Oral lichen planus : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What Is Oral Lichen planus?

Lichen planus may be a long condition that affects the skin and mucous secretion membranes. Once it affects the mouth it's known as oral lichen, and seems as white patches or web-like threads within the cheeks.

Oral lichen may be a lasting sickness that affects your mouth with symptoms like white patches, redness, and swelling. It does not depart, however you'll be able to keep it in check.

What Is Oral Lichen planus?
Oral Lichen planus

It’s not contagious, however anybody will get it. girls square measure a lot more possible to own than men. It's commonest in individuals older than forty. however children and young adults also can get on.

Lichen planus may be a chronic, or long, sickness moving the skin and mucous membranes, the skinny layers of tissue that line body cavities and secrete mucous secretion. Once lichen seems within the mouth, it's known as oral lichen.

The skin Associate in Nursing oral kinds of lichen alone have an effect on a calculable 2 p.c of the population.

Anyone will develop oral lichen. girls square measure doubly as possible as men to develop the condition. Most cases of oral lichen occur in adults aged fifty and older.

No, oral lichen doesn't unfold from person to person.

  1. Mouth

  2. Teeth

  3. Tongue

  4. Lips

  5. Salivary glands

  6. Parotid glands

  7. Submandibular glands

  8. Sublingual glands

Medical terms

  • Oral lichen ruber planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is Associate in Nursing current (chronic) inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes within your mouth. Oral lichen ruber planus could seem as white, lacy patches; red, swollen tissues; or open sores. These lesions could cause burning, pain or alternative discomfort.

  • Oral lichen ruber planus cannot be passed from one person to another. The disorder happens once the system mounts an Associate in Nursing attack against cells of the oral mucous membranes for unknown reasons.

  • Symptoms will sometimes be managed, however those that have oral lichen ruber planus would like regular observation as a result of they'll be in danger of developing mouth cancer within the affected areas.

treatment First of all it’s important to note that the cause of oral lichen planus is not entirely known and researchers have yet to determine a cure However treatment options are available to reduce the severity of symptoms Medications may be prescribed by a physician in order to manage plaque or tongue lesions At home care will also play an important role in reducing discomfort caused by this condition Proper nutrition as well as stress-relieving activities such as exercise are recommended for those coping with oral lichen planus Seek out information on when you should see a doctor if your symptoms don’t improve or become more.

Symptoms Oral lichen planus

For most individuals, oral lichen ruber planus (reticular type) seems as white patches or web-like threads on the within of the cheeks. These patches and threads square measure raised slightly. This sort of lichen ruber planus is sometimes not painful.

In some cases, oral lichen ruber planus (erosive type) seems as bright red gum tissue. In severe cases, ulcers develop on the gums of tissue layer tissues within the mouth, or on the tongue. feeding and drinking spicy, hot or acidic foods or beverages will be painful for individuals with oral lichen ruber planus.

Skin lesions square measure common among individuals with oral lichen ruber planus. virtually half individuals with oral lichen ruber planus even have skin lichen ruber planus, that causes itch.

Signs and symptoms of oral lichen ruber planus have an effect on the secretion membranes of the mouth.


The lesions may appear as:

  • Lacy, white, raised patches of tissues

  • Red, swollen, tender patches of tissues

  • Open sores


These lesions may appear on the:

  • Inside of the cheeks, the most common location

  • Gums

  • Tongue

  • Inner tissues of the lips

  • Palate

Pain or discomfort

The white, lacy patches might not cause discomfort once they seem on the within of the cheeks. However, symptoms incidental red, swollen patches and open sores could include:

  • Burning sensation or pain

  • Sensitivity to hot, acidic or spicy foods

  • Bleeding and irritation with tooth brushing

  • Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis)

  • Painful, thickened patches on the tongue

  • Discomfort when speaking, chewing or swallowing

Other types of lichen planus

If you have got oral lichen ruber planus, you'll have lichen ruber planus lesions poignant alternative components of your body.

  • Skin. Lesions usually appear as purplish, flat-topped bumps that are often itchy.

  • Genitals. Lesions on the feminine sex organ usually cause pain or burning and discomfort with intercourse. The lesions are typically red and scoured and sometimes seem as white areas. Lesions may also occur on private parts. 

  • Ears. Lichen planus of the ears can lead to hearing loss.

  • Scalp. When skin lesions appear on the scalp, they may cause temporary or permanent hair loss.

  • Nails. Though rare, lichen planus of the toenails or fingernails may result in ridges on the nails, thinning or splitting of nails, and temporary or permanent nail loss.

  • Eyes. Rarely, lichen planus may involve the mucous membrane surfaces of the eyes, and can cause scarring and blindness.

  • Esophagus. Lichen planus of the musculature is rare, however once it happens, it should lead to a narrowing of the musculature or the formation of tightened, circular bands within the musculature that may create swallowing trouble. 

When to see a doctor

See your doctor or dentist if you have any signs or symptoms listed above.

Causes Oral lichen planus

The exact explanation for oral lichen is unknown. analysis suggests the condition is expounded to your genetic makeup and system.

Some individuals develop oral lichen when taking bound medications, like beta-blockers and NSAID medication (NSAIDs). Diseases like viral hepatitis and first biliary cirrhosis of the liver may additionally cause oral lichen.

It's not well-known what causes oral lichen. However, T lymphocytes — bound white blood cells concerned in inflammation — seem to be activated in oral lichen. This might indicate AN immune disorder, and genetic factors are also concerned. however additional analysis is required to work out the precise cause.

It's possible that, in some individuals, oral lichen is also triggered by bound medications, mouth injury, infection or allergy-causing agents like dental materials. Stress is also concerned in symptoms turning into worse or revenant. However, these causes don't seem to be confirmed.

Doctors aren't sure what causes oral lichen planus, but several things could play a part:

  • It may run in your family.

  • It could be linked to your immune system. Most of the time, your immune cells keep you safe by attacking bacteria and viruses. With oral lichen planus, some doctors believe, those cells get confused and attack the lining of your mouth.

  • It could be linked to hepatitis C. Many people infected with the virus get it.

Oral Lichen Planus Triggers

Some things can set off the condition for the first time, or they can trigger it if you already have the condition. These include:

  • Certain medicines, such as painkillers, high blood pressure treatments, diabetes drugs, and malaria medications

  • A reaction to metal in your mouth, such as dental fillings

  • Other mouth problems, such as having a rough crown or a habit of biting your cheeks or tongue

  • Injury to your mouth

  • Food allergy

  • Infection

Risk factors Oral lichen planus

Anyone will develop oral lichen, however it's additional common in old ladies.

Some factors could increase your risk of developing oral lichen, like having a disorder that lowers your immunity or taking bound medications, although additional analysis is required.

What mouthwash is best for Oral Lichen Planus?

Lichen planus is a condition that causes the formation of small thickened and discolored patches on the skin While lichen planus affects both men and women equally women are more susceptible to developing symptoms of oral lichen planus in their mouths While anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids and sulfasalazine have been used for treating this infection studies suggest that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine gluconate may be effective against oral lesions associated with this disease Consult your physician before using any medications or over-the-counter remedies.

Does Oral Lichen Planus go away?

The symptoms of oral lichen planus usually go away on their own within a year. The course of the condition is unpredictable so any form of treatment depends on how you respond to your doctor's treatments and whether your symptoms are mild or severe.

What foods trigger Oral Lichen Planus?

The foods that trigger Oral Lichen Planus are hot spicy food You can also trigger it by smoking cigarettes and excessive alcohol use.

Is coffee good for lichen planus?

The research on coffee and lichen planus is limited No study has looked at its impact on the symptoms of lichen planus nor has it been linked to a cure However there are a few reasons why some people with this skin condition may want to include coffee in their diets: Research shows that drinking coffee can reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes which is an immune disorder related to lichen planus Caffeinated coffee appears to reduce inflammation in people with Type 2 diabetes by affecting how the body responds to insulin In turn this could help prevent or treat lichen planus because it also reduces.

What toothpaste is good for Oral Lichen Planus?

Toothpaste is the best remedy for Oral Lichen Planus For a paste dip your toothbrush into an ordinary tube of toothpaste and then brush the sore area gently but firmly Leave it on until it is fully dry Repeat this procedure twice daily for three to four weeks If there are sores inside your mouth that need treatment simply mix half a cup of baking soda with enough water to create a thick mixture and use it as a gargle a couple of times daily Be sure to spit out any excess after you are finished treating the pain areas with either one or both of these techniques.

Is Listerine good for Oral Lichen Planus?

The active ingredient in Listerine is eucalyptol which researchers have found to be effective in treating the oral type of lichen planus This condition usually causes white bumps on the tongue and mouth lining referred to as leukoplakia These lesions can also develop on other parts of the body Eucalyptol kills off the cancerous cells that cause this condition If you're suffering with oral lichen planus you can use a cotton swab and apply a small amount of Listerine twice daily for two weeks You may notice results after just five days In fact.

Is baking soda good for Oral Lichen Planus?

For patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) the condition is an unremitting disease that can be painful emotionally debilitating and difficult to manage While topical steroids are often used to treat OLP lesions they have a limited effect on this form of lichenoid dermatitis Most patients will also try alternative treatments in an attempt to alleviate their symptoms when medical management fails Some of these alternative treatments include baking soda paste rinses guaifenesin liquid soaks and more invasive methods such as cryotherapy or photodynamic therapy The use of any type of treatment for OLP should be discussed with.

Complications Oral lichen planus

Severe cases of oral lichen planus may increase the risk of:

  • Significant pain

  • Weight loss or nutritional deficiency

  • Stress or anxiety

  • Depression

  • Scarring from erosive lesions

  • Secondary oral yeast or fungal infections

  • Oral cancer

Diagnosis Oral lichen planus

The diagnosing of oral lichen ruber planus is commonly created by its clinical look. Tissue diagnostic test is also useful, once characteristic options of lichen ruber planus is also ascertained. A diagnostic test will exclude different oral conditions with lichenoid reaction, like drug-induced lichenoid reaction, oral autoimmune disease, or a contact lichenoid reaction.

Under the magnifier, the medical specialist could observe a characteristic lichenoid reaction. Direct technique could reveal positive staining for coagulation factor, immunoglobulins and complement.

Your doctor diagnoses oral lichen ruber planus by examining your mouth. In several cases, doctors take a tissue sample (biopsy) to substantiate the diagnosing and rule out different diseases.

Your doctor makes a diagnosis of oral lichen planus based on:

  • Discussion of your medical and dental history and the medications you're taking

  • Review of symptoms, including lesions in your mouth and any other places on your body

  • Examination of your mouth, and other areas as appropriate

He or she also may request lab tests such as:

  • Biopsy. A small tissue sample is taken from one or a lot of lesions in your mouth and examined underneath a magnifier to appear for indications of oral lichen. A lot of specialized microscopic tests are also required to spot system proteins unremarkably related to oral lichen. 

  • Cultures. A sample of cells is taken from your mouth using a cotton swab. The sample is examined under a microscope to determine whether you have a secondary fungal, bacterial or viral infection.

  • Blood tests. These could also be done to spot conditions like viral hepatitis, which can seldom be related to oral lichen ruber planus, and lupus, which can look just like oral lichen ruber planus .

Treatment Oral lichen planus

Oral lichen ruber planus may be a chronic condition. there's no cure, that the treatment focuses on serving to heal severe lesions and reducing pain or different discomfort. Your doctor can monitor your condition to work out the acceptable treatment or stop treatment as necessary.

If you have got no pain or discomfort and if solely white, lacy lesions square measure gift, you will not want any treatment. For more-severe symptoms, you will want one or a lot of the choices below.

Mild oral lichen ruber planus might not want any treatment. Instead, your doctor monitors your condition. Doctors suggest specific treatments if symptoms worsen.

Milder styles of the sickness typically escape on their own over time, particularly if medications triggering the condition square measure are interrupted.

Doctors typically treat a lot of severe cases of oral lichen ruber planus with one or many medications, including:

  • Lidocaine (Lidoderm®, Xylocaine®)

  • Tacrolimus (Prograf®, Protopic®)

  • Corticosteroids

  • Dapsone (Aczone®)

  • Cyclosporine (Neoral®, Gengraf®)

Symptomatic treatment

Treatments like topical desensitizing agents will be wont to give temporary relief for areas that are notably painful.


Corticosteroids could scale back inflammation associated with oral lichen ruber planus. one in all these forms could also be recommended:

  • Topical. Mouthwash, ointment or gel is applied directly to the mucous membrane — the preferred method.

  • Oral. Corticosteroids are taken as a pill for a limited amount of time.

  • Injection. The medication is injected directly into the lesion.
    Side effects vary, reckoning on the tactic of use. speak together with your doctor to weigh the potential advantages against potential aspect effects. 

Immune response medicines

Medications that suppress or modify your body's response could also be wont to improve more-severe lesions and reduce pain. they are available in these forms:

  • Topical ointments or gels. Calcineurin inhibitors, like oral medication wont to stop rejection of transplanted organs, is also effective for treating oral lichen ruber planus. However these medications have a Food associate degreed Drug Administration warning owing to an unclear association with cancer. Examples embrace tacrolimus (Protopic) and pimecrolimus (Elidel). 

  • Systemic medication. For severe cases wherever oral lichen ruber planus conjointly involves different areas — like the scalp, sex organ or muscle system — general medications that suppress the system could also be used.
    The use of some medications, like topical steroids, will cause the overgrowth of yeast. throughout treatment, schedule regular follow-up visits together with your medical aid supplier to ascertain for secondary infections and receive treatment. Not treating secondary infections might worsen the condition. 

Dealing with triggers

If your doctor suspects that oral lichen ruber planus could also be associated with a trigger, like a drug, associate substance or stress, he or she will be able to suggest the way to address the trigger. for instance, you'll be suggested to do another drug instead, to check associate medico or medical specialist for extra testing, or to be told stress management techniques.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In addition to regular medical and dental treatment, self-care measures might facilitate improve your oral lichen symptoms or facilitate stop revenant episodes of severe symptoms:

  • Practice good oral hygiene. Keep your mouth clean to cut back your symptoms and facilitate forestall infection. Gently brush your teeth a minimum of double daily employing a bland dentifrice, and floss daily. 

  • Adjust your diet. Cut out spicy, salty or acidic foods if they appear to trigger or worsen your symptoms. opt for foods that are unit soft to assist limit discomfort. And scale back or eliminate the utilization of alkaloid. 

  • Avoid irritants. Avoid alcohol or tobacco. Also avoid habits that can injure the inside of your mouth, such as chewing on your lip or cheek.

  • Learn to manage stress. Because stress could complicate symptoms or trigger symptom repetition, you'll ought to develop skills to avoid or manage stress. Your doctor could refer you to a mental state skilled UN agency will assist you establish stressors, develop stress management methods or address alternative mental state issues. 

  • See your doctor or dentist regularly. See your dentist twice a year for checkups and cleanings, or more often as directed by your dentist. Because long-term treatment is often required, talk to your doctor or dentist about how often you should be seen to evaluate how your treatment is working and for cancer screening.

Preparing for your appointment

You'll likely begin by seeing your medical aid doctor or medical practitioner. Some individuals with oral lichen additionally develop lichen on their skin. looking at your symptoms, you'll be cited as a specialist in skin diseases (dermatologist) or a specialist in gum and dental diseases (periodontist).

What you can do

To get ready for your appointment:

  • Bring a copy of all previous consultations and tests you've had about this problem.

  • Ask if there's anything you need to do before the appointment, such as restrict your diet.

  • Make a list of any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to your sore mouth.

  • Make a list of key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins, herbs or other supplements that you're taking, and the dosages.

  • Prepare questions to ask your doctor or dentist.

Some basic questions to ask include:

  • What's likely causing my symptoms or condition?

  • What are other possible causes?

  • What kinds of tests do I need?

  • What's the best course of action?

  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?

  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any restrictions that I need to follow?

  • Should I see a specialist?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?

  • Are there any printed materials that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask any other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor or dentist is likely to ask you several questions, such as:

  • When did the lesions or sores appear in your mouth?

  • Have you found lesions anywhere else on your body?

  • Do you feel any pain, burning sensations or other discomfort in your mouth?

  • How would you describe the severity of the pain or discomfort?

  • Have you recently started taking new medications?

  • Do you take vitamins, herbs, other dietary supplements or nonprescription medicines?

  • Do you have any allergies?

  • Have you experienced any new or unusual stresses in your life?

  • What other health conditions do you have?

Your doctor or dental practitioner can raise further queries supporting your responses, symptoms and wishes. Getting ready and anticipating queries can assist you build the foremost of it slowly with the doctor or dental practitioner.

General summary

  1. Lichen Planus a skin disease is the fastest way to cure quickly The symptoms of lichen planus include lesions on the tongue and inside mouth itching and burning sensation in these areas are seen Also painful cracks in the corners of mouth are common in lichen planus Itching may continue for years with frequent change of location of lesions.

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