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Prostate cancer : Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is marked by associate degree uncontrolled (malignant) growth of cells within the prostate secreter. The prostate is that the walnut-sized gland in men, placed slightly below the bladder and ahead of the rectum, closes the epithelial duct – the tube that carries water out of the bladder. The prostate produces and stores fluid that helps to create semen.


glandular cancer is the commonest variety of cancer found in men in the United State, except for skin cancer, and sometimes begins while not having symptoms. glandular cancer will be slow-growing, specified several men die of alternative diseases before the glandular cancer causes important problems. However, several prostate cancers are additional aggressive and may unfold outside the ambit of the prostate gland, which might be deadly. The prostate cancer survival rate is greatly improved with early detection and customized treatment.

Cancer starts once cells within the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer cells, and can then spread to alternative areas of the body. to find out more regarding cancer and the way it starts and spreads, see what's Cancer?


glandular cancer begins when cells in the prostate begin to grow out of control. The prostate may be a gland found solely in males. It creates a number of the fluid that's a part of bodily fluid.


The prostate is below the bladder (the hollow organ wherever water is stored) and ahead of the body part (the last part of the intestines). simply behind the prostate are glands referred to as seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, that is that the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the middle of the prostate.

the scale of the prostate will change as a person ages. In younger men, it's regarding the size of a walnut, however it will be a lot larger in older men.


What is Prostate Cancer


Explanation of medical terms and concept Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is cancer that happens within the prostate. The prostate may be a little walnut-shaped organ in males that produces the cum that nourishes and transports sperm. glandular cancer is one in all the foremost common sorts of cancer. Several prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, wherever they will not cause serious harm. However, whereas some sorts of prostate cancer grow slowly and will want nominal or perhaps no treatment, alternative types are aggressive and may unfold quickly. glandular cancer that' detected early — once it' is still confined to the prostate gland — has the most effective probability for treatment. 

The PSA test is a blood test that measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which may increase when there is cancer in the prostate The PSA test detects a protein that is only produced by cells of a gland called the prostate Men with higher levels of PSA usually have an enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) However as men age their natural level of this protein can rise slightly to 1 nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) and still be normal At present no clear consensus exists on whether men should receive regular testing for Pro.

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in men behind lung cancer The number of new cases each year has been rising for a while now but it’s not clear why Prostate cancer grows slowly and is often caught early so that treatment can be effective But if you don’t get tested at all your risk of dying from this disease could be as high as 40% That’s why regular screening should be an important part of your health plan.

Types of prostate cancer

Almost all prostatic adenocarcinomas are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the secretory cells (the cells that build the prostate fluid that's additional to the semen).

Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:

  • Small cell carcinomas

  • Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas)

  • Transitional cell carcinomas

  • Sarcomas

These other sorts of prostate cancer are rare. If you're told you've got prostate cancer, it's virtually absolute to be an adenocarcinoma. Some prostate cancers grow and unfold quickly, however most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that several older men (and even some younger men) who died of other causes conjointly had prostate cancer that ne'er affected them throughout their lives. In many cases, neither they nor their doctors even knew that they had it.

Symptoms Prostate cancer

In most cases, willcer|prostatic adenocarcinoma|adenocarcinoma|glandular cancer|glandular carcinoma} causes no symptoms. In rare cases, men could experience bound symptoms once they have advanced prostate cancer. However, these symptoms are a gift in several men who don't have cancer, so it's best to debate them with a doctor before jumping to any conclusions. A number of these symptoms can embody problems voiding the bladder, blood within the urine, and bone pain.

Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages.

Prostate cancer that's more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:

  • Trouble urinating

  • Decreased force in the stream of urine

  • Blood in the urine

  • Blood in the semen

  • Bone pain

  • Losing weight without trying

  • Erectile dysfunction

When to see a doctor

Make a briefing together with your doctor if you've got any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you. 

Causes Prostate cancer

It is not nevertheless proverbial precisely what causes adenocarcinoma, however researchers are learning bound risk factors to see if these factors contribute to prostate cells developing into cancer. It's not clear what causes prostate cancer. Doctors understand that prostate cancer begins once cells within the prostate develop changes in their deoxyribonucleic acid. A cell' DNA contains the directions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow and divide quicker than traditional cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when alternative cells would die. The accumulating abnormal cells type a tumor that may grow to invade nearby  tissue. In time, some abnormal cells can become independent from and unfold (metastasize) to alternative components of the body.

Risk factors Prostate cancer

Certain men are at higher risk than others for adenocarcinoma, which can have an effect on once they ought to begin being screened. the chance will increase with age, significantly once age 50. Factors which will increase your risk of prostate cancer include:

  • Older age. Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. It's most common after age 50.

  • Race. For reasons not nonetheless determined, Black individuals have a bigger risk of prostatic adenocarcinoma than do people of different races. In Black people, prostate cancer is additionally possible to be aggressive or advanced. 

  • Family history. If a blood relative, adores a parent, relative or child, has been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, your risk is also increased. Also, if you have got a case history of genes that increase the chance of carcinoma (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a really sturdy family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. 

  • Obesity. People who are corpulent might have the next risk of adenocarcinoma compared with folks thought-about to own a healthy weight, tho' studies have had mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is a lot of doubtless to be more aggressive and more likely to come back once initial treatment. 

Complications

Complications of prostate cancer and its treatments include:

  • Cancer that spreads (metastasizes). Prostate willcer can unfold to near  organs, equivalent to your bladder, or travel through your blood or systema lymphatica to your bones or different organs. prostatic adenocarcinoma that spreads to the bones can cause pain and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it's going to still reply to treatment and should be controlled, however it's unlikely to be cured. 

  • Incontinence. Both willcer|prostatic adenocarcinoma|adenocarcinoma|glandular cancer|glandular carcinoma} and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the sort you have, however severe it's and also the probability it'll improve over time. Treatment choices might embody medications, catheters and surgery. 

  • Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction may end up from prostatic adenocarcinoma or its treatment, as well as surgery, radiation or internal secretion treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are out there to treat erectile dysfunction. 

Prevention

You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:

  • Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. Eat a spread of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain several vitamins and nutrients which will contribute to your health. Whether or not you'll be able to stop glandular cancer through diet has nevertheless to be once and for all proved. However, feeding a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health. 

  • Choose healthy foods over supplements. No studies have shown that supplements play a task in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, select foods that are wealthy in vitamins and minerals so you'll be able to maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body. 

  • Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. try and exercise most days of the week. If you're new to exercise, begin slowly and work your way to a lot of exercise time every day. 

  • Maintain a healthy weight. 

    • If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.

  • Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. If you have an awfully high risk of prostate cancer, you and your doctor might take into account medications or alternative treatments to scale back the risk. Some studies recommend that taking 5-alpha enzyme inhibitors, as well as finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the general risk of developing prostate cancer. These medications are wont to manage endocrine enlargement and hair loss. 

  • However, some evidence indicates that individuals taking these medications might have AN inflated risk of obtaining a lot of serious types of prostatic adenocarcinoma (high-grade prostate cancer). If you're involved regarding your risk of developing prostate cancer, speak along with your doctor.

Diagnosis Prostate cancer

 Patient consult on prostate diagnosis

Screenings are the foremost effective thanks to catching prostatic adenocarcinoma early. If you're at average cancer risk, you’ll most likely have your initial prostate screening at age 55. Your attention supplier might begin testing earlier if you have got a case history of the sickness or are Black. Screening is mostly stopped once age 70, however could also be continuing in sure circumstances.

Screening for prostate cancer

Testing healthy men with no symptoms for glandular carcinoma is controversial. There's some disagreement among medical organizations whether or not the advantages of testing outweigh the potential risks. Most medical organizations encourage men in their 50s to debate the professionals and cons of prostate cancer screening with their doctors. The discussion ought to embrace a review of your risk factors and your preferences regarding screening. you may contemplate beginning the discussions sooner if you're a Black person, have a case history of prostate cancer or produce other risk factors.

Prostate screening tests might include:

  • Digital rectal exam (DRE). During a DRE, your doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated  finger into your body part to look at your prostate, which is adjacent to the rectum. If your doctor finds any abnormalities within the texture, form or size of the gland, you would like some tests. 

  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. A blood sample is drawn from a vein in your arm and analyzed for prostate specific antigen, a substance that' naturally created by your prostate gland. It's traditional for attiny low quantity of PSA to be in your bloodstream. However, if the next than usual level is found, it's going to indicate prostate infection, inflammation, enlargement or cancer. 

Diagnosing prostate cancer

If prostate cancer screening detects an abnormality, your doctor may recommend further tests to determine whether you have prostate cancer, such as:

  • Ultrasound. During a transrectal ultrasound, a little probe, concerning the scale and form of a cigar, is inserted into your rectum. The probe uses sound waves to make an image of your prostate gland. 

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In some situations, your doctor may recommend an MRI scan of the prostate to create a more detailed picture. MRI images may help your doctor plan a procedure to remove prostate tissue samples.

  • Collecting a sample of prostate tissue. To determine whether or not there are cancer cells within the prostate, your doctor could advocate a procedure to gather a sample of cells from your prostate (prostate diagnostic assay). Prostate biopsy is usually done employing a skinny needle that's inserted into the prostate to collect tissue. The tissue sample is analyzed in an exceedingly large amount to work out whether cancer cells are present. 

Determining whether prostate cancer is aggressive

When a diagnostic test confirms the presence of cancer, the successive step is to see the amount of aggressiveness (grade) of the cancer cells. A doctor during a laboratory examines a sample of your cancer cells to determine what proportion cancer cells take issue from the healthy cells. The next grade indicates a lot of aggressive cancer that's more likely to unfold quickly.

Techniques used to determine the aggressiveness of the cancer include:

  • Gleason score. The most common scale accustomed to judge the grade of glandular cancer cells is termed a Gleason score. Gleason rating combines 2 numbers and may vary from two (nonaggressive cancer) to ten (very aggressive cancer), although the lower part of the range isn't used as often. Most Gleason scores used to assess prostate diagnostic test samples range from vi to 10. A score of 6 indicates an inferior prostate cancer. A score of seven indicates a medium-grade prostate cancer. Scores from eight to 10 indicate the finest cancers. 

  • Genomic testing. Genomic checking analyzes your willcer|prostatic adenocarcinoma|adenocarcinoma|glandular cancer|glandular carcinoma} cells to work out that cistron mutations are present. This kind of test can offer you additional info concerning your prognosis. however it's not clear who might profit most from this information, that the tests aren't widely used. Genomic tests aren't necessary for each person with prostate cancer, but they could offer more information for creating treatment selections in sure situations. 

Determining whether the cancer has spread

Once a glandular cancer identification has been made, your doctor works to work out the extent (stage) of the cancer. If your doctor suspects your cancer might have unfold on the far side your prostate, one or additional of the subsequent imaging tests is also recommended:

  • Bone scan

  • Ultrasound

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Not everybody should have a test. Your doctor can facilitate confirmation that tests are best for your individual situation. Your doctor uses the knowledge from these tests to assign your cancer a stage. glandular carcinoma stages are indicated by Roman numerals starting from I to IV. The bottom stages indicate the cancer is confined to the prostate. By stage IV, the cancer has grown up on the far side of the prostate and should have spread to different areas of the body.

More Information

  • Prostate cancer: Does PSA level affect prognosis?

  • Bone scan

  • CT scan

  • MRI

  • PSA test

  • Ultrasound

  • Infographic: Prostate Cancer: Choline c-11

Treatment Prostate cancer

Some aggressive cancers quickly unfold (metastasize) outside of the prostate. prostatic adenocarcinoma most ordinarily spreads to the bones and humor nodes. It also can develop within the liver, brain, lungs and different organs. Your prostate cancer treatment choices depend upon many factors, like how briskly your cancer is growing, whether or not it's spread and your overall health, in addition because of the potential edges or facet effects of the treatment.

Immediate treatment may not be necessary

Low-grade glandular carcinoma might not want treatment right away. For some, treatment may ne'er be needed. Instead, doctors generally advocate active police investigation. In active surveillance, regular follow-up blood tests, body part exams associate degreed prostate biopsies is also performed to watch progression of your cancer. If tests show your cancer is progressing, you'll select a prostate cancer treatment corresponding to surgery or radiation. Active surveillance may be a choice for cancer that isn't inflicting symptoms, is anticipated to grow terribly slowly and is confined to a little space of the prostate. Active surveillance may also be thought of for somebody who has another serious health condition or who is of a complicated age that creates cancer treatment.

Surgery to remove the prostate

Surgery for glandular cancer involves removing the endocrine gland (radical prostatectomy), some close tissue ANd many humor nodes. Surgery is a choice for treating cancer that's confined to the prostate. It generally wants to treat advanced prostate cancer together with alternative treatments.

To access the prostate, surgeons may use a technique that involves:

  • Making several small incisions in your abdomen. During robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, surgical instruments are hooked up to a machine (robot) and inserted through many tiny incisions in your abdomen. The doctor sits at a console and uses hand controls to guide the robot to maneuver the instruments. Most glandular cancer operations are done victimizing this technique. 

  • Making one long incision in your abdomen. During retropubic surgery, the doc makes one long incision in your lower abdomen to access and take away the prostate gland. This approach is far less common, however is also necessary in sure situations. visit your doctor which kind of surgery is best for your specific situation. 

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy to kill cancer cells. Prostate cancer radiation therapy treatments may involve:

  • Radiation that comes from outside of your body (external beam radiation). During external beam radiation, you lie on a table whereas a machine moves around your body, leading high-powered energy beams, cherishing X-rays or protons, to your prostate cancer. you usually endure external beam radiation treatments 5 days per week for many weeks. Some medical centers supply a shorter course of radiation therapy that uses higher doses of radiation contact fewer days. External beam radiation is a possibility for treating cancer that' confined to the prostate. It can even be used when surgery to kill any cancer cells which may stay if there' a risk that the willcer may unfold or return back. For glandular cancer that spreads to different areas of the body, cherishing the bones, radiation can facilitate slow the cancer' growth and relieve symptoms, such as pain. 

  • Radiation placed inside your body (brachytherapy). Brachytherapy involves inserting radioactive  sources in your prostate tissue. Most often, the radiation is contained in rice-sized radioactive seeds that are inserted into your prostate tissue. The seeds deliver an occasional dose of radiation over a protracted amount of time. Brachytherapy is one choice for treating cancer that hasn't spread to the far side of the prostate. In some situations, doctors might suggest various kinds of radiation therapy. 

Freezing or heating prostate tissue

Ablative therapies destroy prostate tissue with cold or heat. Options may include:

  • Freezing prostate tissue. Cryoablation or cryotherapy for glandular cancer involves employing a terribly cold gas to freeze the prostate tissue. The tissue is allowed to thaw and therefore the procedure repeats. The cycles of cooling and thawing kill the cancer cells and a few encompassing healthy tissue. 

  • Heating prostate tissue. High-intensity centered ultrasound (HIFU) treatment uses focused ultrasound energy to heat the prostate tissue associate degreed cause it to die. These treatments could also be thought-about for treating terribly tiny prostate cancers once surgery isn't possible. they'll also be accustomed to treat advanced prostate cancers if alternative treatments, resembling radiation therapy, haven't helped. Researchers are learning whether or not cryotherapy or HIFU to treat one part of the prostate may be a choice for cancer that's confined to the prostate. named as "focal therapy," this strategy identifies the realm of the prostate that contains the foremost aggressive cancer cells and treats that space only. Studies have found that focal medical care reduces the danger of facet effects. However, it's not clear whether or not it offers constant survival advantages as treatment to the whole prostate. 

Hormone therapy

Hormone medical care is treatment to prevent your body from manufacturing the male internal secretion androgenic hormone. prostatic adenocarcinoma cells consider testosterone to assist them grow. isolating the provision of testosterone could cause cancer cells to die or to grow additional slowly.

Hormone therapy options include:

  • Medications that stop your body from producing testosterone. Certain medications — referred to as luteinizing secretion-releasing hormone (LHRH) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists — forestall your body' cells from receiving messages to form testosterone. As a result, your testicles stop manufacturing testosterone. 

  • Medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells. These medications, known as anti-androgens, usually are given in conjunction with LHRH agonists. That's because LHRH agonists can cause a temporary increase in testosterone before testosterone levels decrease.

  • Surgery to remove the testicles (orchiectomy). Removing your testicles reduces androgen levels in your body quickly and significantly. However, unlike medication options, surgery to get rid of the testicles is permanent and irreversible. Endocrine therapy is usually wont to treat advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma to shrink the cancer and slow its growth. Endocrine therapy is typically used before therapy to treat cancer that hasn't deployed on the far side of the prostate. It helps shrink the cancer and will increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy. 

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses medicine to kill quickly growing cells, as well as cancer cells. therapy is administered through a vein in your arm, in pill type or both. Therapy is also a treatment possibility for treating adenocarcinoma that has developed into different areas of the body. therapy may be an Associate in Nursing option for cancers that don't answer endocrine therapy.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy uses your system to fight cancer. Your body' disease-fighting immune system might not attack your cancer as a result of the cancer cells turning out proteins that facilitate them hiding from the immune system cells. therapy works by busybodied thereupon process.

Prostate cancer immunotherapy can involve:

  • Engineering your cells to fight cancer. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) treatment takes a number of your own immune cells, genetically engineers them Associate in Nursing exceedingly|in a very} laboratory to fight glandular cancer then injects the cells back to your body through a vein. It's a choice for treating advanced prostate cancer that now does not respond to endocrine therapy. 

  • Helping your immune system cells identify cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs that help the immune system cells identify and attack the cancer cells are an option for treating advanced prostate cancers that no longer respond to hormone therapy.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments specialize in specific abnormalities given at intervals between willcer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted medical aid medication could also be suggested to treat advanced or continual prostatic adenocarcinoma if secretion therapy isn't working. Some targeted therapies solely add individuals whose cancer cells have certain genetic mutations. Your cancer cells may be tested in an exceedingly laboratory to envision if these drugs would possibly facilitate you.

More Information

  • Prostate cancer brachytherapy: Can I pass radiation to others?

  • Prostate cancer treatment: Does initial treatment preclude others later?

  • Ablation therapy

  • Active surveillance for prostate cancer

  • Brachytherapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Choline C-11 PET scan

  • Cryoablation for cancer

  • External beam radiation for prostate cancer

  • Prostatectomy

  • Proton therapy

  • Radiation therapy

Alternative medicine

No complementary or different treatments can cure glandular carcinoma. However, complementary and alternative prostate cancer treatments may assist you handle the aspect effects of cancer and its treatment. Nearly everybody diagnosed with cancer expertises some distress at some point. If you're distressed, you will feel sad, angry or anxious. you will experience issues sleeping or end up perpetually pondering your cancer.

Several complementary medicine techniques may help you cope with your distress, including:

  • Art therapy

  • Dance or movement therapy

  • Exercise

  • Meditation

  • Music therapy

  • Relaxation techniques

  • Spirituality

Discuss your feelings and issues together with your doctor. In some cases, treatment for distress might need medications.

Coping and support

When you receive an identification of glandular cancer, you will experience a variety of feelings — as well as disbelief, fear, anger, anxiety and depression. With time, every person finds his own means of managing a prostate cancer diagnosis.

Until you find what works for you, try to:

  • Learn enough about prostate cancer to feel comfortable making treatment decisions. Learn as much as you need to know about your cancer and its treatment in order to understand what to expect from treatment and life after treatment. Ask your doctor, nurse or other health care professional to recommend some reliable sources of information to get you started. 

  • Keep your friends and family close. Your friends and family will give support throughout and after your treatment. they will be desirous to facilitate the tiny tasks you won't have energy for during treatment. And having an in depth friend or loved one to speak to is often useful when you're feeling stressed or overwhelmed. 

  • Connect with other cancer survivors. Friends and family can't continually perceive what it's like to face cancer. alternative cancer survivors can give a novel network of support. raise your health care suppliers concerning support teams or community organizations which will connect you with other cancer survivors. Organizations reminiscent of the yankee Cancer Society provide on-line chat rooms and discussion forums. 

  • Take care of yourself. Take care of yourself throughout cancer treatment by ingesting a diet filled with fruits and vegetables. try and exercise most days of the week. Get enough sleep every night in order that you wake feeling rested. 

  • Continue sexual expression. If you expertise erectile dysfunction, your natural reaction could also be to avoid all sexual contact. however take into account touching, holding, foreplay and caressing as ways to continue sharing gender along with your partner. 

Preparing for your appointment

If you have got signs or symptoms that worry you, begin by seeing your family doctor. If your doctor suspects you will have a tangle together with your prostate, you may be noted by a tract specialist (urologist). If you're diagnosed with prostate cancer, you may be referred to a cancer specialist (oncologist) or a specialist who uses radiotherapy to treat cancer (radiation oncologist). As a result, appointments may be brief, and since there's often heaps of data to discuss, it's an honest plan to be prepared. Here's some information to assist you make preparations and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you create the appointment, make certain to raise if there's something you wish to try and do in advance, adore prohibiting your diet. 

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.

  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it is often troublesome to recollect all the data provided throughout an associate appointment. somebody who accompanies you'll remember one thing that you simply lost or forgot. 

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time together with your doctor is limited, therefore making a list of queries will assist you create the foremost of it slowly together. List your questions from most vital to least important just in case time runs out. For prostate cancer, some basic inquiries to raise your doctor include:

  • Do I have prostate cancer?

  • How large is my prostate cancer?

  • Has my prostate cancer spread beyond my prostate?

  • What's my Gleason score?

  • What's my prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level?

  • Will I need more tests?

  • What are my treatment options?

  • Is there one treatment option you think is best for me?

  • Do I need cancer treatment right away, or is it possible to wait and see if the cancer grows?

  • What are the potential side effects of each treatment?

  • What is the chance that my prostate cancer will be cured with treatment?

  • If you had a friend or family member in my situation, what would you recommend?

  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is probably going to raise you a variety of questions. Being able to answer them might permit longer later to hide different points you wish to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?

  • How severe are your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?

  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

General summary

After three months doctors assess the results of chemotherapy by conducting a CT scan or another imaging procedure If cancer cells are still present in the body then a second cycle of ADT chemo treatment will be administered After a few more months have passed it is determined whether or not to administer additional cycles of ADT chemo.

How fast does PSA drop after hormone therapy?

On average a patient’s PSA level should drop by 50% within the first 6-12 months of hormone therapy The rate of PSA change will vary depending on the dose and type of hormone therapy prescribed by your physician Some men may show little or no change in their PSA levels while others may see some initial improvement that slows as time goes on This is not uncommon and is usually due to the fact that some prostate cancers actually grow more slowly than normal tissue when stimulated by hormones such as testosterone In other words if you have a very slow growing cancer it has less opportunity to replicate before your body.

What is PSA progression time?

0.8 cm (3/8 inch) per year for men aged 55 to 69 1.4 cm (1/2 inch) per year for men aged 70 and older.

What should PSA be after hormones?

7 points above normal (0.99) or at least 5.5 ng/mL in male patients; 4 points above normal (1.3) or at least 3 ng/mL in female patients.

What is the average PSA for a 70 year old?

The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2007 approximately 230,460 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and about 31,720 men will die from the disease Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men; in fact it is the second leading cause of cancer death in men.

What is a good PSA number after prostate removal?

A recent study released by the U.S National Cancer Institute revealed that prostate cancer survivors who maintained a healthy lifestyle after treatment had lower rates of the disease returning Men who exercised regularly ate a diet rich in fruits and vegetables avoided red meat and drank smaller amounts of alcohol were about half as likely to see their cancer return than those who didn’t make such changes to their lives.

Can PSA go up and down?

Your PSA level can rise for a number of reasons such as: ● An enlarged prostate or prostatitis – an inflammation in the prostate gland that can occur if your prostate becomes infected with bacteria This form of prostatitis is usually treated with antibiotics which will reduce the size of your prostate within one to two weeks If this happens your PSA level should go down ● An injury to the seminal vesicles that cause swelling and irritation leading to an increase in PSA levels.

What is the highest PSA level ever recorded?

It wasn't until doctors saw a significant increase in the PSA levels of their patients that they became concerned about prostate cancer The term "prostate specific" was added to describe the protein produced only by a tumor present in the prostate gland; however it wasn't until the early 90's that concerns over elevated PSA levels began to surface While most men have a PSA level between 4 and 10 (indicating no problems) there is concern when the numbers go higher In fact doctors are now questioning whether or not any man will benefit from having his PSA level within normal limits Already many men with high P.

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