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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

 What is Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)?

Tetralogy of Fallot  (TOF) could be a internal organ anomaly that refers to a mix of 4 connected heart defects that ordinarily occur together.Tetralogy of Fallot (pronounced te-tral-uh-jee of Fal-oh) is a congenital anomaly that affects normal blood flow through the heart. It happens once a baby’s heart doesn't type properly because the baby grows and develops within the mother’s uterus throughout pregnancy.

The conventional heart has four chambers. The 2 higher chambers referred to as atria are separated from one another by a fibrous partition known as the chamber septum. The 2 lower chambers are known as ventricles and are separated from ANother} by the bodily cavity septum. Valves connect the atria (left and right) to their several ventricles. The valves provide blood to be pumped up through the chambers. Blood travels from the correct ventricle through the artery to the lungs wherever it receives oxygen. The blood returns to the guts through pulmonary veins and enters the heart ventricle. The left ventricle sends the currently oxygen-filled blood into the most artery of the body (aorta). The artery sends the blood throughout the body.


bodily cavity congenital heart defect


The guts have an inner wall that separates the 2 chambers, known as a septum. The septum stops admixture of the blood between the two sides. A bodily cavity congenital heart defect could be a hole within the septum that causes chemical element-rich blood (left ventricle) and also the oxygen-poor blood (right ventricle) to mix.


stenosis


This defect is the narrowing of the semilunar valve that flows oxygen poor blood into the artery and from there the blood travels to the lungs to select up oxygen. stenosis is once the pulmonic valve cannot open fully, creating the guts work more durable and ends up in a lack of blood reaching the lung.


Right bodily cavity Hypertrophy


The muscle of the correct ventricle is thicker because of the right aspect of the guts receiving excessive blood due the left side of the heart through the ventricular congenital heart defect and dealing harder.


dominant arteria


In an exceedingly traditional heart, the aorta is hooked up to the heart ventricle and permits oxygen-rich blood to flow throughout the body. In an exceedingly series of doctor's hearts, the aorta is found between each the left and also the right ventricle. This causes oxygen-poor blood from the correct ventricle to flow into the arteria rather than the pulmonary artery. If infants with a series of doctors aren't treated, the symptoms sometimes become additional} more severe. Blood flow to the lungs is also diminished and severe symptoms might cause serious complications. The precise reason for the tetralogy of Fallot isn't known. 


Tetralogy of Fallot  (TOF) is the commonest sort of cyanotic inborn heart disease. symptom is the abnormal blue discoloration of the skin that happens as a result of low levels of current chemical elements within the blood. series of Fallot consists of the mix of four completely different heart defects: a bodily cavity congenital heart defect (VSD); impeded outflow of blood from the correct ventricle to the lungs (pulmonary stenosis); a displaced arteria, that causes blood to flow into the aorta from each the right and left ventricles (dextroposition or dominant aorta); and abnormal enlargement of the right ventricle (right ventricular hypertrophy). The severity of the symptoms is said to be the degree of blood flow obstruction from the right ventricle.


What is Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)


Explanation of medical terms and concept Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

Tetralogy of Fallot (the-TRAIL-oh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a rare condition caused by a mix of 4 heart defects that are given at birth (congenital). These defects, that have an effect on the structure of the guts, cause oxygen-poor blood to effuse of the heart and to the remainder of the body. Infants and youngsters with the Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin as a result of their blood not carrying enough oxygen. The series of Fallot is usually diagnosed whereas the baby may be a child or before long after. Sometimes, reckoning on the severity of the defects and symptoms, tetralogy of Fallot isn't detected till adulthood. All babies who have a series of Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot would like corrective surgery. individuals with tetralogy of Fallot need regular doctor' checkups for the remainder of their life and will have activity restrictions. 

Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most common congenital heart defects affecting 1 in 5,000 newborns The condition occurs when there are four problems with the heart during development before birth: pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve) underdeveloped right ventricle overgrowth of the muscular portion of the right ventricle and a membrane across the pulmonary artery that restricts blood flow to lungs Tetralogy of Fallot affects both males and females equally and symptoms vary from person to person.

The four defects of tetralogy of Fallot include a deformed valve separating the two lower chambers in the heart an abnormal narrowing of the outlet between the upper and lower chambers (the ventricular septal defect) a right ventricle that is larger than normal and a narrowed pulmonary artery.

Symptoms Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

The symptoms of tetralogy of Fallot vary widely from person to person. The severity of the symptoms, which can vary from gentle to severe, is said to be the degree of blood flow obstruction from the correct ventricle. The Tetralogy of Fallott could also be a gift at birth or emerge among the primary year of life. The foremost common symptom of this disorder is abnormal bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis). this might occur whereas the kid is at rest or crying. The secretion membranes of the lips and mouth, fingertips, and toenails may be significantly blue thanks to the lack of oxygen. Affected babes could have respiratory (dyspnea); as a result, Associate in Nursing inclination} to play for brief periods then rest. alternative symptoms may embody a heart murmur, simple fatigability, poor appetite, slow weight gain, heart murmurs, an abnormal increase within the numbers of red blood cells (polycythemia), fingers and toes with wide, enlarged tips and overhanging nails (clubbing), and/or delayed physical growth. Some infants with a series of doctors may experience episodes of severe symptom and breathing difficulty (paroxysmal hypercyanotic attack or “blue” or “tet '' spells). Throughout these episodes, the infant may become restless, very cyanotic whereas dyspneic for air and nonresponsive to the parent's voices. In extreme situations, infants may pass out. A characteristic squatting position could also be assumed to assist breathing. Severe attacks may cause loss of consciousness, and infrequently to convulsions or temporary dysfunction on one facet of the body (hemiparesis). These spells may last for many minutes to a few hours and will be followed by amounts of muscle weakness and a protracted period of sleep. a range of alternative complications may occur in association with the Tetralogy of Fallot. These may embody gentle anemia in infants, abnormal increase within the variety of red blood cells (polycythemia) in older children, and coagulation (coagulation) defects. These blood abnormalities could cause the formation of blood clots that may travel through the bloodstream (embolisms). These blood clots may cause the blood provided to the brain (cerebral infarctions) to be interrupted temporarily. extra complications may embody infectious inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis) and brain abscesses. In some cases, the affiliation between the arterial blood vessel and also the pulmonary artery, that commonly closes before birth, may stay open (patent ductus arteriosus). The symptoms related to this condition vary depending upon the size of the gap and will embody speedy breathing, frequent metastasis infections, and simple fatigability. symptom cardiomyopathy is rare, except in association with microorganism infection of the guts (endocarditis) or abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). However, a standard sign may be a heart murmur, or an additional sound detected whereas taking note of the heartbeat. The foremost severe type of serial of doctor is understood as pseudotruncus arteriosus. Infants with this type of the disorder experience severe symptoms that relate to the profound obstruction of the correct bodily cavity blood flow and severe underdevelopment of associated blood vessels and valves regarding the lungs (pulmonary atresia). bodily cavity septate defects are sometimes severe during this type of the disorder. Severe cyanosis, alarmingly low levels of current oxygen, and excessive circulating red blood cells (polycythemia) are the most important options of pseudotruncus arteriosus. (For additional information, see “Ventricular septal Defect” within the connected Disorders section of this report.)

Tetralogy of Fallot symptoms vary, depending on the amount of blood flow that's blocked. Signs and symptoms may include:

  • A bluish coloration of the skin caused by low blood oxygen levels (cyanosis)

  • Shortness of breath and rapid breathing, especially during feeding or exercise

  • Poor weight gain

  • Tiring easily during play or exercise

  • Irritability

  • Prolonged crying

  • Heart murmur

  • Fainting

  • An abnormal, rounded shape of the nail bed in the fingers and toes (clubbing)

Tet spells

Sometimes babies with tetralogy of Fallot  suddenly develop light blue skin, nails, and lips after crying, feeding, or when they are upset.

 These episodes are called Tet spells. Tet episodes are caused by a rapid drop in the amount of oxygen in the blood. Episodes of text are most common in young babies, around 2 to 4 months of age. Younger or older children may instinctively squat when they are short of breath.Squatting increases blood flow to the lungs.

When to see a doctor

Seek medical help if you notice that your baby has the following signs or symptoms:

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Bluish discoloration of the skin

  • Passing out or seizures

  • Weakness

  • Unusual irritability

If your baby is turning blue (cyanotic), lay him on his  side and bring your baby's knees  to your chest. This helps increase blood flow to the lungs. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

Causes Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

The exact cause of tetralogy of Fallot is unknown. However, some studies suggest that the disorder may be due to the interaction of several genetic and/or environmental (multifactorial) factors. Therefore, researchers suspect that something may be affecting the genes in the developing fetus that causes this birth defect, but the exact nature of this trigger is unknown.

 Some conditions that may increase your risk of having a child with tetralogy of Fallot include viral diseases, alcohol use, diabetes, poor diet, and becoming pregnant after the age of 40.

 About 25 percent of babies with tetralogy of Fallot also have other  birth defects unrelated to the function or structure of the heart.Tetralogy of Fallot occurs when the baby's heart develops during pregnancy. Usually the cause is unknown.

 Tetralogy of Fallot includes four defects:

  • Narrowing of the lung valve (pulmonary valve stenosis). The narrowing of the valve that separates the lower right ventricle (right ventricle) from the main blood vessel  to the lungs (pulmonary artery) reduces blood flow to the lungs. The narrowing could also affect the muscle below the pulmonary valve. Sometimes the pulmonary valve does not form properly (pulmonary atresia). 

  • A hole between the bottom heart chambers (ventricular septal defect). A ventricular septal defect is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the heart's two lower chambers  (left and right ventricles). Oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle mixes with oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle through the hole. This leads to inefficient blood flow and reduces the body's supply of oxygen-rich blood. The defect can eventually  weaken the heart. 

  • Shifting of the body's main artery (aorta). Normally, the aorta branches off from the left ventricle. In tetralogy of Fallot, the aorta is in the wrong position. It is shifted to the right and lies directly over the hole in the heart wall (ventricular septal defect). As a result, the aorta receives a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from  the right and left ventricles of the heart. 

  • Thickening of the right lower heart chamber (right ventricular hypertrophy). When the heart's pumping capacity is overloaded, the muscular wall of the right ventricle thickens. Over time, this can cause the heart to harden, weaken, and eventually fail.
    Some children or adults with tetralogy of Fallot may have other heart defects, such as B. a hole between the  upper chambers of the heart (atrial septal defect), a right aortic arch or problems with the coronary arteries. 

Risk factors Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

The causes of heart defects (eg, tetralogy of Fallot) in most babies are unknown. Some babies have heart defects due to changes in their genes or chromosomes. Heart defects such as tetralogy of Fallot are also  thought to be caused by a combination of genes and other risk factors, such as:

 Although the exact cause of tetralogy of Fallot is unknown, some things can increase the risk of a baby being born with the condition. Risk factors for tetralogy of Fallot include:

  • A viral illness during pregnancy, such as rubella (German measles)

  • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy

  • Poor nutrition during pregnancy

  • A mother older than age 40

  • A parent who has tetralogy of Fallot

  • The presence of Down syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome in the baby

Complications

A possible complication of tetralogy of Fallot is infection of the inner lining of the heart or heart valve caused by a bacterial infection (infectious endocarditis). Your doctor or your child's doctor may recommend taking antibiotics before certain dental procedures to prevent infections that could cause this infection.

 People with untreated tetralogy of Fallot usually develop serious complications over time that can result in death or disability in early adulthood.

Complications from tetralogy of Fallot surgery

Although most infants and adults do well after open-heart surgery to repair tetralogy of Fallot defects (intracardiac repair), long-term complications are common. Complications can be:

  • Leaking pulmonary valve (chronic pulmonary regurgitation), in which blood leaks through the valve back into the pumping chamber (right ventricle)

  • Leaking tricuspid valve

  • Holes in the wall between the ventricles (ventricular septal defects) that may continue to leak after repair or may need re-repair

  • Enlarged right ventricle or left ventricle that isn't working properly

  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)

  • Coronary artery disease

  • Enlargement of the ascending aorta (aortic root dilation)

  • Sudden cardiac death

It's very important to have regular checkups with a heart doctor trained in caring for people with congenital heart disease (pediatric cardiologist or adult congenital cardiologist).

Diagnosis Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

When a newborn with significant cyanosis is first seen, supplemental oxygen is often given. The increased oxygen level improves the  oxygen level of the child with lung disease, but breathing supplemental oxygen has little effect on the oxygen level of a child with tetralogy of Fallot.

 Failure to respond to this “hyperoxia test” is often the first indication of a cyanotic heart defect. Babies with tetralogy of Fallot may have normal oxygen levels if the pulmonary stenosis is mild (referred to as "pink" tetralogy of Fallot). In these children, the first clue that points to  a heart defect is recognizing a loud noise when the baby is examined.Once congenital heart disease is suspected, echocardiography can quickly and accurately demonstrate the four related defects characteristic of tetralogy of Fallot.

 Cardiac catheterization is sometimes necessary to assess the size and distribution of the pulmonary arteries and to clarify the branching patterns of the coronary arteries. Catheterization can also show if patients have pulmonary blood flow supplied by an abnormal blood vessel in the aorta (aortopulmonary collaterals).

 Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed soon after birth. Your baby's skin may appear blue.A doctor can hear an abnormal wheezing (heart murmur) by listening to the baby's heart with a stethoscope.

Tests to diagnose tetralogy of Fallot include:

  • Oxygen level measurement (pulse oximetry). A small sensor placed on a finger or toe measures the amount of oxygen in the blood.

  • Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create images of the heart in motion. An echocardiogram can show the structure, location, and function of the heart wall, heart chambers, heart and lung valves, and the aorta. 

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). An electrocardiogram records the electrical activity of the heart with each contraction. During this procedure, adhesive patches with wires (electrodes) are placed on your chest, wrists, and ankles. The electrodes are connected to a computer that displays your heart rate. An EKG can help determine whether the heart's chambers are enlarged and whether there is an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia). 

  • Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can show the structure of the heart and lungs. A common sign of tetralogy of Fallot on an X-ray is a boot-shaped heart, because the right ventricle is enlarged.

  • Cardiac catheterization. Doctors can use this test to evaluate the structure of the heart and plan surgical treatment. In this procedure, the doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a blood vessel, usually in the groin, and guides it to the heart.
    The dye flows through the catheter to make the structures of the heart  easier to see on X-rays. During the procedure, the doctor can measure the pressure and oxygen levels in the heart chambers and blood vessels. 

Treatment Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

The definitive treatment for tetralogy of Fallot is surgery (ie, Blalock-Taussig bypass procedure, aortic/pulmonary bypass graft, intracardiac repair, pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty, and/or valve replacement). Surgical correction of this cardiac malformation is best done in childhood. The selection of the exact surgical procedure depends on the severity of the symptoms and the extent of the malformation.The surgeon widens the pulmonary valve and widens the passageway from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. A patch covers the hole in the septum to repair the ventricular septal defect. Resolving the VSD and  pulmonary valve problems corrects the other two defects.

 Temporary surgery may be recommended Babies are too weak or small to undergo full reconstructive surgery; The full repair operation will be done when the baby is stronger. A tube, or "shunt," is placed between a large artery branching off the aorta and the pulmonary artery.It creates a path for blood to travel to the lungs for oxygen. The tube is removed during the full repair operation.

 If early repair is not possible, other surgical options can be used in infancy or early childhood.

 Before surgery, treatment to control symptoms (palliative) may include maintaining adequate fluid intake (hydration), monitoring blood hemoglobin levels, and avoiding strenuous exercise. heart medication (e.g.p. digitalis)  to  control irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias), fast heartbeats and/or heart failure.

 Episodes of severe symptoms or “blue episodes” (hypoxia) may require  administration of supplemental oxygen, morphine, and/or other drugs that increase oxygen levels. Kneeling and chest positioning can also provide some symptomatic relief. Sodium bicarbonate can be given to reduce abnormally high levels of acid in the blood (acidosis).The drug propranolol can be given to  prevent future episodes and  reduce their severity. Medications that help  remove excess fluid from the body

 (diuretics),  salt restriction, and bed rest may be effective in treating congestive heart failure.

 Antibiotics may be prescribed to babies with tetralogy of Fallot to  prevent infection (prophylaxis) because children with the condition are susceptible to bacterial infections of the heart (endocarditis). Respiratory infections should be treated aggressively and early. Children should be given antibiotics at times of predictable risk (eg.e.g. tooth extractions and surgeries). Other treatments are symptomatic and supportive.

 Although the risk of tetralogy of Fallot in  siblings of infants with the disorder is estimated to be very low, genetic counseling can be beneficial for parents and other family members.

 All babies with tetralogy of Fallot require corrective surgery  by a cardiac (cardiovascular) surgeon.Without treatment, your baby cannot grow and develop properly. Your doctor will determine the most appropriate surgery and  timing of  surgery based on your or your child's condition.

 Some children may need medication while awaiting surgery to keep blood flowing from the heart to the lungs.

Surgery or other procedures

Tetralogy of Fallot surgery involves open-heart surgery to correct the defects (intracardiac repair) or a temporary procedure that uses a bypass. Most infants and older children undergo intracardiac repair.

Intracardiac repair

This open-heart surgery is usually performed within the first year after birth and involves various repairs. Adults with tetralogy of Fallot may rarely have this procedure if they did not have surgery as children.

During intracardiac repair, the surgeon will:

  • Patch over the ventricular septal defect to close the hole between the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles).

  • Repair or replace the narrowed pulmonary valve to increase blood flow to the lungs.

Because the right ventricle doesn't have to work as hard to pump blood after this procedure, the right ventricular wall returns to its normal thickness. After intracardiac repair, blood oxygen levels increase and symptoms decrease.

Temporary shunt surgery

Occasionally, babies may need  temporary (palliative) surgery  to improve blood flow to the lungs before an intracardiac repair. This procedure can be done if your baby was born prematurely or if his pulmonary arteries  are underdeveloped (hypoplastic).

 In this procedure, the surgeon places a bypass (bypass) between a large artery that branches off  the aorta and the pulmonary artery.

 When your baby is ready for the intracardiac repair, the surgeon removes the shunt during the  intracardiac repair procedure.

After surgery

Long-term survival rates for people who have had tetralogy of Fallot  continue to improve.

 Sometimes, however, blood flow to the lungs can still be restricted after surgery for tetralogy of Fallot. Additional surgeries may be required. An adult with repaired tetralogy of Fallot may have a leaking pulmonary valve (pulmonary valve regurgitation) and may need to be replaced.

 Heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias) often occur after tetralogy of Fallot.Your doctor may recommend medications, a procedure to treat abnormal heart rhythms (ablation), or a special pacemaker to treat life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms (implantable cardioverter defibrillator).

Ongoing care

People with tetralogy of Fallot require lifelong care from a pediatric or adult congenital cardiologist to ensure the  success of the surgery and to manage complications. Check-ups often include imaging tests to see how well the treatment is working. 

Lifestyle and home remedies

After tetralogy of Fallot, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes and advice to help you manage your condition or your child's condition, including:

  • Preventing infection. A child, teen, or adult with serious heart defects may need preventative antibiotics before certain dental procedures and surgeries. Your doctor or your child's doctor can tell you if this is necessary. Good oral hygiene and  regular check-ups at the dentist are important measures to  prevent infection. 

  • Limiting certain types of exercise. The doctor may recommend that you or your child limit strenuous physical activity, especially if there are abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) or a leak or obstruction in the pulmonary valve. Decisions about exercise should be made on an individual basis. Talk to your doctor or your child's doctor about what activities are safe.
    If you are an adult with a congenital heart defect you may have other concerns including: 

  • Employment. If you have serious heart rhythm problems or the potential for life-threatening complications, evaluation by a specialty team is needed to determine your specific risk, provide therapy and counsel you regarding employment.

  • Pregnancy. A serious heart defect or arrhythmia can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy. If you have a congenital heart defect, discuss family planning with your doctor. Your doctor may recommend that you seek treatment from doctors trained in congenital heart disease, genetics, and high-risk obstetrics during your pregnancy. Some heart medications are unsafe during pregnancy and may need to be stopped or adjusted before you become pregnant. 

Coping and support

It's natural to be concerned when you or your child is diagnosed with a congenital heart defect. Here are some ways  you can reduce stress and anxiety and better manage your condition or your child's.

  • Join a support group. A support group allows you to share personal experiences and feelings with others  going through similar challenges. Some people find that a support group gives them hope, encouragement, and support. Ask your doctor if there are  support groups in your area for parents of children with heart defects or adults with congenital heart defects. 

  • Ask for help and take a break. If your child has a heart defect,  give yourself a break every now and then. Ask other family members or friends to help you care for your child. If your child is in the hospital, see if you can schedule visits from friends and family  so  you can go home to  shower or nap or  spend time with your other children. 

  • Keep a diary. To  coordinate care for you or your child, you can keep a notebook that lists your diagnosis, medications, surgeries, and dates, as well as the name and number of the cardiologist or your child. This information is valuable to others who may be caring for your child and will help any new doctor understand your or your child's medical history. 

  • Review your health insurance plan. If you change health insurance plans, be sure your new plan will cover your or your child's care. Some plans might not allow coverage for preexisting conditions or might require a waiting period.

Preparing for your appointment

You will probably start by seeing your GP. You or your child will be referred to a doctor (cardiologist) who is trained to treat heart disease.

 Here you will find information to help you prepare for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor/your child's doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. When making the appointment, ask if there is anything you need to do beforehand, such as B. a restriction of your diet or that of your child. 

  • Write down any symptoms you or your baby is experiencing, including any that might seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.

  • Write down your or your child's family history, including details from both the maternal and paternal sides of the family.

  • Ask a family member or friend to come with you, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all of the information provided to you during an appointment.

  • Write down questions to ask the doctor.

Creating a list of questions will help you make the most of your appointment time. For tetralogy of Fallot, some basic questions to ask your doctor or your child's doctor are:

  • What's the most likely cause of my or my child's symptoms?

  • Are there other possible causes of these symptoms?

  • What kinds of tests do I or my child need? Do these tests require special preparation?

  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?

  • What are the possible complications of treatment?

  • What's my or my child's outlook after surgery? Can I or my child live a normal life?

  • My child or I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

  • Are there any activity restrictions?

  • Will I or my child be able to play sports? Can my child participate in the gym?

  • Will this cause a problem during future pregnancies, and is there any way to prevent it?

  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your or your child's doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did you first notice symptoms?

  • Do the symptoms occur all the time (continuous) or do they come and go (occasional)?

  • Does anything seem to improve your or your child's symptoms?

  • What, if anything, makes the symptoms worse?

  • How are you or your child eating and sleeping?

  • Have you noticed fainting spells or episodes when you're or your child's lips and skin become more blue or dusky?

  • Are you or your child vomiting or losing weight?

  • Have you or your child had heart racing, breathlessness or leg swelling?

What you can do in the meantime

Here are some tips to assist build your kid a lot of comfortable:

  • Feed your baby slowly. Try smaller, more frequent meals.

  • Help your child during a test spell. Your child's skin, nails, and lips may turn blue after crying, feeding, or waking up. If you can remain calm, you can help reduce your child's anxiety. Improve blood flow to your child's heart and lungs by gently raising their knees to their chest. 

  • In case of an emergency, call 911 or your local emergency number or go to a hospital's emergency department.

General summary

Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare congenital heart defect that affects about one in every 2,500 newborn babies worldwide While the condition may affect any gender and ethnic group it occurs more frequently in males (by a 3-to-2 ratio) and among individuals with Down syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot not only affects cardiovascular functioning but also raises the risk for serious complications during surgery and long-term health problems such as pulmonary hypertension a progressive disorder characterized by high blood pressure within the arteries leading to the lungs.

What happens if tetralogy of Fallot is left untreated?

For children born with tetralogy of Fallot treatment usually begins soon after birth Without early treatment the condition is fatal Treatment for this chronic heart defect includes surgery to patch the hole in the wall between two chambers of the heart and a procedure called a cardiac catheterization to open up arteries that are blocked or narrowed The latter procedure is performed during sedation which means your child will be asleep but will remain responsive throughout the operation.

What is the most common complication found in patients with tetralogy of Fallot?

In many patients with tetralogy of Fallot the aorta and pulmonary arteries are not entirely separated by the patent ductus arteriosus Thus mixing of deoxygenated blood from the right side of heart (deoxygenated blood from venous return to the heart) with oxygenated blood in circulation can occur through this connection This is known as Eisenmenger syndrome which often leads to left ventricular hypertrophy due to increased workload on the left side of the heart (due to higher resistance in systemic circulation) Because coronary perfusion is often decreased because of this mixing/obstruction symptoms such.

Is tetralogy of Fallot a heart disease?

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease in which the primary defect is an obstruction or narrowing of the outflow tract ventricular septal Patients with this condition have four anomalies: pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening) right ventricular hypertrophy right ventricular dysplasia and overriding aorta (the aorta begins higher than normal on the superior surface of the heart and extends above the ventricles) Other abnormalities include thickening of both papillary muscles and atria and subvalvular pulmonary stenosis Individuals with Tetralogy of.

What is the mortality rate of tetralogy of Fallot?

Of the three most common types of pediatric congenital heart defects tetralogy of Fallot is by far the most serious The mortality rate is quite high at 20% and it has been steadily rising in recent decades due to advances in surgical techniques Thanks to these advances more infants with tetralogy of Fallot are surviving longer into adulthood with a survival rate that approaches 95%.

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF): Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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