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Broken leg : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Broken leg?

A broken leg (leg fracture) may be a break or crack in one amongst the bones in your leg. Common causes embody falls, motorcar accidents and sports injuries.

Treatment of a broken leg depends on the situation and severity of the injury. A severely broken leg might need surgery to implant devices into the broken bone to keep up correct alignment throughout healing. alternative injuries are also treated with a solid or splint. In all cases, prompt diagnosing and treatment of a broken leg is crucial to complete healing.

A broken leg is once you break one of the bones in your leg. It will happen in a lot of ways, like falling or going in an automotive accident.

Your leg has four bones (the femur, the patella, the tibia, and also the fibula). If there’s an accident, any of those bones might break (fracture) into 2 or additional pieces.

 

What is Broken leg

 

 

Explanation of medical terms and concept Broken leg

A broken leg (leg fracture)is a break or crack in one among the bones in your leg. Common causes embody falls, motorized vehicle accidents and sports injuries. Treatment of a broken leg depends on the placement and severity of the injury. A severely broken leg could need surgery to implant devices into the broken bone to keep up correct alignment throughout healing. different injuries could also be treated with a solid or splint. In all cases, prompt identification and treatment of a broken leg is important to complete healing. 

is broken A fractured femur also known as a broken leg is a serious injury requiring immediate medical attention and care If an individual walks or runs on a fractured femur the bone fragments can cause greater damage to surrounding tissues and organs Symptoms of a Broken Femur Swelling in the hip and knee region Bruising Tenderness near break site Unable to bear weight on leg Pain with walking standing up and sitting down The pain increases when leaning against something for support such as the wall stairs or table Many patients cannot stand at all.

Ankle Injury When your leg or foot is fractured it can be a serious injury that leaves you unable to walk. It's important to get the right treatment and support as soon as possible to ensure a quick recovery This may involve wearing a cast or brace until your bones have healed.

A fracture may occur in the:

  • Femur. The femur is the bone above your knee. It’s also called the thigh bone.

  • Tibia. Also called the shin bone, the tibia is the larger of the two bones below your knee.

  • Fibula. The fibula is the smaller of the two bones below your knee. It’s also called the calf bone.

Your three leg bones are the longest bones in your body. The femur is the longest and strongest.

Types of broken bones

The type and severity of a bone fracture depends on the quantity of force that caused the damage. A lesser force that just exceeds the bone’s brink could crack the bone. Associate in Nursing extreme force may shatter the bone.

Common types of broken bones include:

  • Transverse fracture. The bone breaks in a straight horizontal line.

  • Oblique fracture. The bone breaks in an angled line.

  • Spiral fracture. The bone breaks a line encircling the bone, like the stripes on a barber pole. It’s usually caused by a twisting force.

  • Comminuted fracture. The bone is broken into three or more pieces.

  • Stable fracture. The damaged ends of the bone line up close to the position before the break. The ends don’t move with gentle movement.

  • Open (compound) fracture. Fragments of bone stick out through the skin, or bone emerges through a wound.

If you'll see the bone once it’s broken -- either as a result of there’s a cut over the fracture or the bone protruding through the skin -- it’s referred to as an open fracture. This is often generally called a compound fracture.

Symptoms Broken leg

Breaking your leg bone takes plenty of force, thus it’ll in all probability be obvious if you break it. The main symptoms of a broken leg are pain, swelling, and associated deformity. Less obvious breaks may require an X-ray to diagnose.A broken thighbone (femur) — the strongest bone in your body — typically is apparent as a result of it taking such a lot of force to break. However fractures of your tibia (tibia) — the major weight-bearing bone in your lower leg — and also the bone that runs aboard your tibia below your knee (fibula) could also be a lot more subtle.

Signs and symptoms of a broken leg may include:

  • Severe pain, which may worsen with movement

  • Swelling

  • Tenderness

  • Bruising

  • Obvious deformity or shortening of the affected leg

  • Inability to walk

Toddlers or young children who break a leg may simply stop walking, even if they can't explain why. Unexplained crying may be a symptom of a toddler who has a fracture.

When to see a doctor

If you or your kid has any signs or symptoms of a broken leg, see a doctor right away. Delays in identification and treatment may end up in issues later, together with poor healing. request emergency medical attention for any leg fracture from a high-impact trauma, adore a automobile or motorbike accident. Fractures of the femoris are severe, probably severe injuries that need emergency medical services to assist defend the realm from any injury and to transfer you safely to your native hospital.

Causes Broken leg

It usually takes quite little bit of force to interrupt bones in your leg. If your bones are weakened somehow, they will be broken easily. If the quantity of force placed on a bone is bigger than the amount it can handle, the bone will break.

There are a number of ways you can break a leg, including:

  • Falls. A simple fall can fracture one or both of the lower leg bones. However, the thighbone is unlikely to be broken without more significant trauma.

  • Motor vehicle accidents. All 3 leg bones will break throughout an automobile accident. Fractures can occur once your knees become crowded against the dashboard during a collision. 

  • Sports injuries. Hyperextending your leg during contact sports can cause a broken leg. So can a direct blow — such as from a hockey stick or an opponent's body.

  • Child abuse. In children, a broken leg may be the result of child abuse, especially when such an injury occurs before the child can walk.

  • Overuse. Stress fractures are small cracks that develop within the weight-bearing bones of your body, together with your shinbone. Stress fractures are sometimes caused by repetitive force or overuse, like running long distances. however they will conjointly occur with traditional use of a bone that' been weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis

Risk factors Broken leg

Stress fractures are usually the results of repetitive stress to the leg bones from physical activities, such as:

  • Running

  • Ballet dancing

  • Basketball

  • Marching

Contact sports, appreciate hockey and football, additionally may cause a risk of direct blows to the leg, which may end in a fracture. 

Stress fractures outside of sport things are a lot of common in folks that have:

  • Decreased bone density (osteoporosis)

  • Diabetes

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

Complications

Complications of a broken leg may include:

  • Knee or ankle pain. A broken bone in your leg may produce pain in your knee or ankle.

  • Poor or delayed healing. A severe leg fracture might not heal quickly or completely. This is often significantly common in associate degree fractures of your shin thanks to lower blood flow to the present bone. 

  • Bone infection (osteomyelitis). If you have an open fracture, your bone may be exposed to fungi and bacteria that can cause infection.

  • Nerve or blood vessel damage. Fracture of the leg will injure adjacent nerves and blood vessels. obtain immediate medical relief if you notice any symptom or circulation problems. 

  • Compartment syndrome. This fascicle condition causes pain, swelling and generally incapacity in muscles close to the broken bone. This can be a rare complication that's a lot in common with high-impact injuries, or an automotive or motorbike accident. 

  • Arthritis. Fractures that stretch into the joint and poor bone alignment will cause degenerative arthritis years later. If your leg starts to harm long after a break, see your doctor for an evaluation. 

  • Unequal leg length. The long bones of a toddler grow from the ends of the bones, in softer areas known as growth plates. If a fracture goes through a growth plate, that limb would possibly eventually become shorter or longer than the other limb. 

Prevention

A broken leg can't always be prevented. But these basic tips may reduce your risk:

  • Build bone strength. Calcium-rich foods, corresponding to milk, yogurt and cheese, will facilitate build robust bones. An atomic number 20 or ergocalciferol supplement additionally could improve bone strength. raise your doctor if these supplements are applicable for you. 

  • Wear proper athletic shoes. Choose the suitable shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And replace athletic shoes regularly. Discard sneakers as shortly because the tread or heel wears out or if the shoes are carrying unevenly. 

  • Cross-train. Alternating activities will stop stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If you run on a diagonal track indoors, alternate the direction of your running to even stress on your skeleton. 

Diagnosis Broken leg

The doctor can check your leg for signs of an opening (fracture). If the doctor thinks a bone has been broken, they’ll order X-rays. The doctor additionally will explore for signs that associate artery or nerve was broken or injured. to try and do this, they’ll grieve pulses and take a look at your strength and sense of bit below the injury. If the doctor suspects another medical condition has weakened the bone, resulting in the fracture, other science laboratory tests could also be ordered. Throughout the physical exam, the doctor will examine the affected space for tenderness, swelling, deformity or associate open wounds. X-rays sometimes will pinpoint the placement of the break and verify the extent of injury to any adjacent joints. Occasionally, your doctor may additionally  advocate more-detailed pictures exploitation CAT (CT) or resonance imaging (MRI). It’s typically robust to diagnose stress fractures, and special studies on the far side X-rays could also be needed.

Treatment Broken leg

If you have a broken leg, you’ll have to be compelled to beware of it promptly once you’re at home. Treatment of a broken leg can vary, betting on the sort and placement of the break. Stress fractures might need solely rest and immobilization. Fractures are classified into one or a lot of of the subsequent categories:

  • Open (compound) fracture. In this sort of fracture, the skin is perforated by the broken bone. This is often a significant condition that needs immediate, aggressive treatment to decrease your probability of AN infection. 

  • Closed fracture. In closed fractures, the surrounding skin remains intact.

  • Incomplete fracture. This term means that the bone is cracked, but it isn't separated into two parts.

  • Complete fracture. In complete fractures, the bone has snapped into two or more parts.

  • Displaced fracture. In this sort of fracture, the bone fragments on all sides of the break don't seem to be aligned. A break might need surgery to realign the bones properly. 

  • Greenstick fracture. In this kind of fracture, the bone cracks however doesn't break all the method through — like once you attempt tod} break an inexperienced stick of wood. Most broken bones in kids are grenstick fractures, as a result of a child' bones are softer and a lot more versatile than those of an adult. 

Setting the leg

Initial treatment for a broken leg typically begins in an associate degree hospital room or pressing care clinic. Here, doctors typically judge your injury and immobilize your leg with a splint. If you've got a displaced fracture, your doctor might have to control the items back to their correct positions before applying a splint — a method referred to as reduction. Some fractures are splinted daily to permit swelling to subside before they're casted.

Immobilization

Restricting the movement of a broken bone in your leg is crucial to correct healing. to try and do this, you would like a splint or a cast. And you may have to be compelled to use crutches or a cane to stay weight off the affected leg for 6 to eight weeks or longer.

Medications

To reduce pain Associate in Nursing inflammation, your doctor could advocate an over-the-counter pain reliever, love Tylenol (Tylenol, others) or Nuprin (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or a mixture of the two. If you're experiencing severe pain, your doctor might impose stronger pain medications.

Therapy

After your solid or splint is removed, you'll possibly want rehabilitation exercises or physiatrics to scale back stiffness and restore movement within the injured  leg. As a result, if you haven't touched your leg for a while, you'll even have stiffness and weakened muscles in unharmed areas. Rehabilitation will help, however it's going to take up to many months — or perhaps longer — for complete healing of severe injuries.

Surgical and other procedures

Immobilization heals most broken bones. However, you would like surgery to implant internal fixation devices, akin to plates, rods or screws, to keep the correct position of your bones throughout healing. These internal fixation devices is also necessary if you have got the subsequent injuries:

  • Multiple fractures

  • An unstable or displaced fracture

  • Loose bone fragments that could enter a joint

  • Damage to the surrounding ligaments

  • Fractures that extend into a joint

  • A fracture that is the result of a crushing accident

  • A fracture in particular areas of your leg, such as your thighbone

For some injuries, your doctor can also advocate an external fixation device — a frame outside your leg hooked up to the bone with pins. This device provides stability throughout the healing method and is typically removed once regarding six to eight weeks. There's a risk of infection around the surgical pins connected to the external fixation device. 

Preparing for your appointment

Depending on the severity of the break, your GP or associate degree hospital room doctor might suggest examination by an orthopedic surgeon.

What you can do

You may want to write a list that includes:

  • Detailed descriptions of the symptoms and the precipitating event

  • Information about past medical problems

  • All the medications and dietary supplements you or your child takes

  • Questions you want to ask the doctor

For a broken leg, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What kinds of tests are needed?

  • What is the best course of action?

  • Is surgery necessary?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?

  • What restrictions will need to be followed?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • What pain medications do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask any other questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, including:

  • What happened to cause the symptoms?

  • How severe are the symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve the symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms?

General summary

While the healing process often takes 6-8 weeks it may take up to 1 year for you to regain your full strength The time required for a complete recovery depends on several factors including: where and how the fracture occurs how long and severe the fracture is whether there are any complications or other injuries associated with the fracture and your age and overall health Here's what you can expect over the next few months following this type of injury.

How do you treat a broken leg at home?

The most important thing to do is protect the injured area from further injury Even if the bone isn’t showing you can still cause serious damage by moving your leg around too much Apply an elastic bandage tightly above and below the fracture site This will prevent movement of the limb and stabilize it while you get to a doctor or hospital It is also recommended that you apply pressure to both sides of the broken bone with firm pieces of cloth so that any swelling may be lowered thus relieving some pain as well.

How can I heal my broken leg faster?

A leg fracture is a break in any of the bones found in your lower leg These fractures most commonly occur in the ankle tibia or fibula The bones in your foot and toes can also be broken Because injuries to these areas of your body are common you'll want to know how to address them whether you're at home or away from medical attention In fact some bone fractures can be life-threatening if not treated immediately If you suspect that you've sustained a fracture try wrapping an elastic bandage around your lower area and apply ice for 15 minutes every two hours for up to 48 hours after.

What helps broken bones heal faster?

The healing of broken bones involves the following: Cellular Repair – If the bone is fractured each piece of the broken bone has to be removed from one another The old and misaligned cells within the fracture site will be replaced with new cartilage tissue at the location where the fracture occurred This process is known as Osteogenesis Remodeling – New cartilage tissue which forms in Osteogenesis will now start dissolving into smaller pieces called Osteoclasts As new cartilage is being made older damaged tissues are reabsorbed by a protein-digesting cell called an Osteocytic.

How long do you stay in the hospital for a broken leg?

It usually takes about 24 hours for a person with a broken leg to be discharged from the hospital according to WebMD Normally the patient will be given pain medication and a cast or fiberglass splint to wear after he is released from the medical facility Physical therapy sessions may also be recommended There are several factors that may lengthen your stay in the hospital after surgery such as if you have an infection around your break if you have other health problems or if you require supplemental oxygen following your procedure.

Will a broken leg ever be the same?

It is possible to break either bone in a lower leg although this occurs much more commonly in the tibia A fracture of the fibula can also be associated with a torn ligament or tendon Hip fractures are caused by trauma including falls motor vehicle accidents and assaults By far the most common cause of hip fracture is falls from standing height or less These involve a repetitive sideways force applied to the upper outer quadrant of the thigh bone (the femur) Although hip fractures are often seen as an older person's injury they occur in people of all ages.

What happens if a broken bone is not treated?

Not treating a broken bone can lead to serious complications The longer the injury is left untreated the more the risk of infection and permanent damage increases A break that is not treated for even a few weeks can cause arthritis and make it difficult for the injured person to get around later in life.

How do you sleep with a broken leg?

When you have a broken leg sleeping can often be complicated However there are some ways to sleep more comfortably with a broken leg This is by either elevating your leg on pillows or placing padding under it so that the fractured bones do not rub against each other while you repose at night You should also try to keep the affected limb as immobile and straight as possible while you sleep to prevent any movement that could cause further damage or pain.

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Broken leg  : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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