break.
    Fluid that has collected below the membrane is absorbed by itself, and therefore the membrane will then adhere to the wall of your eye. you will have to be compelled to hold your head during a sure position for up to many days to stay in the bubble within the correct position. The bubble eventually can resorb on its own. 

  • Indenting the surface of your eye. This procedure, referred to as scleral (SKLAIR-ul) buckling, involves the sawbones stitching (suturing) a bit of silicone polymer material to the white of your eye (sclera) over the affected space. This procedure indents the wall of the attention and relieves a number of the force caused by the vitreous tugging on the membrane.
    If you have got many tears or holes or an intensive detachment, your sawbones could produce a scleral buckle that encircles your entire eye, sort of like a belt. The buckle is placed during a manner that does not block your vision, and it always remains in situ for good. 

  • Draining and replacing the fluid in the eye. In this procedure, known as vitrectomy (vih-TREK-tuh-me), the physician removes the vitreous beside any tissue that's tugging on the tissue layer. Air, gas or polymer oil is then injected into the vitreous area to assist flatten the tissue layer.
    Eventually the air, gas or liquid are absorbed, and also the vitreous area can refill with humor. If polymer oil was used, it should be surgically removed months later.
    Vitrectomy could also be combined with a scleral buckling procedure.
    After surgery your vision could take many months to boost. you'll like a second surgery for prospering treatment. Some folks ne'er recover all of their lost vision. 

Coping and support

Retinal detachment could cause you to lose vision. reckoning on your degree of vision loss, your life-style would possibly modify considerably.

You may notice the subsequent ideas helpful as you learn to measure with impaired vision:

  • Get glasses. Optimize the vision you have got with glasses that are specifically tailored for your eyes. Request safety lenses to guard your better-seeing eye. 

  • Brighten your home. Have proper light in your home for reading and other activities.

  • Make your home safer. Eliminate throw rugs and place colored tape on the edges of steps. Consider installing motion-activated lights.

  • Enlist the help of others. Tell friends and family members about your vision problems so they can help you.

  • Get help from technology. Digital talking books and visual display unit readers will facilitate reading, and different new technology continues to advance. 

  • Check into transportation. Investigate vans and shuttles, volunteer driving networks, or ride shares available in your area for people with impaired vision.

  • Talk to others with impaired vision. Take advantage of online networks, support groups and resources for people with impaired vision.

Preparing for your appointment

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, ask if you need to do anything in advance.

  • List any symptoms you're experiencing, including those that seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • List key personal information, including major stresses and recent life changes.

  • List all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking, including doses.

  • Ask a family member or friend to come with you. You may want to raise somebody. The World Health Organization may drive you home if your eyes are expanded as a section of your test. Or this person may write down data from your doctor or alternative clinic workers throughout the appointment. 

  • List questions to ask your doctor.

For retinal detachment, some basic questions include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What are other possible causes of my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need? Do they require any special preparation?

  • Is my condition likely temporary or ongoing?

  • What are my treatment options, and which do you recommend?

  • What are the alternatives to the first approach that you're suggesting?

  • I have another medical condition. How can I best manage them together?

  • Do I need to restrict my activities in any way?

  • Do I need to see another specialist?

  • Do you have any brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

  • If I need surgery, how long will recovery take?

  • Will I be able to travel after surgery? Will it be safe to travel by plane?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did you first start having symptoms?

  • Do you have your symptoms all the time, or do they come and go?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Have you had any symptoms in your other eye?

  • Have you ever had an eye injury?

  • Have you ever experienced eye inflammation?

  • Have you ever had eye surgery?

  • Do you have any other medical conditions, such as diabetes?

  • Have any of your family members ever had a retinal detachment?

General summary

The treatment for retinal detachment depends on the type of detachment as well as its severity According to the Mayo Clinic most detached retinas are treated with surgery known as a vitrectomy During this procedure doctors remove the vitreous gel from your eye and replace it with sterile fluid If you have a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment which is caused by trauma or injury to your retina surgery may be delayed until ocular swelling goes down because at that point in time there is a higher risk of damaging healthy tissue while working inside your eye

Retinal detachment is always a concern for people who have had eye injuries such as blunt trauma or penetrating wounds The most common symptom of retinal detachment is sudden sharp pain in one eye Sometimes there are no symptoms and the condition is discovered during an eye exam Since many patients do not experience pain immediately after the retina separates from its anchor point they may ignore it until they see flashing lights or lose vision in that area Retinal detachments can be difficult to repair so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you notice flashes or loss of vision in one of your eyes

How is retinal detachment treated without surgery?

In the early stages of a retinal detachment symptoms like floaters and flashes of light may go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else It can take weeks or months to notice that vision has gotten worse over time The longer you wait to seek treatment the more damage is caused to your retina and the harder it is to fix If you have new onset floaters and flashes of light but no loss of vision yet there are several steps you can take at home to help slow down the progression of this disorder before seeing a doctor

How quickly should a detached retina be treated?

A detached retina is a serious medical condition that must be treated as soon as possible to protect vision in the affected eye If you have ever had a detached retina your doctor will regularly monitor it with dilated exams using an ophthalmoscope and special lenses

How do I know if my retina has detached?

If you experience sudden onset of floaters or flashes of light in your peripheral vision consult your eye doctor immediately Floaters and flashes are symptoms that can alert you to the possibility of retinal detachment In more than 90 percent of cases a detached retina is due to a previous injury sustained by damaging the vitreous gel inside the eye; however people with Marfan syndrome (a genetic disorder) are at higher risk for developing a retinal detachment because the cells that make up their retina are inherently weak

What are the warning signs of a detached retina?

Symptoms of a detached retina include pain flashing and/or seeing spots in the vision (photopsia) sudden decrease or loss of vision and many cases have no symptoms at all A person with a detached retina may also describe halos around lights difficulty driving at night decreased peripheral vision and floaters

How long can you wait to have surgery for a detached retina?

If you have a detached retina the longer you wait to have surgery the greater your chance of losing vision in that eye Retina specialists recommend having surgery within 10 days of noticing any symptoms associated with a retinal detachment If you think you’re waiting too long to make an appointment with an ophthalmologist talk to your primary care doctor or call 911 right away; after 24 hours more than half of all detrimental effects can occur

Can stress cause retinal detachment?

The eyes are the windows to our soul and they can also reveal a lot of information about our overall health With its tiny blood vessels the retina is surrounded by delicate optic nerves that pass through the eye area This can make it susceptible to stress-related conditions like retinal detachment Researchers have long known that stress can put people at risk for coronary heart disease but this is one of the first studies to show how anxiety could also affect vision In addition patients suffering from anxiety disorder were two times more likely to develop retinal detachment than those who did not suffer from such disorder

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Retinal detachment : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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