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Dengue fever : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Dengue fever?

Dengue fever, a awfully previous malady, has reemerged within the past twenty years with associate degree dilated geographic distribution of each the viruses and therefore the dipteran vectors, enhanced epidemic activity, the event of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and therefore the emergence of infectious disease viral infection in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne malady was the most vital tropical communicable disease when protozoal infection, with associate degree calculable one hundred million cases of breakbone fever, 500,000 cases of infectious disease viral infection, and 25,000 deaths annually. The explanations for this betterment and emergence of infectious disease viral infection within the waning years of the twentieth century square measure are complicated and not absolutely understood, however demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes within the past thirty years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the dynamical medical specialty of infectious disease and infectious disease viral infection by region, the explanation and transmission cycles, clinical designation of each breakbone fever and infectious disease viral infection, serological and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathologic process, police work, prevention, and management. A serious challenge for public health officers in tropical areas of the globe is to develop and implement property hindrance and management programs that may reverse the trend of aborning infectious disease viral infection.

Although 1st reports of major epidemics of associate degree unhealthiness thought to probably be infectious disease occurred on 3 continents (Asia, Africa, and North America) in 1779 and 1780, reports of illnesses clinically compatible with breakbone fever occurred even earlier. The earliest record found thus far is during a Chinese encyclopedia of malady symptoms and remedies, 1st printed throughout the Chin phratry (265 to 420 A.D.) and formally amended in 610 A.D. (Tang Dynasty) and once more in 992 A.D. (Northern Sung Dynasty) (108). The malady was referred to as water poison by the Chinese and was thought to be somehow connected with flying insects related to water. Outbreaks of unhealthiness within the French Indies in 1635 and in Panama in 1699 might even have been infectious disease . Thus, infectious disease or a awfully similar unhealthiness had a large geographic distribution before the eighteenth century, once the primary proverbial pandemic of dengue-like unhealthiness began. It's unsure whether or not the epidemics in Batavia (Jakarta), Indonesia, and Cairo, Egypt, in 1779 were infectious diseases, however it's quite doubtless that the urban center epidemic of 1780 was infectious disease . An additional careful discussion of the history of infectious disease viruses has recently been printed .


The malady pattern related to dengue-like unhealthiness from 1780 to 1940 was characterized by comparatively occasional but usually giant epidemics. However, it's doubtless that infectious disease viruses became endemic in several tropical urban centers throughout this point as a result of throughout interepidemic periods, once there was no apparent malady transmission, nonresistant guests invariably shrunk a dengue-like unhealthiness at intervals months of their arrival.


The ecological disruption within the geographic area and Pacific theaters throughout and following war II created ideal conditions for enhanced transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, and it absolutely was during this setting that a worldwide pandemic of infectious disease began. With enhanced epidemic transmission, hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple infectious disease virus serotypes) developed in Southeast.

The first proverbial epidemic of DHF occurred in Manila, Philippines, in 1953 to 1954, however at intervals twenty years the malady in epidemic kind had unfold throughout Southeast Asia; by the mid-1970s, DHF had become a number one explanation for hospitalization and death among youngsters within the region (1). Within the Nineteen Seventies, infectious disease was reintroduced to the Pacific Islands and epidemic activity enhanced there and within the Americas. throughout the Eighties and Nineties, epidemic infectious disease transmission intense, and there's currently a worldwide betterment of breakbone fever, with increasing geographic distribution of each the dipteran vectors and therefore the viruses, enhanced incidence of malady caused by associate degree enhanced frequency of epidemic transmission, and therefore the emergence of DHF in several new countries.


What is Dengue fever



Explanation of medical terms and concept Dengue fever


Dengue (DENG-gey) fever could be a mosquito-borne malady that happens in tropical and semitropical areas of the globe. delicate dandy fever causes a high fever and flu-like symptoms. The severe type of dandy fever, conjointly known as dandy fever hemorrhagic fever, will cause serious harm, an unexpected pressure (shock) and death.

Millions of cases of dandy fever infection occur worldwide annually. dandy fever is most typical in geographic areas, the western Pacific islands, geographical areas and Africa. However the illness has been spreading to new areas, as well as native outbreaks in Europe and southern elements of the us.

Researchers are performing dandy fever vaccines. For now, in areas wherever dandy fever is common, the most effective ways to stop infection are to avoid being bitten by dipterones and to require steps to cut back the mosquito population.

– the Facts Dengue fever is a viral infection with widespread distribution in tropical and subtropical regions around the world It is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes which can infect their human hosts with dengue virus after biting them Dengue has been estimated to affect 50 million people each year and results in an important public health problem that includes high costs of medical care and economic loss While there are effective vaccines available against dengue virus no specific antiviral treatment currently exists for this infectious disease To date only symptomatic treatments such as analgesics antiemetics (for example medicines used to relieve.

is a vector-borne tropical disease caused by a virus of the same name Dengue fever is an infectious disease known to infect humans and other animals transmitted by mosquitoes When the mosquito bites a person who has dengue fever it takes away some of their blood and spreads the dengue virus into its own body The mosquito then passes the virus on when it next feeds on another human being (or whatever animal) Dengue patients may die from internal bleeding or shock as a result of plasma leaking through capillaries damaged by antibodies fighting off the infection.

areas of the world, with the greatest risk occurring in:

  • The Indian subcontinent

  • Southeast Asia

  • Southern China

  • Taiwan

  • The Pacific Islands

  • The Caribbean (except Cuba and the Cayman Islands)

  • Mexico

  • Africa

  • Central and South America (except Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina)

Most cases within the u. s. occur in people that shrunk the infection whereas traveling abroad. however the danger is increasing for folks living on the Texas-Mexico border and in alternative components of the southern u. s ... In 2014, an epidemic of breakbone fever was known in Hawaii with alternative outbreaks in 2013 in urban centers, American states and Key West, Fla.

Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of Associate in Nursing arthropod genus dipteron infected with a breakbone fever virus. The dipteron becomes infected once it bites someone with breakbone fever virus in their blood. It can't unfold directly from one person to a different person.

Symptoms Dengue fever

Symptoms of malady} ar usually gentle in younger youngsters and people United Nations agencies have the disease for the primary time. Older kids, adults, and people United Nations agencies have had a previous infection might have moderate to severe symptoms.

Many people expertise no signs or symptoms of a breakbone fever infection.

When symptoms do occur, they will be mistaken for different diseases — like the respiratory illness — and frequently begin four to ten days once you're bitten by an infected two-winged insect.

Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F (40 C) — and any of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Headache

  • Muscle, bone or joint pain

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Pain behind the eyes

  • Swollen glands

  • Rash

Most people recover roughly every week. In some cases, symptoms worsen and may become dangerous. This is often referred to as severe dandy fever, dandy fever virus infection or dandy fever shock syndrome.

Severe dandy fever happens once your blood vessels become broken and leaky. and therefore the variety of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood drops. This may cause shock, internal injury, organ failure and even death.

Warning signs of severe infectious disease — that could be a dangerous emergency — will develop quickly. The warning signs sometimes begin the primary day or 2 when your fever goes away, and should include:

  • Severe stomach pain

  • Persistent vomiting

  • Bleeding from your gums or nose

  • Blood in your urine, stools or vomit

  • Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising

  • Difficult or rapid breathing

  • Fatigue

  • Irritability or restlessness

When to see a doctor

Severe dengue could be a serious medical emergency. ask for immediate medical attention if you have recently visited a neighborhood within which dengue is understood to occur, you have had a fever and you develop any of the warning signs. Warning signs embody severe abdomen pain, vomiting, problem respiratory, or blood in your nose, gums, vomit or stools.

If you have been traveling recently and develop a fever and delicate symptoms of dengue, consult your doctor. 

Causes Dengue fever

Dengue fever is caused by four similar viruses spread by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, that are common in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide.

When associate genus Aedes two-winged insects bites an individual who's been infected with a dengue fever virus, the two-winged insects will become a carrier of the virus. If this two-winged insect bites somebody else, that person is often infected with the dengue fever virus and may then get sick with dandy fever. The virus cannot unfold directly from person to person.

In rare cases, dengue} will result in a serious variety of the disease known as dengue fever virus infection (DHF). DHF are often serious and desire to be treated at once.

Dengue fever is caused by 4 kinds of dengue fever viruses. you cannot get dandy fever from being around an infected person. Instead, dandy fever unfolds through two-winged insect bites.

The two kinds of mosquitoes that almost all usually unfold the dengue fever viruses are common each in and around human lodgings. Once a two-winged insect bites an individual infected with a dengue fever virus, the virus enters the two-winged insect. Then, once the infected two-winged insect bites another person, the virus enters that person's blood and causes an infection.

After you've recovered from dandy fever, you have got long-run immunity to the sort of virus that infected you — however, not the opposite 3 dandy fever virus varieties. This suggests you'll be infected once more within the future by one amongst the opposite 3 virus varieties. Your risk of developing severe dandy fever will increase if you get dandy fever a second, third or fourth time.

Risk factors Dengue fever

You have a greater risk of developing dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease if:

  • You live or travel in tropical areas. Being in tropical and climatic zone areas will increase your risk of exposure to the virus that causes infectious disease. particularly speculative areas embrace Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, geographic area and continent. 

  • You have had dengue fever in the past. Previous infection with a dengue fever virus increases your risk of severe symptoms if you get dengue fever again.

Complications

Severe infectious disease will cause internal hemorrhage and organ injury. force per unit area will drop to dangerous levels, inflicting shock. In some cases, severe infectious disease will result in death.

Women World Health Organization get infectious disease throughout physiological conditions and could also be able to unfold the virus to the baby throughout vaginal birth. To boot, babies of girls World Health Organization get infectious diseases throughout physiological conditions have a better risk of preterm birth, low birth weight or abnormal condition.

Prevention

The best thanks to forestall the illness is to stop bites by infected mosquitoes, notably if you're living in or traveling to a tropical space. This involves protecting yourself and creating efforts to stay the two-winged insects population down. In 2019, the office approved a immunizing agent referred to as Dengvaxia to assist forestall the illness from occurring in adolescents aged nine to sixteen World Health Organization have already been infected by dengue fever. But, there presently isn't any immunizing agent to stop the final population from getting it.

Vaccine

In areas of the globe wherever dandy fever is common, one dandy fever vaccinum (Dengvaxia) is approved for folks ages nine to forty five. The United Nations agency has already had dandy fever a minimum of once. The vaccinum is given in 3 doses over the course of twelve months.

The vaccinum is approved just for {people United Nations agency|people that|folks that|those that|those who} have a documented history of dandy fever or who have had a biopsy that shows previous infection with one amongst the dandy fever viruses — referred to as seropositivity. In those who haven't had dandy fever within the past (seronegative), receiving the vaccinum seems to extend the chance of severe dandy fever and hospitalization thanks to dandy fever within the future.

Dengvaxia isn't offered for travelers or for those who board the continental u. s.. however in 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the vaccinum for folks ages nine to sixteen United Nations agency have had dandy fever within the past and United Nations agency board the U.S. territories of yankee Samoa, Guam, Puerto RICO and also the U.S. island — wherever dandy fever is common.

Prevent mosquito bites

The World Health Organization stresses that the immunogen isn't a good tool on its own to cut back dengue in areas wherever the malady is common. Preventing two-winged insects bites and dominating the two-winged insects population square measure are still the best ways for preventing the outbreak of dengue.

If you reside in or visit a region wherever dengue is common, the following pointers could facilitate cut back your risk of two-winged insects bites:

  • Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but they can also bite at night.

  • Wear protective clothing. When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks and shoes.

  • Use mosquito repellent. Permethrin is applied to your consumer goods, shoes, habitation gear and bed netting. you'll be able to conjointly purchase consumer goods created with permethrin already in it. For your skin, use a repellent containing a minimum of a tenth concentration of DEET. 

  • Reduce mosquito habitat. The mosquitoes that carry the infectious disease virus generally board and around homes, breeding in standing water which will collect in such things as used automobile tires. you'll facilitate lower dipterous insect populations by eliminating habitats wherever they lay their eggs. a minimum of once every week, empty and clean containers that hold standing water, like planting containers, animal dishes and flower vases. Keep standing water containers coated between cleanings. 

Diagnosis Dengue fever

If you think that your kid might need dengue, consult a doctor quickly. you ought to additionally decide on a doctor if your kid has recently been to a part that has dengue and incorporates a fever or severe headache.

To make an identification, the doctor can examine your kid and judge the symptoms. The doctor can raise regarding your child's anamnesis and up to date travels, and send a blood sample for testing.

Diagnosing dengue may be tough as a result of its signs and symptoms may be simply confused with those of alternative diseases — like chikungunya, Zika virus, protozoal infection and infectious disease.

Your doctor can seemingly raise your medical and travel history. take care to explain international visits thoroughly, together with the countries you visited and therefore the dates, furthermore as any contact you will have had with mosquitoes.

Your doctor may draw a sample of blood to be tested during a science lab for proof of infection with one among the dandy fever viruses.

Treatment Dengue fever

There are no specific drugs to treat dengue fever infection. If you think that you'll have breakbone fever, you must use pain relievers with Anacin III and avoid medicines with salicylate, which may worsen the pain. you must additionally rest, drink lots of fluids, and see your doctor. If you begin to feel worse within the initial twenty four hours once your fever goes down, you must get to a hospital straight off to be checked for complications.

No specific treatment for dengue fever exists.

While recovering from dengue fever, drink plenty of fluids. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following signs and symptoms of dehydration:

  • Decreased urination

  • Few or no tears

  • Dry mouth or lips

  • Lethargy or confusion

  • Cold or clammy extremities

The over-the-counter (OTC) drug painkiller (Tylenol, others) will facilitate back muscle pain and fever. However, if you've got breakbone fever, you ought to avoid different unlisted pain relievers, as well as Bayer, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Aleve). These pain relievers will increase the chance of breakbone fever trauma complications.

If you have severe dengue fever, you may need:

  • Supportive care in a hospital

  • Intravenous (IV) fluid and electrolyte replacement

  • Blood pressure monitoring

  • Transfusion to replace blood loss

Preparing for your appointment

Preparing for an appointment

You'll likely begin by seeing your medical care supplier. however you may even be spoken to by a doctor WHO focuses on infectious diseases.

Because appointments are temporary, and since there is usually loads of ground to hide, it is a sensible plan to be ready for your appointment. Here's some info to assist you make preparations, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information. List your international travel history, with dates and countries visited and medications taken whereas traveling. Bring a record of your immunizations, together with pre-travel vaccinations. 

  • Make a list of all your medications. Include any vitamins or supplements you take regularly.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor. Preparing a listing of queries will assist you build the foremost of some time together with your doctor. List your queries from vital|most vital|most significant} to least important just in case time runs out.
    For breakbone fever, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include: 

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What treatments are available?

  • How long will it be before I'm feeling better?

  • Are there any long-term effects of this illness?

  • Do you have any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

What to expect from your doctor

Be prepared to answer questions from your doctor, such as:

  • When did your symptoms begin?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • Does anything seem to make your symptoms better or worse?

  • Where have you traveled in the past month?

  • Were you bitten by mosquitoes while traveling?

  • Have you been in contact recently with anyone who was ill?

General summary

According to the WHO dengue fever is caused by four different types of viruses spread through mosquitoes Symptoms include severe headache and pain behind the eyes high fever muscle and joint pains and a rash that usually starts on the face spreads across the body and lasts for up to a week There is no medication or vaccine available to fight off the virus -- treatment involves relieving symptoms such as pain and fever with acetaminophen (Tylenol) while trying to relieve fluid loss with intravenous fluids.

What is the fastest way to recover from dengue fever?

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever Dengue patients are given appropriate supportive therapy such as intravenous fluids to avoid dehydration and secondary infections

The fever is the biggest most obvious symptom of dengue But you can also experience skin rashes and joint pain as a result of this viral infection Though most cases are mild some people can have dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) This severe form of the disease is a real threat--it causes bleeding under the skin or inside organs like your stomach intestines and lungs DHF only affects one in every 3000 people infected by dengue virus However it's estimated that there are 500,000 DHF cases each year worldwide.

How do doctors treat dengue fever?

Dengue fever is a relatively rare but potentially life-threatening tropical disease affecting an estimated 50 million people per year The primary treatment for dengue is rest and plenty to drink along with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) for fever and headache if needed Aspirin should never be given to anyone suspected of having dengue because it can cause a severe drop in platelet counts that can cause bleeding and other problems Severe cases are treated with intravenous fluids.

Is paracetamol safe for dengue fever?

Many people suffering from dengue fever have been advised to take paracetamol tablets to ease the pain and reduce fever CPM calls upon all relevant stakeholders including doctors and patients to avoid self-medication with paracetamol during dengue.

Which fruit is good for dengue?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease that affects children and adults Symptoms include mild fever headache muscle ache and joint pain with rash appearing in some patients Although dengue can be easily treated at home by taking over-the-counter analgesic tablets like paracetamol the current dengue outbreak in India has made us all aware of the importance of maintaining proper hygiene.

Can we drink milk in dengue?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that affects more than 1.5 million people each year according to published reports The symptoms of dengue vary from person to person but most cases result in high fever and abdominal pain often accompanied by joint or muscle aches and headache Severe cases can lead to dangerous complications such as bleeding and breathing difficulties.

Is lemon good for dengue?

Without proper treatment dengue fever may become life-threatening and result in death However several medicinal plants have been shown to help fight off the deadly effects of dengue fever Lemons are known to have a number of health benefits and can be used as natural remedies for many ailments Lemons are also rich in Vitamin C which strengthens the immune system that plays an important role in fighting viral infections like dengue fever Lemons also contain good amounts of potassium calcium and phosphorus that could protect healthy cells from destruction by free radicals that are a major cause for cancer development.

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Dengue fever : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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