Tuberculosis : Causes - Symptoms- Diagnosis -Treatment

 What is Tuberculosis (TB)?

Tuberculosis (TB) may be an illness caused by germs that square measure unfold from person to person through the air. TB typically affects the lungs, however it can even have an effect on alternative components of the body, like the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. Someone with TB will die if they do not get treatment.

What is Tuberculosis (TB)?

Tuberculosis or TB is a contagious bacterial infection that can affect the lungs the brain and other parts of the body There is no cure for TB; however detection early on is key to successfully treating this disease In addition to taking prescribed medications patients must keep their immune system healthy with regular exercise and a balanced diet If you're concerned that you've been exposed to TB and aren't sure where to go from here contact your physician's office immediately so you can begin treatment as soon as possible

  1. Respiratory system

  1. Nasal cavity

  2. Pharynx

  3. Larynx

  4. Trachea

  5. Bronchioles and smaller air passages

  6. Lungs

  7. Muscles of breathing

Medical terms

  • Tuberculosis (TB) could be a probably serious communicable disease that chiefly affects the lungs. The bacteria that cause TB area units unfold from person to person through small droplets free into the air via coughs and sneezes.

  • Once rare in developed countries, TB infections began increasing in 1985, partially attributable to the emergence of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV weakens a personality's system, thus it cannot fight the TB germs. Within the US, attributable to stronger management programs, TB began to decrease once more in 1993. however it remains a priority.

  • Many sickness} strains resist the medicine most accustomed to treat the disease. individuals with active TB should take many varieties of medicines for months to induce obviate the infection and forestall antibiotic resistance.

  • Tuberculosis (TB), once known as consumption, could be an extremely communicable disease that primarily affects the lungs.

What is the first stage of tuberculosis?

First Stage Symptoms of Tuberculosis: Early symptoms of tuberculosis disease include a gradually increasing cough that lasts three or more weeks fatigue fever and night sweats (a combination of daytime and nighttime symptoms) While these may be the only signs for several months eventually the patient will begin to feel pain in the chest caused by coughing The patient also experiences shortness of breath during exercise.

What is the Difference Between Latent TB Infection and TB Disease?

People with latent TB infection have TB germs in their bodies, however they're not sick as a result of the germs not being active. These folks don't have symptoms of TB malady, and that they cannot unfold the germs to others. However, they'll develop TB malady within the future. they're typically prescribed treatment to stop them from developing TB malady.

People with TB malady square measure sick from TB germs that square measure active, which means that they're multiplying and destroying tissue in their body. They sometimes have symptoms of TB malady. folks with TB malady of the lungs or throat square measure capable of spreading germs to others. they're prescription drugs which will treat TB malady.

Symptoms Tuberculosis (TB)

The general symptoms of TB malady embody feelings of illness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. The symptoms of TB malady of the lungs conjointly embody coughing, chest pain, and also the forcing out of blood. Symptoms of TB malady in alternative elements of the body rely on the realm affected.

Although your body will harbor the microorganism that causes infectious disease, your system typically will forestall you from changing into sickness. For this reason, doctors build a distinction between:

  • Latent TB. You have a TB infection, however the microorganism in your body square measure inactive and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, additionally known as inactive TB or TB infection, is not contagious. Latent TB will grow to be active TB, therefore treatment is vital. 

  • Active TB. Also called TB disease, this condition makes you sick and, in most cases, can spread to others. It can occur weeks or years after infection with the TB bacteria.

Signs and symptoms of active TB include:

  • Coughing for three or more weeks

  • Coughing up blood or mucus

  • Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing

  • Unintentional weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Fever

  • Night sweats

  • Chills

  • Loss of appetite

Tuberculosis can even have an effect on alternative components of your body, together with the kidneys, spine or brain. Once TB happens outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary per the organs concerned. For instance, T.B. of the spine would possibly cause back pain, and T.B. in your kidneys would possibly cause blood in your water.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you've got a fever, unexplained weight loss, sousing night sweats or a persistent cough. These area units typically indicate TB however can even result from different conditions. Also, see your doctor if you're thinking that you have been exposed to TB.

The Centers for illness management ANd hindrance recommends that folks UN agencies have an augmented risk of infectious disease be screened for latent TB infection. This recommendation includes individuals who:

  • Have HIV/AIDS

  • Use IV drugs

  • Are in contact with infected people

  • Are from a country where TB is common, such as several countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia

  • Live or work in areas where TB is common, such as prisons or nursing homes

  • Work in health care and treat people with a high risk of TB

  • Are children who are exposed to adults at risk of TB

Causes Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that unfold from person to person through microscopic droplets discharged into the air. This will happen once somebody with the untreated, active sort of TB coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.

Although TB is contagious, it is not simple to catch. you are rather more likely to induce TB from somebody you reside or work with than from an intruder. The majority with active TB who've had acceptable drug treatment for a minimum of fortnight aren't any longer contagious.

A microorganism referred to as Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes TB. a range of TB strains exist, and a few of those became proof against medication.

TB bacterium area unit transmitted through infected droplets within the air. Once these droplets enter the air, anyone close will inhale them. somebody with TB will transmit bacterium by:

  • sneezing

  • coughing

  • speaking

  • singing

HIV and TB

Since the Eighties, T.B. cases have hyperbolic dramatically attributable to the unfolding of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV suppresses the system, making it tough for the body to manage TB microorganisms. As a result, individuals with HIV square measure way more possible to induce TB and to progress from latent to active illness than square measure people that are not HIV positive.

Drug-resistant TB

Tuberculosis additionally remains a significant killer owing to the rise in drug-resistant strains. Over time, some TB germs have developed the power to survive despite medications. This is often part of the result of folks not taking their medication as directed or not completing the course of treatment.

Drug-resistant strains of TB emerge once the Associate in Nursing antibiotic fails to kill all of the microorganisms it targets. The extant microorganisms become immune to that drug and sometimes different antibiotics additionally. Some TB microorganisms have developed resistance to the foremost normally used treatments, like INH and bactericide (Rifadin, Rimactane).

Some TB strains have additionally developed resistance to medication less normally utilized in TB treatment, like the antibiotics referred to as fluoroquinolones, and injectable medications as well as amikacin and capreomycin (Capastat). These medications square measure typically accustomed to treat infections that square measure immune to the additional normally used medication.

Risk factors Tuberculosis (TB)

Anyone can get tuberculosis, but certain factors can increase your risk, including:

Weakened immune system

A healthy immune system often successfully fights TB bacteria. However, several conditions and medications can weaken your immune system, including:


  • Diabetes

  • Severe kidney disease

  • Certain cancers

  • Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy

  • Drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs

  • Some drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis

  • Malnutrition or low body weight

  • Very young or advanced age

Traveling or living in certain areas

Your risk of getting tuberculosis is higher if you live in, emigrate from or travel to areas with high tuberculosis rates. Areas include:

  • Africa

  • Asia

  • Eastern Europe

  • Russia

  • Latin America

Other factors

  • Using substances. IV drugs or excessive alcohol use weakens your immune system and makes you more vulnerable to tuberculosis.

  • Using tobacco. Tobacco use greatly increases the risk of getting TB and dying of it.

  • Working in health care. Regular contact with people that square measure unwell will increase your possibilities of exposure to TB bacterium. sporting a mask and frequent hand-washing greatly scale back your risk. 

  • Living or working in a residential care facility. People who live or add prisons, homeless shelters, psychiatric hospitals or nursing homes square measure all at a better risk of T.B. thanks to overcrowding and poor ventilation. 

  • Living with someone infected with TB. Close contact with someone who has TB increases your risk.

Complications Tuberculosis

Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal. Untreated active disease typically affects your lungs, but it can affect other parts of your body, as well.

Tuberculosis complications include:

  • Spinal pain. Back pain and stiffness are common complications of tuberculosis.

  • Joint damage. Arthritis that results from tuberculosis (tuberculous arthritis) usually affects the hips and knees.

  • Swelling of the membranes that cover your brain (meningitis). This can cause a lasting or intermittent headache that occurs for weeks and possible mental changes.

  • Liver or kidney problems. Your liver and kidneys facilitate filter waste and impurities from your blood. TB in these organs will impair their functions. 

  • Heart disorders. Rarely, infectious disease will infect the tissues that surround your heart, inflicting inflammation and fluid collections which may interfere along with your heart's ability to pump effectively. This condition, known as tamponade, is fatal. 

How long is TB recovery?

The rate of recovery from TB is influenced by the strain and the immune status of the individual Recovery is slow taking several weeks to months to complete but most people are completely cured within six months The average duration of TB infection in adults is approximately 18-24 months during which time infected individuals can spread the disease to others However in some situations a person with latent TB can become active again if they develop another illness or an injury that weakens their immune system.

What food can cure tuberculosis?

The positive effects of Eggs in the treatment of Tuberculosis are most evident A number of studies have been conducted which showed that this food can help treat the disease It also has shown to be effective in other conditions as well such as: Eggs contain a large amount of Choline which is an essential nutrient for pregnant women and helps them maintain their heart health This nutrient is known for its ability to improve sensory and brain functions According to a study done by American Journal of Epidemiology egg consumption by pregnant women was linked with improved literacy rate among children aged 5-10 years Another study found out.

What vitamin is good for TB patients?

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in the body's production of collagen (a protein needed for connective tissue) and in strengthening the immune system It works both inside and outside cells to fight free radicals harmful substances that can damage important molecules such as DNA Vitamin C also helps wounds heal quickly by promoting the formation of new tissue.

Is milk good for tuberculosis?

When it comes to treating TB there are several important factors to consider. Patients should discuss their specific treatment plan with his or her doctor.

Prevention Tuberculosis

If you test positive for latent TB infection, your doctor might advise you to take medications to reduce your risk of developing active tuberculosis. Only active TB is contagious.

Protect your family and friends

If you've got active TB, it typically takes a number of weeks of treatment with TB medications before you are not contagious any longer. Follow the following pointers to assist keep your friends and family from obtaining sick:

  • Stay home. Don't go to work or school or sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of treatment.

  • Ventilate the room. Tuberculosis germs unfold a lot simply in tiny closed areas wherever air does not move. If it isn't too cold outdoors, open the windows and use a devotee to blow indoor air outside. 

  • Cover your mouth. Use a tissue to cover your mouth anytime you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put the dirty tissue in a bag, seal it and throw it away.

  • Wear a face mask. Wearing a face mask when you're around other people during the first three weeks of treatment may help lessen the risk of transmission.

Finish your medication

This is the foremost vital step you'll take to defend yourself et al from infectious disease. Once you stop treatment early or skip doses, TB bacteria have an opportunity to develop mutations that permit them to survive the foremost potent TB medicine. The ensuing drug-resistant strains are unit deadlier and harder to treat.


In countries where T.B. is common, infants are usually immunized with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunogen. The BCG immunogen is not suggested for general use within the U.S. As a result, it's not terribly effective in adults. Dozens of recent TB vaccines are unit in varied stages of development and testing.

Diagnosis Tuberculosis (TB)

During the physical test, your doctor can check your humor nodes for swelling and use a medical instrument to pay attention to the sounds your lungs build once you breathe.

The most normally used diagnostic tool for infectious disease may be a diagnostic test, though blood tests have become a lot more commonplace. attiny low quantity of a substance referred to as liquid is injected just under the skin on the within of your forearm. you ought to feel solely a small needle prick.

Within forty eight to seventy two hours, a health care specialist can check your arm for swelling at the injection website. A hard, raised red bump suggests that you are seemingly to own a TB infection. The dimensions of the bump determine whether or not the check results are unit vital.

Results can be wrong

The TB diagnostic test is not excellent. Sometimes, it suggests that folks have TB after they do not. It may indicate that folks do not have TB after they do.

You can have a false-positive result if you have been immunized recently with the bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunizing agent. This infectious disease immunizing agent is rarely utilized in the US however is widely utilized in countries with high TB infection rates.

False-negative results can also occur.

Blood tests

Blood tests will ensure or rule out latent or active T.B.. These tests live your immune system's reaction to TB microorganism.

These tests need just one workplace visit. A biopsy could be helpful if you are at high risk of TB infection however have a negative response to the diagnostic assay, or if you've recently received the BCG immunizing agent.

  1. Immunologic blood test

Imaging tests

If you've had a positive diagnostic assay, your doctor is probably going to order a chest X-ray or a CT scan. This may show white spots in your lungs wherever your system has walled off TB microorganism, or it could reveal changes in your lungs caused by active infectious disease.

Sputum tests

If your chest X-ray shows signs of infectious disease, your doctor may take samples of your body fluid — the secretion that comes up once you cough. The sample square measure tested for TB bacterium.

  1. Bronchoscopy

Sputum samples may be wont to check for drug-resistant strains of TB. This helps your doctor opt for the medications that square measure possibly to figure. obtaining results of those tests will take four to eight weeks.

Treatment Tuberculosis (TB)

TB illness may be treated by taking many medicines for six to twelve months. It's vital that folks at the United Nations agency who have TB illness end the drugs, and take the medicine precisely as prescribed. If they stop taking the medicine early on, they will become sick again; if they are not taking the medicine properly, the germs that are still alive could become proof against those medicines. TB that's proof against medicine is tougher and costlier to treat. In some things, employees of the native health department meet often with patients United Nations agency have TB to observe them take their medications. This can be known as directly determined medical care (DOT). DOT helps the patient complete treatment within the slimmest of your time.

If you've got latent TB, your doctor may advocate treatment with medication if you are at high risk of developing active TB. For active T.B., you need to take antibiotics for a minimum of six to 9 months.

The exact medicine and length of treatment depend upon your age, overall health, potential drug resistance and wherever the infection is in your body.

Most common TB drugs

If you've got a latent infectious disease, you would possibly have to take just one or 2 forms of TB medicine. Active infectious disease, significantly if it is a drug-resistant strain, would force many medicines quickly. the foremost common medications accustomed treat infectious disease include:

  • Isoniazid

  • Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)

  • Ethambutol (Myambutol)

  • Pyrazinamide

If you've got drug-resistant TB, a mixture of antibiotics referred to as fluoroquinolones and injectable medications, like amikacin or capreomycin (Capastat), are usually used for twenty to thirty months. Some styles of TB are developing resistance to those medications additionally.

Some medication can be added to medical aid to counter drug resistance, including:

  • Bedaquiline (Sirturo)

  • Linezolid (Zyvox)

Medication side effects

Serious side effects of TB drugs aren't common but can be dangerous when they do occur. All tuberculosis medications can be toxic to your liver. When taking these medications, call your doctor immediately if you have any of the following:

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Loss of appetite

  • A yellow color to your skin (jaundice)

  • Dark urine

  • Easy bruising or bleeding

  • Blurred vision

Completing treatment is essential

After many weeks, you will not be contagious and you may begin to feel higher. do not stop taking your TB medicine — you need to end the total course of medical aid and take the medications precisely as prescribed by your doctor.

Stopping treatment early on or skipping doses will permit the microorganism that is still alive to become immune to those medicines, resulting in TB that's way more dangerous and troublesome to treat.

A program referred to as directly ascertained medical aid (DOT) will facilitate folks keep on with their treatment programme. A health care employee provides you your medication in order that you do not need to keep in mind to require it on your own. 

Coping and support

Your physical health will have an effect on your psychological state. Denial, anger and frustration are traditional after you should influence one thing as difficult as TB. rebuke somebody like a healer would possibly assist you develop brick methods.

Preparing for your appointment

If you believe you have got an infectious disease, contact your medical aid doctor. you may be brought up as a doctor United Nations agency focuses on infectious diseases of respiratory organ diseases (pulmonologist).

What you can do

When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do in advance.

Make a list of:

  • Your symptoms, including any that will appear unrelated to the explanation that you regular the appointment, and after they began 

  • Key personal information, including recent life changes or international travel

  • All medications, vitamins or supplements you take, including doses

  • Questions to ask your doctor

For tuberculosis, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Do I need tests?

  • What treatments are available? Which do you recommend?

  • What if the treatment doesn't work?

  • How long do I have to stay on the treatment?

  • How often do I need to follow up with you?

  • I have other health problems. How can I best manage these conditions together?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you some questions, such as:

  • Does anyone you know have active tuberculosis?

  • Do you have HIV or AIDS?

  • Were you born in another country, or have you traveled in another country?

  • Have you ever lived with someone who had tuberculosis?

  • Were you vaccinated against tuberculosis as an infant?

  • Have you ever had tuberculosis or a positive skin test?

  • Have you ever taken medicine for TB? If so, what kind and for how long?

  • What kind of work do you do?

  • Do you use alcohol or illicit drugs?

General summary

  1. Yes Almost all cases of TB can be cured with a short course of safe and effective drugs However the length of treatment depends on how long you have been infected with TB bacteria or the extent to which your infection has advanced with recommendations for treatment varying from six months to two years For latent TB (an inactive form) requiring preventive therapy before it causes illness cure is possible even if treatment isn't started until active disease develops in someone who was infected earlier in life; however this may require more than one year of continuous treatment To prevent TB from becoming an issue again many countries now provide preventive therapy for groups at.

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