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Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?

Rocky Mountain rickettsiosis (RMSF) could be a microorganism infection unfolding by a bite from an associate degree infected tick. It causes disgorgement, a fulminant high fever around 102 or 103°F, headache, abdominal pain, rash, and muscle aches.


RMSF is taken into account as the foremost serious tick-borne ill health within the U.S. ... though the infection is often treated with success with antibiotics, it will cause serious injury to internal organs, or perhaps death if it isn’t treated at once. you'll cut back your risk by avoiding tick bites or promptly removing a tick that has bitten you.

Rocky Mountain rickettsiosis (RMSF) is an associate degree infection caused by the bite of an associate degree infected tick. It affects over a pair of,000 individuals a year within the U.S. and typically happens from Gregorian calendar month till Gregorian calendar month. But, it will occur anytime throughout the year wherever the weather is hot. it had been initially recognized within the mountain chain states, however could occur throughout the U.S. most typical areas affected are within the southeastern and south central U.S. The unwellness unfolds to humans through a bite from an associate degree infected tick. it's not unfold from person to person.


What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)



Explanation of medical terms and concept (RMSF)

Rocky Mountain rickettsiosis could be a microorganism infection transmitted by a tick. While not prompt treatment, mountain chain rickettsiosis will cause serious injury to internal organs, like your kidneys and heart.

Although it absolutely was 1st known within the mountain chain, mountain chain rickettsiosis is most ordinarily found within the southeastern part of the us. It additionally happens in components of North American countries, Mexico, Central America and South America.

Early signs and symptoms of mountain chain rickettsiosis embody a severe headache and high fever. A couple of days later, a rash typically seems on the wrists and ankles. mountain chain rickettsiosis responds well to prompt treatment with antibiotics.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious sometimes deadly bacterial infection that occurs in the United States and parts of Central and South America People get RMSF by being bitten by an infected tick The ticks are found mostly in wooded or brushy areas People can also get RMSF if they have contact with a sick animal such as a pet or livestock.

(RMSF) Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) a disease transmitted by the bite of an infected tick is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii RMSF occurs in North America especially in wooded regions where ticks are common The chance of developing RMSF depends on the time of year length and location of tick exposure as well as individual risk factors such as pets or livestock who have been impacted.

Symptoms (RMSF)

The period for mountain range rickettsiosis averages seven days; however , it varies from three to twelve days; the shorter the period, the more severe the infection.

Onset is abrupt, with severe headache, chills, prostration, and muscular pains. Fever reaches thirty-nine.5 to 40° C inside many days and remains high (for fifteen to twenty days in severe cases), though morning remissions might occur.

Between the first and sixth day of fever, most patients with RMSF develop a rash on the wrists, ankles, palms, soles, and forearms that chop-chop extends to the neck, face, axillae, buttocks, and trunk. at the start macular and pink, it becomes maculopapular and darker. In four days, the lesions become petechial and should coalesce to create massive trauma areas that later ulcerate.

Neurologic symptoms embody headache, restlessness, insomnia, delirium, and coma, all indicative of cephalitis.

Hypotension develops in severe cases. megalohepatia is also a gift, however jaundice is occasional. Nausea and regurgitation are common. Localized inflammation might occur. Untreated patients might develop respiratory disorder, tissue mortification, and cardiovascular disease, typically with brain and heart injury. Pathology with extra time often happens in sudden cases.

Although many people become ill within the first week after infection, signs and symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. Initial signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever often are nonspecific and can mimic those of other illnesses:

  • High fever

  • Chills

  • Severe headache

  • Muscle aches

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Confusion or other neurological changes

Rash is distinctive

The red, non itchy rash related to chain rickettsial disease usually seems 3 to 5 days once the initial signs and symptoms begin. The rash typically makes its start on your wrists and ankles, and might unfold in each direction — down into the palms of your hands and therefore the soles of your feet, and up your arms and legs to your trunk.

Some those that are infected with chain rickettsial disease do not ever develop a rash, that makes diagnosing rather more tough.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you develop a rash or become sick once a tick bite. mountain range rickettsiosis and alternative infectious diseases carried by ticks will progress apace and will be dangerous. If on the market, take the tick together with you to your doctor's workplace for laboratory identification.

Causes (RMSF)

RMSF is caused by a bacteria that unfolds to folks by the bite of an infected tick. In the U.S., the yankee dog tick, the Rocky Mountain Dermacentor variabilis, and therefore the brown dog tick area unit the ticks that transmit the RMSF microorganism.

Rocky Mountain rickettsial disease is caused by infection with the organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Ticks carrying R. rickettsii area unit the foremost common supply of infection.

If an infected tick attaches itself to your skin and feeds on your blood for 6 to ten hours, you'll devour the infection. however you'll ne'er see the tick on you.

Rocky Mountain rickettsial disease primarily happens once ticks are the most active and through heat weather once folks tend to pay longer outdoors. Rocky Mountain rickettsial disease can't unfold from person to person.

Risk factors (RMSF)

People living in or visiting areas where ticks are prevalent, particularly the southeastern and south central U.S., are at risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Factors that may increase your risk of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever include:

  • Living in an area where the disease is common

  • The time of year — infections are more common in the spring and early summer

  • How much time you spend in grassy or wooded areas

  • Whether you have a dog or spend time with dogs

If an infected tick attaches to your skin, you'll contract chain rickettsial disease after you take it away, as fluid from the tick will enter your body through a gap like the bite website.

You can reduce your risk of infection by taking steps to prevent exposure to ticks and tick fluids. When removing a tick from your skin:

  • Use a tweezers to grasp the tick near its head or mouth and remove it carefully

  • Treat the tick as if it's contaminated; soak it in alcohol or flush it down the toilet

  • Clean the bite area with antiseptic

  • Wash your hands thoroughly

Complications

Rocky Mountain rickettsiosis damages the liner of your smallest blood vessels, inflicting the vessels to leak or kind clots. this could cause:

  • Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). In addition to severe headaches, Rocky Mountain rickettsial disease will cause inflammation of the brain, which may cause confusion, seizures and delirium. 

  • Inflammation of the heart or lungs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause inflammation in areas of the heart and lungs. This can lead to heart failure or lung failure in severe cases.

  • Kidney failure. Your kidneys filter waste from your blood, and also the blood vessels inside the kidneys are terribly little and fragile. injury to those vessels will eventually end in renal failure. 

  • Serious infection, possibly amputation. Some of your smallest blood vessels are in your fingers and toes. If these vessels don't work properly, the tissue at your farthest extremities may develop gangrene and die. Amputation would then be necessary.

  • Death. Untreated, Rocky Mountain spotted fever has, historically, had a death rate as high as 80 percent.

Prevention

You can decrease your chances of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever by taking some simple precautions:

  • Wear long pants and sleeves. When walking in wooded or grass-covered areas, wear shoes, long trousers tucked into socks and long-sleeved shirts. try to persist with trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. 

  • Use insect repellents. Products containing DEET (Off! Deep Woods, Repel) typically repel ticks. make sure to follow the directions on the label. articles of clothing that have permethrin fertile into the material are venomous to ticks and additionally could also be useful in decreasing tick contact once outdoors. 

  • Do your best to tick-proof your yard. Clear brush and leaves where ticks live. Keep wood piles in sunny areas.

  • Check yourself and your pets for ticks. Do this after being in wooded or grassy areas. Some ticks are no bigger than the head of a pin, so you may not discover them unless you are very careful.

  • Remove a tick with tweezers. Gently grasp the tick close to its head or mouth. do not squeeze or crush the tick, however pull rigorously and steady. Once you have got the complete tick removed, wash the bite space with application or soap and water.
    Soak the tick in alcohol or bomb down the bathroom. Wash your hands totally to create certain any infected tick fluid is totally removed.
    Though there are several supposedly effective strategies for serving to get rid of a tick, like mixture, alcohol or perhaps applying a hot match to the tick's body, none could be a sensible methodology for tick removal. 

Diagnosis (RMSF)

Rocky Mountain rickettsiosis is often tough to diagnose as a result of the first signs and symptoms are the same as those caused by several different diseases.

Laboratory tests will check a blood sample, rash specimen or the tick itself for proof of the organism that causes the infection. As a result of early treatment with antibiotics is therefore necessary, doctors do not anticipate these check results before beginning treatment if chain fever is powerfully suspected.

Clinicians ought to suspect chain rickettsiosis in any seriously unwell patient WHO lives in or close to a tree-plant a place within the occident and has unexplained fever, headache, and prostration, with or while not a history of tick contact. A history of tick bite is induced in regarding seventieth of patients.

Testing is typically needed to substantiate RMSF however as a result of the constraints of presently accessible tests, clinicians generally should create treatment choices before receiving results of confirmatory testing.

If patients have a rash, a skin diagnostic assay ought to be taken from the rash web site. PCR or immunohistochemical staining, which may offer fairly speedy results, is used. Sensitivity of those tests is regarding seventieth once tissue specimens are collected throughout the acute unhealthiness and before antibiotic treatment is started. However, a negative check result doesn't justify withholding treatment once clinical manifestations recommend RMSF.

Treatment (RMSF)

RMSF is transmitted, or spread, through the bite of a tick that’s infected with a bacteria referred to as bacterium rickettsii. The bacterium unfolds through your vascular system and multiplies in your cells. though RMSF is caused by bacteria, you'll be able to solely be infected with the bacterium via a tick bite.

American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis)

Rocky Mountain ixodid (Dermacentor andersoni)

brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus)

Ticks area unit little arachnids that kill blood. Once a tick has bitten you, it should draw blood slowly over many days. The longer a tick is hooked up to your skin, the bigger the prospect of associate RMSF infection. Ticks area unit terribly little insects — therefore as little because of the head of a pin — so you will ne'er see a tick on your body once it bites you.

RMSF isn't contagious and can't unfold from person to person. However, your home dog is additionally at risk of RMSF. whereas you can’t get RMSF from your dog, if an infected tick is on your dog’s body, the tick will migrate to you whereas you’re holding your pet.

People who develop mountain range rickettsiosis area unit rather more seemingly to avoid complications if treated at intervals 5 days of developing symptoms. That is why your doctor can in all probability have you ever begin antibiotic medical care before receiving conclusive check results.

Doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin, others) is the best treatment for mountain range rickettsiosis, however it is not a decent selection if you are pregnant. Therein case, your doctor could dictate antibiotics as another.

Preparing for your appointment

You'll likely begin by seeing your general practitioner. In some cases, you could possibly be said to be a doctor . The World Health Organization specializes in infectious diseases.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if you need to do anything in advance.

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down key personal information, including any recent life changes or travel.

  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.

  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For Rocky Mountain spotted fever, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?

  • Do I need any tests?

  • What treatments are available? Which do you recommend?

  • Do I need follow-up testing?

  • I have other health problems. How can I best manage these conditions together?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask some of the following questions:

  • What are your symptoms, and when did they start?

  • Have you recently been bitten by a tick?

  • Do you spend a lot of time outdoors in grassy or wooded areas?

  • Have you recently removed any ticks from family pets?

  • Is anyone else in your family ill?

  • Have you traveled anywhere recently?

General summary

Most of the time the body is able to fight off Rocky Mountain spotted fever However it is important for you to seek medical assistance if you begin experiencing symptoms of this condition. If treatment has started within 72 hours of the onset of these symptoms your chances of recovery from Rocky Mountain spotted fever are good.

Is Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs curable?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever or R.M.S.F. is a bacterial infection that can be fatal if not treated immediately according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention This disease is transmitted by ticks and causes symptoms similar to those of Lyme disease: lethargy fever muscle pain and loss of appetite Although treatment with antibiotics can help dogs survive this disease there is currently no vaccine available.

What happens if Rocky Mountain spotted fever goes untreated?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever a serious infectious disease caused by a bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii can be fatal if not treated Untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever can result in death within two to three weeks of infection If a person develops the rash and complains of flu-like symptoms that go away and then return one to two months later along with high temperature (102 F or greater) stiff neck and vomiting he should see his doctor immediately.

How serious is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious illness that causes fever muscle and joint pain nausea vomiting and a rash In rare cases it can be fatal RMSF is caused by the bite of an infected tick—typically found in wooded and brushy areas of the Midwest Rocky Mountains and Southeast If you develop symptoms after being bitten by a tick or spending time in a wooded area where these ticks live see your healthcare professional immediately for treatment with doxycycline.

What are the long-term side effects of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious disease caused by bacteria RMSF can cause high fever severe headaches and body aches nausea and vomiting abdominal pain stiff neck rashes and red spots on the palms of hands and soles of feet Although anyone can get RMSF most cases occur in children under age 5 or adults over age 40. Most people fully recover from the illness within 3 to 4 weeks without treatment However some people have fatal cases of RMSF because the bacteria spread to their brain or other organs.

How long does a tick have to be attached to transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

It takes 24 to 36 hours for the bacteria causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever to be transmitted from a tick to its host. After that the symptoms of this infection appear and peak 48 to 72 hours after being bitten by a tick carrying the disease.

Does a tick have to be engorged to transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

No Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be transmitted before the tick has had a chance to become fully engorged. This is one more reason that people should take steps to prevent tick bites.

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Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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