Scarlet fever : Causes-Symptoms-Diagnosis-Treatment

 What is scarlet fever?

Scarlet fever may be a microorganism unwellness that usually presents with a particular rash created of little pinkish-red spots that cowl the total body. It affects folks that have recently had pharyngitis (strep throat) or college sores (impetigo) caused by bound strains of the group A microorganism} bacteria. A poisonous substance free by the eubacterium} bacteria causes the rash of scarlatina.

Scarlet fever (also called scarlatina) is AN unwellness which will happen in children WHO even have infection or strep skin infections. The strep bacteria build a poisonous substance (poison) that causes a bright red, bumpy rash.

What is scarlet fever?
scarlet fever

The rash spreads over most of the body and is what offers scarlatina its name. It usually feels like a foul sunburn with fine bumps which will feel rough like sandpaper, and it will itch. it always starts to travel away when regarding six days, however may peel for many weeks because the skin heals.

If your kid has a rash like this, it is vital to make a decision with your doctor. Children with scarlatina are treated with antibiotics.

  1. Skin

  2. Subcutaneous tissue

Medical terms

  • Scarlet fever may be a microorganism ill health that develops in some those who have raw throat. additionally called contagious disease, scarlatina options a bright red rash that covers most of the body. scarlatina is sort of continually in the course of an inflammatory disease and a high fever.

  • Scarlet fever is commonest in kids five to fifteen years elderly. Although scarlatina was once thought-about a significant childhood illness, antibiotic treatments have made it less threatening. Still, if left untreated, scarlatina may end up in more-serious conditions that have an effect on the guts, kidneys and alternative elements of the body.

  • The symptoms of scarlet fever usually appear between one and two weeks after an individual has been infected The first symptom is usually severe sore throat that is worse when it’s touched or when swallowing Other common symptoms include a pinkish-red rash which appears on the chest cheeks and neck Patients also experience a loss of appetite headache nausea and vomiting as well as abdominal pains in some cases Scarlet fever generally lasts around one to two weeks with most patients recovering completely within six days of their symptoms appearing Despite this fact scarlet fever can cause complications in children such as ear infections or rheumatic fever.

: why it's important to know the symptoms and treatment Scarlet fever is a bacterial illness usually caught in childhood There are around 8,000 cases of scarlet fever each year in England and Wales It was common in Victorian times but has now been largely eradicated thanks to antibiotics However parents should still be aware of its symptoms because it can return if antibiotics are not given early enough or if someone else is infected If your child contracts scarlet fever there are several things you can do at home to speed up recovery time and reduce the risk of complications such as pneumonia.

Symptoms Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever typically starts with a fulminant fever related to inflammatory disease, swollen neck glands, headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of craving, swollen and red strawberry tongue, abdominal pain, body aches, and uneasiness.

The characteristic rash seems 12–48 hours once the beginning of the fever. The rash typically starts below the ears, neck, chest, armpits and groin before spreading to the remainder of the body over twenty four hours.

Scarlet spots or blotches, giving a stewed lobster look, are usually the primary sign of rash.

As skin lesions progress and become more widespread, they begin to appear like sunburn with goose pimples. The skin could have a rough sandpaper-like feel.

In body folds, particularly the armpits and elbows, fragile blood vessels (capillaries) will rupture and cause classic red streaks known as Pastia lines. These could persist for 1-2 days once the generalized rash has gone.

In the untreated patient, the fever peaks by the second day and bit by bit returns to tradition in 5–7 days. Once treated with applicable antibiotics, the fever typically resolves during 12-24 hours.

By regarding the sixth day of the infection the rash starts to fade and peeling, like that of unhealthy skin, occurs. Peeling of the skin is most distinguished within the armpits, groin, and tips of the fingers and/or toes and should continue up to six weeks.

The signs and symptoms that give scarlet fever its name include:

  • Red rash. The rash looks like a sunburn and feels like sandpaper. It typically begins on the face or neck and spreads to the trunk, arms and legs. If pressure is applied to the reddened skin, it will turn pale.

  • Red lines. The folds of skin around the groin, armpits, elbows, knees and neck usually become a deeper red than the surrounding rash.

  • Flushed face. The face may appear flushed with a pale ring around the mouth.

  • Strawberry tongue. The tongue typically appears red and jolting, and it's usually coated with a white coating early within the illness.
    The rash and also the redness within the face and tongue typically last a couple of weeks. When these signs and symptoms have subsided, the skin suffering from the rash usually peels. different signs and symptoms related to contagion include: 

  • Fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or higher, often with chills

  • Very sore and red throat, sometimes with white or yellowish patches

  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Enlarged glands in the neck (lymph nodes) that are tender to the touch

  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Headache

When to see a doctor

Talk to your doctor if your child has a sore throat with:

  • A fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or higher

  • Swollen or tender glands in the neck

  • A red rash

Causes Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is caused by an equivalent variety of bacterium that causes a raw throat. In scarlatina, the bacterium unharness is a poison that produces the rash and red tongue.

The infection spreads from person to person via droplets expelled once an infected person coughs or sneezes. The time period — the time between exposure and malady — is typically 2 to four days.

Risk factors Scarlet fever

Children five to fifteen years mature area unit additional doubtless than area unit people to urge scarlatina. Scarlatina germs unfold additionally simply among individuals in close contact, like relations or classmates.

Complications Scarlet fever

If scarlet fever goes untreated, the bacteria may spread to the:

  • Tonsils

  • Lungs

  • Skin

  • Kidneys

  • Blood

  • Middle ear

Rarely, scarlet fever can lead to rheumatic fever, a serious condition that can affect the:

  • Heart

  • Joints

  • Nervous system

  • Skin

Can scarlet fever go away on its own?

Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that affects the skin glands and throat It usually goes away on its own with treatment of antibiotics But sometimes an infection can develop if you don't complete the prescribed antibiotic treatment The following are signs of complications that require seeking medical help.

How serious is scarlet fever?

Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that causes a characteristic red rash that can vary in appearance It usually begins as small pink flat spots on the forehead and chest These break out into small blisters that are joined by small red streaks Over the next few days the blisters become larger and flatter forming a scaly pattern over the affected skin area The throat may also swell and cause pain when swallowing.

What happens if scarlet fever goes untreated?

Untreated scarlet fever can lead to rheumatic fever which is a condition that damages the heart and joints. Rheumatic fever is serious and requires hospitalization for treatment.

Can scarlet fever cause problems later in life?

Scarlet fever caused by the bacteria group streptococcus typically occurs in children younger than 5 years old and has an incubation period of two weeks to three months after infection It is characterized by swollen red throat and tonsils body aches headache vomiting and a rash that appears on the chest and stomach during the second day of illness Most cases are mild; however complications can include ear infections rheumatic fever and kidney problems Scarlet fever can be treated with antibiotics.

What is scarlet fever called today?

Scarlet fever is no longer simply called scarlet fever Today it's referred to as scarlet fever or scarlatina; either way it's caused by a strain of streptococcus bacteria that typically infects the skin and throat (and sometimes the lungs) The disease is spread through contact with an infected person objects and surfaces contaminated with their saliva Symptoms include sore throat stomach-ache vomiting and a rash that appears three to five days after exposure to the virus The red blotches on your skin look like someone slapped you with a red handkerchief hence the name "scarlet.

Prevention Scarlet fever

To prevent unfold of eubacteria} bacteria that cause contagious disease, Associate in Nursing infected individual ought to ideally be isolated from alternative members of the family, particularly from infants and younger siblings. to assist stop unfold, keep drinking glasses and consumption utensils employed by the infected individual break free those of alternative members of the family. These things got to be washed totally in extremely popular cleansing agent water, ideally with medicament soap or detergent.

Children ought to be unbroken faraway from college till they need to receive a minimum of twenty four hours of antibiotic medical aid and their square measure clear signs of improvement.

There is no vaccine to prevent scarlet fever. The best prevention strategies for scarlet fever are the same as the standard precautions against infections:

  • Wash your hands. Show your child how to wash his or her hands thoroughly with warm soapy water.

  • Don't share dining utensils or food. As a rule, your child shouldn't share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates. This rule applies to sharing food, too.

  • Cover your mouth and nose. Tell your kid to hide his or her mouth and nose once coughing and unconditioned reflex to forestall the potential unfold of germs.
    If your kid has scarlatina, wash his or her drinking glasses, utensils, and, if attainable, toys in hot cleaner water or in a very dishwasher. 

Diagnosis Scarlet fever

A doctor will commonly diagnose scarlatina by watching the signs and symptoms.

A throat swab could facilitate verifying that bacteria caused the infection. generally a biopsy is additionally ordered.

During the physical exam, your doctor will:

  • Look at the condition of your child's throat, tonsils and tongue

  • Feel your child's neck to determine if lymph nodes are enlarged

  • Assess the appearance and texture of the rash

Throat swab

If your doctor suspects strep is the reason for your child's malady, he or she's going to additionally swab the tonsils and back of your child's throat to gather material which will harbor the strep microorganism.

Tests for the strep microorganism area unit vital as a result of a variety of conditions will cause the signs and symptoms of scarlatina, and these illnesses could need completely different treatments. If there are not any strep microorganisms, then another issue is inflicting the malady.

Treatment Scarlet fever

If your kid has scarlatina, your doctor can visit an Associate in Nursing antibiotic. certify your kid completes the complete course of medication. Failure to follow the treatment tips might not fully eliminate the infection and can increase your child's risk of developing complications.

Your kid will come to highschool once he or she has taken antibiotics for a minimum of twenty four hours and does not include a fever.

Once a true bacteria infection is confirmed, a course of antibiotics is prescribed, typically antibiotic, for up to ten days. It's important that the complete antibiotic course is taken to confirm all the infection is cleared, to cut back the chance of complications.

In some things one dose of antibiotic is also given by shot. Patients allergic to antibiotics are also treated with another antibiotic, like antibiotics.


Additional treatments include:

  • Paracetamol when necessary for fever, headache or throat pain.

  • Eating soft foods and drinking plenty of cool liquids, particularly if the throat is very painful.

  • Oral antihistamines and emollients to relieve the itch of rash.

  • Keep fingernails short on young children to prevent them from damaging the skin.

The fever usually improves within 12-24 hours after starting antibiotics and most patients recover after 4-5 days with clearing of skin symptoms over several weeks.

Lifestyle and home remedies

You can take a number of steps to reduce your child's discomfort and pain.

  • Treat fever and pain. Use ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Motrin, others) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) to control the fever and minimize throat pain.

  • Provide adequate fluids. Give your child plenty of water to keep the throat moist and prevent dehydration.

  • Prepare a saltwater gargle. If your child is able to gargle water, give him or her salty water to gargle and then spit out. This may ease the throat pain.

  • Humidify the air. Use a cool mist humidifier to eliminate dry air that may further irritate a sore throat.

  • Offer lozenges. Children older than age 4 can suck on lozenges to relieve a sore throat.

  • Provide comforting foods. Warm liquids such as soup and cold treats like ice pops can soothe a sore throat.

  • Avoid irritants. Keep your home free from cigarette smoke and cleaning products that can irritate the throat.

Preparing for your appointment

You're seemingly to initially see your GP or your child's podiatrist. However, once you decision to line up your appointment, you'll be urged to hunt immediate treatment if your kid is experiencing any of the following:

  • High fever

  • Severe sore throat with difficulty swallowing

  • Intense abdominal pain or vomiting

  • Severe headache

What you can do

Before your appointment, you might want to write a list of questions for the doctor:

  • How soon after my child begins treatment will he or she begin to feel better?

  • Is my child at risk of any long-term complications related to scarlet fever?

  • Is there anything I can do to help soothe my child's skin while it heals?

  • When can my child return to school?

  • Is my child contagious? How can I reduce my child's risk of passing the illness to others?

  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing? What if my child is allergic to penicillin?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to talk about in-depth. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did your child begin experiencing symptoms?

  • Has your child had a sore throat or difficulty swallowing?

  • Has your child had a fever? How high was the fever, and how long did it last?

  • Has your child had abdominal pain or vomiting?

  • Has your child been eating adequately?

  • Has your child complained of a headache?

  • Has your child recently had a strep infection?

  • Has your child recently been exposed to anyone with a strep infection?

  • Has your child been diagnosed with any other medical conditions?

  • Is your child currently taking any medications?

  • Does your child have medication allergies?

General summary

  1. Those who suffer from scarlet fever will likely be prescribed antibiotics which are the preferred treatment for this illness. Antibiotics can help you get rid of the streptococcal bacteria responsible for causing this disease in your body.

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